Argumentative Writing Mrs. Saufroy September 24th, 2015 Purpose • The purpose of writing an argumentative essay is to prove your side of the argument using valid reasons, evidence, and claims. Parts of Argumentative Essay • Introduction: – GIPR • Body Paragraphs: – RFET (1) – RFET (2) – RFET (3) • Conclusion: – IPRA 5 Paragraphs Introduction • G (Grabber) Grab the reader’s attention using a rhetorical question, an interesting fact, definition, a general statement, or one word sentence. • I (Issue) Restate the issue using the WRITING SITUATION in your own words. • P (Position) State the position or side you have chosen. You must choose and argue only one side (This is your main idea/thesis). • R (Reasons) Support your position with your 3 reasons, but start with the strongest reason first. Introduction (GIPR) (G) Imagine yourself going home without the hassle of carrying heavy textbooks in your bag. Wouldn’t it feel better not to worry about leaving a book at school or misplacing it? (I) Educational researchers claim that student learning will improve if all printed textbooks are replaced with electronic books known as e-books in the classroom. (P) The school district should really consider purchasing ebooks because there are a plethora of benefits. (R) Firstly, e-books would be beneficial to students because students will not have to carry heavy books anymore. Secondly, students will be more motivated to learn using the helpful features from e-books. Finally, these e-books can help preserve the environment. Body Paragraphs 1-3 (RFET is repeated 3 times) • R (Reason) Use your 3 reasons from the introduction as a topic sentence – 1st reason (Body 1) – 2nd reason (Body 2) – 3rd reason (Body 3) • F (Fact) Use a fact or a statement from the reading to support your reason. This should be a direct/indirect quote from the readings. • E (Explain) Explain how the quote supports the topic sentence. • T (Transition) Transition into the next paragraph with a brief mention on the next topic. (Except for the 3rd body paragraph. Instead wrap it up). Body Paragraph 1 (RFET) (R) First of all, e-books would be a great addition to any school because they are very light. (F) Numerous children get back problems because of the weight of their textbooks on their backs. Based on the article in “Contemporary Pediatrics,” Dr. Ben Silver advises schools to allow children to access textbooks online because there are an increasing amount of cases with children having long-term issues with their backs. (E) Many students struggle to carry all their books from class to class causing them to have serious damage. (T) Besides e-books relieving back problems, they can help motivate learning. Body Paragraph 2 (RFET) (R) Second of all, e-books have helpful features that can motivate student learning. (F) For example, a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Education, also known as NJDOE, shows that districts where e-books are easily accessible have higher student academic achievement. (E) Students are more willing to learn what was covered in class because these devices have features such as access to their textbooks, typing homework, and even conducting research on the internet. If the students are motivated and enjoy learning, it can help improve their grades. (T) In addition to students benefiting from the use of e-books, the environment can benefit as well. Body Paragraph 3 (RFET) (R) Last of all, the use of e-books in schools can help preserve the environment. E-books can be very beneficial to the environment because less trees will be used to make textbooks. (F) As stated in the “Global Forest Resources Assessment” article, “in 2013 about 3 billion trees were cut down for paper products.” (E) The depletion of trees is not only harmful to the environment but to humans as well. Trees are a major factor in the ecological balance of earth. If deforestation continues to occur, there can be less oxygen for humans and scarcity of foods for all inhabitants. (T) Consequently, e-books can help save the environment. Body Paragraph 4 Opposing Claim Paragraph • O (Opposing Claim) State the opposing claim there may be to argue against your reasons. To show that it is not your idea begin with: Some people argue… • S (Support) Support the opposing argument. Begin sentence with: They claim… • T (Transition Contrast) Transition back to your own argument against the opposing claim. • S (Support) Support your transition sentence. Body Paragraph 4 (OSTS) (O) Some people argue that e-books will be an expensive cost for school districts everywhere. (S) They claim that schools do not have the money in their budget to supply students with e-books. (T) However, with community participation and parent involvement, schools can raise money or reach out to local businesses to ask for funding. (S) The NJDOE urges teachers to include technology in their lesson plans and what better way to do this than with e-books. If school districts and parents broadcast the advantages of e-books, they are sure to find supporters willing to donate their money to the schools. Conclusion • I (Issue) Restate the issue from the introduction differently. • P (Position) Restate your position also known as your main idea. • R (Reasons) Restate your reasons but leave the strongest reason for last (Write as one sentence). • A (Alternate Solution) Give a compromise or another solution that both sides may like…Or instead of an alternate solution, provide a closing statement such as a message, a lesson learned, or the overall outcome of the issue. Conclusion 6 (IPRA) (I) To conclude, based on researchers’ findings, it seems that e-books will be valuable to include in the school curriculum. (P) School districts should seriously consider the advantages of replacing textbooks with e-books. (R) The e-books would be considered a green method because trees will