Argumentative Essay - North Bergen School District

Argumentative Writing
Mrs. Saufroy
September 24th, 2015
• The purpose of writing an argumentative
essay is to prove your side of the
argument using valid reasons, evidence,
and claims.
Parts of Argumentative Essay
• Introduction:
• Body Paragraphs:
– RFET (1)
– RFET (2)
– RFET (3)
• Conclusion:
5 Paragraphs
• G (Grabber) Grab the reader’s attention using a
rhetorical question, an interesting fact, definition, a
general statement, or one word sentence.
• I (Issue) Restate the issue using the WRITING
SITUATION in your own words.
• P (Position) State the position or side you have
chosen. You must choose and argue only one side
(This is your main idea/thesis).
• R (Reasons) Support your position with your 3
reasons, but start with the strongest reason first.
Introduction (GIPR)
(G) Imagine yourself going home without the
hassle of carrying heavy textbooks in your bag.
Wouldn’t it feel better not to worry about leaving a
book at school or misplacing it? (I) Educational
researchers claim that student learning will improve if
all printed textbooks are replaced with electronic
books known as e-books in the classroom. (P) The
school district should really consider purchasing ebooks because there are a plethora of benefits. (R)
Firstly, e-books would be beneficial to students
because students will not have to carry heavy books
anymore. Secondly, students will be more motivated
to learn using the helpful features from e-books.
Finally, these e-books can help preserve the
Body Paragraphs 1-3
(RFET is repeated 3 times)
• R (Reason) Use your 3 reasons from the
introduction as a topic sentence
– 1st reason (Body 1)
– 2nd reason (Body 2)
– 3rd reason (Body 3)
• F (Fact) Use a fact or a statement from the reading
to support your reason. This should be a
direct/indirect quote from the readings.
• E (Explain) Explain how the quote supports the
topic sentence.
• T (Transition) Transition into the next paragraph
with a brief mention on the next topic. (Except for
the 3rd body paragraph. Instead wrap it up).
Body Paragraph 1 (RFET)
(R) First of all, e-books would be a great
addition to any school because they are very light.
(F) Numerous children get back problems
because of the weight of their textbooks on their
backs. Based on the article in “Contemporary
Pediatrics,” Dr. Ben Silver advises schools to
allow children to access textbooks online because
there are an increasing amount of cases with
children having long-term issues with their backs.
(E) Many students struggle to carry all their books
from class to class causing them to have serious
damage. (T) Besides e-books relieving back
problems, they can help motivate learning.
Body Paragraph 2 (RFET)
(R) Second of all, e-books have helpful
features that can motivate student learning. (F)
For example, a study conducted by the New
Jersey Department of Education, also known as
NJDOE, shows that districts where e-books are
easily accessible have higher student academic
achievement. (E) Students are more willing to
learn what was covered in class because these
devices have features such as access to their
textbooks, typing homework, and even
conducting research on the internet. If the
students are motivated and enjoy learning, it can
help improve their grades. (T) In addition to
students benefiting from the use of e-books, the
environment can benefit as well.
Body Paragraph 3 (RFET)
(R) Last of all, the use of e-books in schools
can help preserve the environment. E-books can
be very beneficial to the environment because
less trees will be used to make textbooks. (F) As
stated in the “Global Forest Resources
Assessment” article, “in 2013 about 3 billion trees
were cut down for paper products.” (E) The
depletion of trees is not only harmful to the
environment but to humans as well. Trees are a
major factor in the ecological balance of earth. If
deforestation continues to occur, there can be
less oxygen for humans and scarcity of foods for
all inhabitants. (T) Consequently, e-books can
help save the environment.
Body Paragraph 4
Opposing Claim Paragraph
• O (Opposing Claim) State the opposing claim
there may be to argue against your reasons. To
show that it is not your idea begin with:
Some people argue…
• S (Support) Support the opposing argument. Begin
sentence with:
They claim…
• T (Transition Contrast) Transition back to your
own argument against the opposing claim.
• S (Support) Support your transition sentence.
Body Paragraph 4 (OSTS)
(O) Some people argue that e-books will be an
expensive cost for school districts everywhere. (S)
They claim that schools do not have the money in
their budget to supply students with e-books. (T)
However, with community participation and parent
involvement, schools can raise money or reach out
to local businesses to ask for funding. (S) The
NJDOE urges teachers to include technology in their
lesson plans and what better way to do this than with
e-books. If school districts and parents broadcast
the advantages of e-books, they are sure to find
supporters willing to donate their money to the
• I (Issue) Restate the issue from the introduction
• P (Position) Restate your position also known as
your main idea.
• R (Reasons) Restate your reasons but leave the
strongest reason for last (Write as one sentence).
• A (Alternate Solution) Give a compromise or
another solution that both sides may like…Or
instead of an alternate solution, provide a closing
statement such as a message, a lesson learned,
or the overall outcome of the issue.
