Kim 1 Sion Kim Professor Celestino English 1010 7 p.m. class March 10, 2015 Annotated Bibliography Angell, Marcia. “Health Care Implications.” Euthanasia ProCon 30 Aug. 2006. 16 Feb. 2008 < http://www.euthanasiaprocon.org/americanhealthspending.html>. This article discusses the topic of government spending on health care. Most of this article, written by Marcia Angell, is based around the fact that the government has to spend billions of dollars each year to help keep terminally ill patients on life support. Angell states that the United States spends more than $4,500 on each Americans health bill every month, a figure that is almost double the amount of any other country. This article is trying to get the point across that funding the life-support of many seriously ill patients costs a great deal of money, around $40 billion a year, and that it might not be very wise for the government to spend that much money if doctors have already pronounced that a patient will never recover. This article was significant because it answered my question regarding how much it costs to support patients with serious illnesses. After realizing that our government spends more than $40 billion on medical bills, it became apparent that spending that amount of money to keep someone alive in a “vegetative” state might not prove to be beneficial to the patient or government. Marcia Angell is a credible source because of her extensive knowledge in how much funding is provided for health care. I will use this article for an appeal to logos. Barbuzzi, Miranda. "Who Owns The Right To Die? An Argument About The Legal Status Of Euthanasia And Assisted Suicide In Canada." Penn Bioethics Journal 10.1 (2014): 16-20. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. Euthanasia is an ethical dilemma that is happening not just in America, but also all over the world. This article explains what has happened in Canada in regards to the 2012 Supreme Court of British Columbia versus Carter v. Canada struck down Section 241 (b) of the Criminal Code of Canada that makes assisted suicide illegal. This article examines one approach to the moral and legal justifications for the decision of the Supreme Court of B.C. and provides a model for the implementation of legally assisted suicide that Canada could follow. The model examined is the model used in the Netherlands, which has stringent procedures in place to ensure that those requesting physician-assisted suicide are not coerced into or in the wrong mental state when making their decision. I am using this article to support my argument by showing an example of why it is unethical as Kim 2 this article show that. The author, Miranda Barbuzzi, is a student at Ryerson University majoring in Inquiry. She is a credible source because of her extensive research and her involvement with Dr. Meredith Schwartz who was a faculty sponsor and an executive board member of the Canadian Bioethics Society. I will be using this article for my logos appeal. Battin, Margaret P. "Legal Physician-Assisted Dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: Evidence Concerning the Impact on Patients in "Vulnerable" Groups." Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2007) : 591 pp. 13 Feb. 2008 This journal from Margaret Battin, discusses the effects of legalizing euthanasia. Specifically, it relates on evidence from the state of Oregon and the Netherlands, where euthanasia is legal. Evidence from these areas shows no risk to the elderly, people with low education status, or women. The journal states that people with HIV are at heightened risks for having euthanasia performed on them. Of the many families who have had loved ones receive physician-assisted death, several have claimed that they were pleased because it took the pain away from the individual they greatly cared about. I think that this journal shows much evidence that supports the upside of legalizing euthanasia. Margaret Battin is a credible source because of the many people she has interviewed to get this information. I will be using this journal for an appeal to logos. Boudreau, J. Donald, and Margaret A. Somerville. "Euthanasia And Assisted suicide: A Physician's And Ethicist's Perspectives." Medicolegal & Bioethics 4.(2014): 1-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. There have been many different views and opinions over the ethical dilemma on euthanasia. A physician named J. Donald and an ethicist, Margaret Somerville, discusses the debate on legalizing euthanasia with perspective from a broad range of participants including physicians, scholars in ethics and health law, politicians, and the general public wrote this article. Written in a narrative style, this article is intended to share basic information and review foundational principles that help in ethical decision-making in relation to end-of-life medical care. This article goes over how the general public are poorly informed of euthanasia. The authors argue and support their rejection of euthanasia with the belief that intentionally inflicting death on another human being is inherently wrong and the risks and harms of legalizing euthanasia outweigh any benefits. Because I am focusing on how it is unethical to legalize euthanasia, I wanted to get the thoughts and perspective of a medical provider who are against legalization. J Donald Boudreau and Margaret A Somerville are both credible sources because of their extensive knowledge of this subject. I will be using this as article for logos. DeCelles, Charles. "Appreciating Life." Priest 71.1 (2015): 38-40. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Mar. 2015. Kim 3 The article focuses on how individuals can make the best of life in a culture where euthanasia exists. The article discusses personality traits of those who seek euthanasia. Other topics discussed include the psychological reasons why sick people seek medical help to commit suicide, and the rules of some U.S. states that allow physician-assisted suicide, including Oregon, Washington and Vermont. The author, Charles DeCelles is credible because of the personal relationship he had with his friend and the extensive research he has put into this article. I will be using this article for an appeal to pathos, discussing some of the effects it can have on relationships with other people. Havill, JACK. "Voluntary Euthanasia In New Zealand: The Case For Support From Christians." Stimulus: The New Zealand Journal Of Christian Thought & Practice 21.1 (2014): 12-19. