Middle East
Southwest Asia and the
Eastern Mediterranean
Please title page 45 in your ISN “Middle East:
Physical Geography”
Warm up
• Using just the top of page 45, number your paper
1-20 (divide into 3 columns to take up less space.
• Identify each statement according to the
religion(s) it applies to.
– I= Islam
– C= Christianity
– J= Judaism
• Some statements may apply to more than one of
the religions.
Learning Targets
• I can identify the landforms and rivers that can
be found in the Persian Gulf region and the
Eastern Mediterranean.
• I can explain how the physical geography of
the region affects its climates and people.
• I can identify natural resources of the region.
Persian Gulf and interior Southwest
• Includes Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,
Qatar, UAE, and Yemen
• Arabian peninsula between Persian Gulf and
Red Sea.
• Iraq and Iran have coasts on Persian Gulf
• Afghanistan LANDLOCKED
Persian Gulf and interior Southwest
• Shaped by tectonic forces (African, Eurasian,
and Arabian plates)
– Mountains, upland plateaus, valleys, narrow gulfs.
– Frequent Earthquakes
• Arabian Peninsula: Mountains in west, dry
plains in N. and E.
• Mesopotamia = “between rivers,” Tigris and
Euphrates are exotic rivers
Persian Gulf and interior Southwest
• Mostly Arid and Semiarid climates
• Resources: OIL and WATER
• People live near oases (places where there is
water near springs or fossil water).
• Persian Gulf region produces more oil than
anywhere else on earth.
The Eastern Mediterranean
• Includes Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel,
• Dardanelles, Bosporus, and Sea of Marmara
separate Europe from Asia
• Turkey: plains and hills in Europe and
Mountains on Asian part (Anatolia)
• The rest of Eastern Med. Is mostly coastal
plains, plateaus, hills, and valleys
The Eastern Mediterranean
• Climates:
– Arid, Semi-arid, and Mediterranean
– Farming, herding, and shipbuilding have largely
stripped the region of its forests.
• Resources:
– WATER: Tigris and Euphrates begin in Turkey,
Jordan River shared by Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel
– Mineral resources: coal, copper, iron ore, potash,
and magnesium
Middle East
Southwest Asia and the
Eastern Mediterranean
Please title page 48 & 49 in your ISN “Middle
East: History”
Warm Up
• On the top third of page 48 write 4-6
sentences in response to the following
– The Middle East is located near the center of three
continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia. How might
the relative location of the Middle East have
affected its history?
A (very) Brief History of the
Middle East
Middle East: Ancient History
• Mesopotamia: “the cradle of civilization;”
means “between rivers”
– Early Civilizations:
• Sumer
– First users of intensive agriculture with irrigation
– Division of labor
– First deciphered writing: cuneiform
– Epic of Gilgamesh-oral (later written)
– Use wheel
Middle East- Ancient History
• Babylon:
– Hammurabi’s code (one of the earliest known sets of
written laws)
– Later, enslave Jews (Babylonian captivity; diaspora)
• Israel:
– Hebrews,jews
• Persian:
– Modern Iran
– Xerxes (300)
The Silk Road
The Silk Road
• All major trade routes go through the Middle
• Whoever controls the region charges fees on
everything that travels through.
• Huge amounts of wealth flow into the Middle
East through trade.
• Most valuable items include:
– Silk
– Spices
The Roman Empire (1 AD)
The Roman Empire (1 AD)
• Romans rule the modern Middle East
• Middle East was by far the richest part of the
Roman Empire
• More than 2/3 of the population of the
Roman Empire lived in the East
The Rise of Islam (634 AD)
The Rise of Islam (634 AD)
• Arabs conquer the Middle East from the
Roman Empire.
• Islam replaces Christianity as the dominant
The Arab Empire (634-1258)
The Arab Empire (634-1258)
• Arab Muslims build a huge empire by
controlling Mideast trade
• Christians from Europe now must pay Muslim
traders to buy goods from Asia.
• Europe is a poor continent – Middle East is the
center of learning and civilization.
Crusades (1095-1291)
• Pope calls on Christians to take Jerusalem.
• Armies from all over Europe join the fight.
• Control goes back and forth several times, but
ultimately the Europeans lose control.
• Resurgence of trade in Europe; helps fuel
beginning of Renaissance
• How might the crusades have affected the
way Muslims view Christians today?
Rise of the Ottomans (1258- 1500 CE)
The Ottoman Empire Grows
(1258-1500 AD)
• Ottoman Turks conquer the Middle East
• Tensions rise between Muslim Ottomans and
Christians in Europe
• Christians don’t want to pay fees on goods
brought in from Asia
Portugal’s Bright Idea (1500 AD)
New Trade Routes (1500 AD)
• Portuguese are first to map a new trade route
around the horn of Africa.
• British, French, Dutch, Germans all build
empires around trade routes.
• European merchants don’t have to pay
Ottoman fees if they go around the Middle
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand
European Empires Expand (1500-1900 CE)
• Major trade routes no longer run through the
Middle East
• Middle East becomes very poor as European
Empires control world trade routes
• Ottoman Empire shrinks and is bankrupt by
1900 CE
• The Middle East is a poor region that no one
cares much about. But then…
Oil is Discovered
• Vast majority of the world’s oil reserves are
found in the Middle East
• Discovery of Oil brings new money into the
• Some Mideast countries become rich
overnight, others are still very poor.
And then Came Oil (1900-present)
Answer the following prompt on a
separate sheet of paper.
• Explain ways in which the geography of the
Middle East has affected its history and the
rest of the world as we know it today.
Modern History
• Israel:
– Late 1800s, Jews from all over the world begin
returning to Israel (Zionist organization founded)
– 1917-1948- British take over from Ottomans and
receive mandate of League of Nations to oversee
– 1948- Palestine divided by UN in to Palestinian
and Jewish states; Israel declares independence;
Arabs invade; Jews win
– 1956 Sinai Campaign- Israel Gains control of Sinai
peninsula from Egypt (will later give it back)
– 1967 Six Day War- Israel takes control of West
Bank, Golan Heights, and Gaza (will later give
some of this land back to Palestinian and Syrian