Alchemists hard at work.
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.
What are some ‘modern technologies’ that have impacted the way we live?
Solve a specific problem
Production and use of products to improve quality of life
4 states of matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
All matter is made of particles that are in constant motion
Very low KE – particles vibrate
Low KE – particles can move around but are close together
High KE – particles separate and move freely
Very high KE
particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles
Gas-like – variable shape and volume
Ex: stars, fluorescent light bulbs
The Four States of Matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Plasma
Intensive property does NOT depend on sample size.
Ex: density, melting point
Extensive property does depend on sample size.
Ex: mass, volume, energy
Can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Melting and boiling points
State of matter
Ability to change into a new substance
Reactants become products
Honey and motor oil are very slow to pour. What property bests describes this property???
What property of liquids would you look for to start charcoal for a BBQ????
Iron heats up faster than aluminum. What property is this????
Paints made of silver are applied to the back of mirrors. What property of silver is useful????
The copper on the Statue of Liberty has turned green. What property is causing this???
Corrosion or Oxidation
Jewelry can be pounded to form artistic designs.
What property is this????
A good frying pan heats food evenly. What property of frying is this????
Quartz forms hexagons and diamonds form cubes.
What property is this???
You purchase a clear stone that might be a diamond.
What simple test can you make to determine if it is actually a diamond???
You accidentally drop an iron bolt into a hard-to-reach place in your automobile engine. What property of iron enables you to retrieve the bolt without having to find someone with small hands?
Chemical and Physical Properties
Heat of vaporization - Amount of heat needed to change a liquid into a gas at its boiling point
Heat of fusion - Amount of heat required to melt a solid at its melting point
PURE SUBSTANCE MIXTURE yes
Is the composition uniform?
Compound Element no
Solution (homogeneous mixture
Composed of identical atoms
Ex: Copper wire, aluminum foil
Composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
Properties differ from individual elements
Ex: glucose, caffeine
Combination of 2 or more pure substances
Very small particles that do not settle
No Tyndall effect
Ex: rubbing alcohol, salt water
Medium sized particles that do NOT settle
Which glass contains a colloid?
Colloids scatter light, making a beam visible.
Examples of Colloids
Fog, aerosol sprays
Smoke, airborne bacteria
Whipped cream, soap suds
Paint, clays, gelatin
Large particles that will settle
Ex: fresh squeezed lemonade
Mixtures – Colloid, suspension, or solution??
Italian salad dressing
Rows – Periods
Columns – Groups or Families
Three main types of elements
Conducts heat and electricity
Many are gases at room temperature
Solids are brittle
Touch the stair-step line (except Al)
Some characteristics of metals and nonmetals