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. The article discusses the issue on voluntary euthanasia in New Zealand. The debate over the issue has been framed around the proposed End of Life Choice Bill introduced into the parliamentary Ballot Box in 2013 by Maryan Street, Labour Politician. The aim of the bill is to allow medical practitioners to act lawfully when assisting the dying process. I have chosen this article to get an opposite side of view over the ethical dilemma on euthanasia. The author, Jack Havill, is a credible source was a former Waikato Hospital Intensive Care Unit clinical director and board member of the Waikato District Health Board emeritus consultants club. I will be using this article for pathos. Roelands, Marc, et al. "Attitudes Of Belgian Students Of Medicine, Philosophy, And Law Toward Euthanasia And The Conditions For Its Acceptance." Death Studies 39.3 (2015): 139-150. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Mar. 2015. In this article euthanasia is legal in Belgium, which is judged by committees including physicians, ethicists, and jurists. The article examined whether students in these disciplines differ in how they judge euthanasia as an acceptable act. A cross-sectional, anonymous e-mail survey revealed that they have similar attitudes and accept its legalization. Therefore, joint decision-making of physicians, ethicists, and lawyers regarding euthanasia seems to have a common attitudinal base in Belgium. However, the students how different opinions to some extent regarding the conditions the committee put forward for euthanasia being acceptable mainly regarding philosophy of life and religion. Marc Roelands is a credible source because of the actual answers he has gotten from the students regarding their thoughts about euthanasia via email survey. I will be using this article for an appeal to ethos. Shapiro, Richard S. "Willingness to perform euthanasia. A survey of physician attitudes." Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide (2007) : 418 pp. 13 Feb. 2008 <http://www.accessmedicine.com.ezproxy.library.drexel.edu/content.aspx?aID=2 613825&searchStr=euthanasia >. Kim 4 This journal discusses a study that was performed on physician attitudes towards the practice of euthanasia. Shapiro gave nearly a 1000 physicians a four-section survey that analyzed several specific variables on their attitudes towards euthanasia, such as the patient’s disease, mental state, age, and the physician’s area of expertise and religion. The four parts of the survey basically asked a physician how they would respond to a patient requesting euthanasia, how the legalization of this practice might affect their careers and personal life, and some demographic information. After 740 surveys were analyzed it was concluded that physician’s felt better if the request to perform euthanasia came from a nonterminal patient that had previously left advance directives, rather than from patients with serious illnesses or injuries. It was also concluded that the specialties and religions of physicians were directly related to their generalized attitudes (Shapiro 418). This journal is proved to be very significant because it shows us that many physicians would not have major issues with performing euthanasia as long as they are fine with the stage of the patient’s disease, mental state, age, and their own area of expertise and religious beliefs. It also answered our question regarding the circumstances that a physician would feel comfortable performing euthanasia on a patient. I will use this information for logos to view the perspectives of physicians performing euthanasia as long as the conditions of both the physician and patient are appropriate. Starr, Linda. "Right To An Assisted Death In The Spotlight." Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal 22.3 (2014): 27. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Mar. 2015. In this article, the author, Linda Starr, reflects on increased discussions about the moral and legal aspects of assisted suicide in Australia. Specific examples of euthanasia have been seen in 2014 as a result of suicides, which were committed by a 45-year-old man named Nigel Brayley and a 67-year-old former candidate for the Australian Senate who were assisted in their suicides by a physician who was the founder of euthanasia group called Exit International. The history of assisted suicide legislation in Australia is discussed. Linda Starr is a credible source because of her affiliations with the School of Nursing and Midwifery and her extensive knowledge about euthanasia. I will be using this article to support my pathos. Wilson, Keith G., et al. “Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients Toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide.” Archives of Internal Medicine. 160.16 (2000): 24542460 pp. 13 Feb. 2008 This journal entry shows the attitudes of patients, specifically those with severe cancer, towards euthanasia. The authors designed a survey that they gave to cancer victims. The survey was made up of questions concerning the willingness to accept physician-assisted suicide if pain became unbearable and death was inevitable. Of the 70 terminally ill patients interviewed, 73% believed that euthanasia should be legalized and that it should be an individual’s right to choose Kim 5 their fate. Half of the participants also stated that, if legal, they would personally make a request for a quicker death. The ones who opposed this issue cited moral and religious objections. Wilson concluded that many patients with advanced cancer would favor access to euthanasia but patients who would request this form of death would need to be psychologically evaluated along with their physical symptoms. Keith Wilson is credible because of the actual evidence on what these victims want, ultimately. This information sheds light and gives perspective for those in support of legalizing euthanasia. I will use this article in for an appeal to pathos to get a perspective from those actually suffering.