be saved, students will also be motivated to learn, and finally, the e-books are lightweight enough to not cause health issues among children. (A) After all, the main goal is to find solutions to help students improve academically, and e-books are one step toward reaching that goal. Purpose of Each Part • Introduction- To capture interest using grabber. To give a bold statement about your thesis. To provide valid reasons or claims support your thesis. • Body- To prove your thesis statement by providing valid reason/claim such as facts, examples, testimony, and definitions from the reading selection. Each body paragraph should be a separate supporting reason. • Opposing Claim- To acknowledge the other side of the argument and then respond to the opposing claim by showing why it is wrong. • Conclusion- To restate the main points of your argument and remind the readers what is at stake. To show the importance of your argument or long-term impact. To provide the best solution. Characteristics of Argumentative Writing • Thesis states a narrowed and defined argument. • It is written primarily in the 3rd person point of view. (Do not use I, me, my, we, us) • It is text and research based (fact sentences). • Evidence to support your reasoning and position is clearly and accurately written. • One part of the essay refutes or opposes the argument. (OSTS) • The conclusion summarizes essay with a punchy insight. Brainstorming using T Chart Support or Pros • List the three reasons why you support it Against or Cons • List three reasons why you are against it When your t-chart is complete: State your position, Choose the 3 strongest reasons. Choose the opposing claim. Brainstorming using T Chart Support or Pros • It is better because some students suffer from back problems • It would motivate students to learn • It would save cost on trees • Students would have access to the internet to do research Against or Cons • It is a bad idea because it is very expensive • Students are not responsible enough to take care of the device • It might get stolen Thesis: E-books would be beneficial for students. Grabbers for Argumentative -Start with a general statement about your topic to catch the reader’s attention: Year-round schools are increasing around the world. -Start with a rhetorical question which is a question with no answer expected: Can you imagine school being year-round long? -Start with a definition of your topic: Year-round school restructures the school calendar by eliminating summer vacation with many breaks in between. -Start with a fascinating fact about your topic: Research suggests that year-round school has positive effects on students struggling in school. -Start with one word that stands out to you related to your topic: Education. Having an education is detrimental to your future. Facts (RFET) Common ways to begin your fact sentences in your body paragraphs: According to… Based on the reading… Referring to… As stated in/by… The author wrote… To quote from…(Place words in quotations) Some examples: According to the article “Fight Cyberbullies,” Referring to the source New York Times, As stated by the main character Brian, As stated in the reading Hatchet, To quote from the story/article (Title of the story/article), “Use a direct quote…” Transition Words • Addition: (Use for RFET 1 and 2) As well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, not only…but also • Consequence: (Use for RFET 3) Accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus • Contrast: (Use for OSTS) On the other hand, however, in spite of this, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary, yet • Summarizing: (Use for IPRA) after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, to sum up, to summarize, finally Your Turn Lawmakers in many states are considering making it a requirement for homeowners and businesses to go green. They believe that a change is needed to help the environment. Other people argue that it should not be a law but a choice . Directions: Argue whether or not lawmakers should enforce a law to make home and business owners go green. Make sure to use valid reasons and claims from the articles provided. Argumentative Essay Example Prompt: Researchers claim that student learning can improve if textbooks were replaced with electronic books also known as e-books. The e-books would replace all the textbooks the students use in class on a daily basis. There are several reasons why this would be an excellent idea, but several reasons why this would be a horrible idea. Directions: Argue whether or not you agree with students having e-books instead of textbooks. Write an essay to prove your point of view. Be sure to use reasons and examples to support your position. •Times New Roman •12 Font •Double Space •1 Inch Margins •Left Alignment •Indent each new paragraph Tab or 6 spaces •On Top: Name Mrs. Morales English Language Arts Date If not typed, you will lose points. Practice Essay for Homework Prompt: Governor Chris Christie is proposing to extend the school year. He believes this will help increase student achievement. There are many people who are against this idea and others that believe it is necessary. Directions: Argue whether or not you agree with the school year being extended. Write an essay to prove your point of view. Be sure to use reasons and examples to support your position. Argumentative Essay for Women’s History Prompt: American women have had the right to vote since 1920, but their roles in politics have been minimal. Not many females today in the United States hold any type of powerful positions because these positions are usually assigned to men. Directions: Argue whether or not America is ready to have a female president. Write an essay to prove your point of view. Be sure to use reasons and examples from the articles provided to support your position.