Conclusion 6 (IPRA)
(I) To conclude, based on researchers’ findings,
it seems that e-books will be valuable to include in
the school curriculum. (P) School districts should
seriously consider the advantages of replacing
textbooks with e-books. (R) The e-books would be
considered a green method because trees will be
saved, students will also be motivated to learn, and
finally, the e-books are lightweight enough to not
cause health issues among children. (A) After all,
the main goal is to find solutions to help students
improve academically, and e-books are one step
toward reaching that goal.
Purpose of Each Part
• Introduction- To capture interest using grabber. To give a
bold statement about your thesis. To provide valid reasons
or claims support your thesis.
• Body- To prove your thesis statement by providing valid
reason/claim such as facts, examples, testimony, and
definitions from the reading selection. Each body
paragraph should be a separate supporting reason.
• Opposing Claim- To acknowledge the other side of the
argument and then respond to the opposing claim by
showing why it is wrong.
• Conclusion- To restate the main points of your argument
and remind the readers what is at stake. To show the
importance of your argument or long-term impact. To
provide the best solution.
Characteristics of Argumentative
• Thesis states a narrowed and defined argument.
• It is written primarily in the 3rd person point of
view. (Do not use I, me, my, we, us)
• It is text and research based (fact sentences).
• Evidence to support your reasoning and position
is clearly and accurately written.
• One part of the essay refutes or opposes the
argument. (OSTS)
• The conclusion summarizes essay with a
punchy insight.
Brainstorming using T Chart
Support or Pros
• List the three
reasons why you
support it
Against or Cons
• List three
reasons why you
are against it
When your t-chart is complete: State your position,
Choose the 3 strongest reasons.
Choose the opposing claim.
Brainstorming using T Chart
Support or Pros
• It is better because
some students suffer
from back problems
• It would motivate
students to learn
• It would save cost on
• Students would have
access to the internet
to do research
Against or Cons
• It is a bad idea
because it is very
• Students are not
responsible enough
to take care of the
• It might get stolen
Thesis: E-books would be beneficial for students.
Grabbers for Argumentative
-Start with a general statement about your topic to catch
the reader’s attention:
Year-round schools are increasing around the world.
-Start with a rhetorical question which is a question with
no answer expected:
Can you imagine school being year-round long?
-Start with a definition of your topic:
Year-round school restructures the school calendar by
eliminating summer vacation with many breaks in between.
-Start with a fascinating fact about your topic:
Research suggests that year-round school has positive
effects on students struggling in school.
-Start with one word that stands out to you related to
your topic:
Education. Having an education is detrimental to your future.
Facts (RFET)
Common ways to begin your fact sentences in your body
According to…
Based on the reading…
Referring to…
As stated in/by…
The author wrote…
To quote from…(Place words in quotations)
Some examples:
According to the article “Fight Cyberbullies,”
Referring to the source New York Times,
As stated by the main character Brian,
As stated in the reading Hatchet,
To quote from the story/article (Title of the story/article), “Use a
direct quote…”
Transition Words
• Addition: (Use for RFET 1 and 2)
As well as, besides, furthermore, in addition,
likewise, moreover, similarly, not only…but also
• Consequence: (Use for RFET 3)
Accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence,
otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus
• Contrast: (Use for OSTS)
On the other hand, however, in spite of this,
nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary, yet
• Summarizing: (Use for IPRA)
after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, in
brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in
summary, in the final analysis, to sum up, to
summarize, finally
Your Turn
Lawmakers in many states are considering
making it a requirement for homeowners and
businesses to go green. They believe that a
change is needed to help the environment.
Other people argue that it should not be a law
but a choice .
Directions: Argue whether or not lawmakers
should enforce a law to make home and
business owners go green. Make sure to use
valid reasons and claims from the articles
Argumentative Essay Example
Prompt: Researchers claim that student learning can
improve if textbooks were replaced with electronic books
also known as e-books. The e-books would replace all
the textbooks the students use in class on a daily basis.
There are several reasons why this would be an
excellent idea, but several reasons why this would be a
horrible idea.
Directions: Argue whether or not you agree with students
having e-books instead of textbooks. Write an essay to
prove your point of view. Be sure to use reasons and
examples to support your position.
•Times New Roman
•12 Font
•Double Space
•1 Inch Margins
•Left Alignment
•Indent each new paragraph
Tab or 6 spaces
•On Top:
Mrs. Morales
English Language Arts
If not typed, you will lose
Practice Essay for Homework
Prompt: Governor Chris Christie is proposing to
extend the school year. He believes this will
help increase student achievement. There are
many people who are against this idea and
others that believe it is necessary.
Directions: Argue whether or not you agree with
the school year being extended. Write an essay
to prove your point of view. Be sure to use
reasons and examples to support your position.
Argumentative Essay for
Women’s History
Prompt: American women have had the right to vote
since 1920, but their roles in politics have been
minimal. Not many females today in the United
States hold any type of powerful positions because
these positions are usually assigned to men.
Directions: Argue whether or not America is ready to
have a female president. Write an essay to prove
your point of view. Be sure to use reasons and
examples from the articles provided to support your