Keith King: Chapter 1

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TORTORA  FUNKE  CASE
ninth edition
MICROBIOLOGY
an introduction
1
The Microbial
World and You
PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Microbes in Our Lives
 Microbiology is the study of Microbes or…
 Microorganisms are organisms that are too small to
be seen with the unaided eye.
 Includes bacteria, fungi (yeasts and molds), protozoa,
and microscopic algae.
 It also can include viruses, noncellular entities at the
border between life and nonlife.
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Microorganisms
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Figure 1.1
Microorganisms
 Decompose organic waste
 Are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis
 Produce industrial chemicals such as ethanol
and acetone
 Produce fermented foods such as vinegar, cheese,
and bread
 Produce products used in manufacturing
(e.g., cellulase) and treatment (e.g., insulin)
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Microorganisms
 A few are pathogenic, disease-causing. A microbe
that causes disease is often called a pathogen.
Knowledge of Microorganisms:
 Allows humans to
 Prevent food spoilage
 Prevent disease occurrence
 Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in
medicine and in microbiology laboratories.
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A Brief History of Microbiology
 Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth.
 The first microbes were observed in 1673.
 In 1665, Robert Hooke reported that living things were
composed of little boxes or cells.
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The First Observations
 1673-1723, Antoni
van Leeuwenhoek
described live
microorganisms that
he observed in teeth
scrapings, rain
water, and
peppercorn
infusions.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.2b
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms
 Carolus Linnaeus established the system of scientific
nomenclature in 1735.
 Each organism has two names: the genus and
specific epithet.
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Scientific Names
 Are italicized or underlined. The genus is capitalized
and the specific epithet is lower case.
 Are “Latinized” and used worldwide.
 May be descriptive or honor a scientist.
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Scientific Names
 Staphylococcus aureus
 Describes the clustered arrangement of the cells
(staphylo-) and the golden color of the colonies
(aur-).
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Scientific Names
 Escherichia coli
 Honors the discoverer, Theodor Escherich, and
describes the bacterium’s habitat–the large intestine
or colon.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Scientific Names
 After the first use, scientific names may be abbreviated
with the first letter of the genus and the specific epithet:
 Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are
found in the human body. S. aureus is on skin and E.
coli in the large intestine.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Homework
 Review: 3, 7
 Multiple Choice: 1, 6, 8
 Critical Thinking: 3
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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