WORKING WITH INTERNATIONAL, MULTILINGUAL READERS AND WRITERS Zak Lancaster Department of English Wake Forest University email@example.com OUTLINE Identifying who we’re working with Identifying the linguistic complexities Teaching strategies Please jot down some notes … Who are the students you’re working with that brought you to this workshop? What questions or issues are you interested in exploring? Increase in international students • The number of Chinese students in the U.S. has risen fivefold since 2000 (Redden, 2015). • At WFU, since 2010-2014 the number has tripled: 90 to 277 Among undergraduates it has risen eightfold: 22 to 185 • The number of international undergrads has tripled. 77 to 259 • Among undergraduates from non-English speaking countries, the number has risen fivefold. 40 to 207 • Top countries: China, India, Korea (Saudi Arabia, Japan, Canada, France, Germany, Spain, Peru, Australia, United Kingdom) International Students at WFU (2010-2014) Term Total Undergrad Grad & Prof Non-Degree Fall 2010 274 77 181 16 Fall 2011 5.4% growth 289 100 172 17 Fall 2012 19.0% growth 344 139 198 7 Fall 2013 4.1% growth 358 170 183 5 Fall 2014 23.7% growth 443 259 180 4 International, English L2 Students (2010-2014) China S. Korea Other Total Fall 2010 90 16 34 140 Fall 2011 116 18 28 162 Fall 2012 178 15 30 223 Fall 2013 197 14 33 244 Fall 2014 277 11 41 329 Term Distinctions 1) Students who studied in the U.S. in middle and/or high school “Generation 1.5” students (Rumbaut & Ima, 1988) 2) Students who attended high school in their home countries. 2a) Multilingual students educated primarily in English. India, Kenya, Singapore, etc. 2b) Multilingual students who’ve studied English since childhood. Korea, Japan, China, etc. Possible traits of Generation 1.5 student writers • Speech approximate to English L1 speakers. • Written text sounds like informal spoken English. • Vocabulary not highly varied. • Rarely produce syntactically incoherent sentences, but some faulty grammar structures. Possible traits of EFL student writers • Speak and write as English L2 speakers • Organization of information problematic • Influence of culturally-based rhetorical styles • Control of academic register may be strong • Grammar errors may be due to: mislearning or over-application of rules negative transfer from L1 misunderstanding the assignment or texts TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. Acknowledge the complexities Layer 1: Academic discourse itself is peculiar 1) Frequent citation Summer is warmer than winter. Layer 1: Academic discourse itself is peculiar 1) Frequent citation Summer is warmer than winter (Blink 1971; Bizzy 1978 ; Bingo 1980; Buffy and Blooper 1982; Binkey et al. 1986; Beastie 1992 ). Layer 1: Academic discourse itself is peculiar 1) Frequent citation Summer is warmer than winter (Blink 1971; Bizzy 1978 ; Bingo 1980; Buffy and Blooper 1982; Binkey et al. 1986; Beastie 1992 ). 2) High lexical density In bridging river valleys, the early engineers built many masonry viaducts of numerous arches. 3) Highly nominalized style I handed in my essay late because my kids got sick. The reason for the late submission of my essay was the illness of my children. John ate a sweet potato for breakfast, and everyone got mad. John’s eating of the sweet potato for breakfast upset the morning mood. He failed to apply common sense. His failure to apply common sense …. led to his ultimate demise. The government is indifferent to the present crisis. The government’s indifference to the present crisis … has caused widespread unrest. Nominalized and compact Because England became unified under - Two clauses the West Saxon kings, people began - Grammatically congruent recognizing the West Saxon dialect as literary standard. Nominalized and compact Because England became unified under - Two clauses the West Saxon kings, people began - Grammatically congruent recognizing the West Saxon dialect as literary standard. - One clause The unification of England under the - Condensed West Saxon kings led to the recognition of the West Saxon dialect - Incongruent as a literary standard. 4) Unusual subjects and predicates • Gay-identity politics claims that … • Modern “dominant political discourse” often uses the term … • Rawls’s concept of justice as fairness provides a solution to the social and economic injustice that Fanon and his race suffer. • Justice as fairness urges a society to take into account these inequalities, … • Exploitation enacts a structural relation between social groups. • Young’s rhetoric allows one to uncover the injustices seen in Coeztee’s Disgrace and throughout contemporary society. 5) The writer’s stance is embedded • Young’s concept of the “five faces of oppression” offers a perspective from which to view the various relationships in the novel as ones that are typical of societies imbued with systemic oppression. Young’s definition of oppression is also useful in examining the different ways in which, and to what degree, different groups suffer from oppression in the novel. Nancy Fraser’s explication of the “redistribution-recognition dilemma” adds a deeper dimension of understanding as to why the problems of the previous system of apartheid remain. 5) The writer’s stance is embedded • Young’s concept of the “five faces of oppression” offers a perspective from which to view the various relationships in the novel as ones that are typical of societies imbued with systemic oppression. Young’s definition of oppression is also useful in examining the different ways in which, and to what degree, different groups suffer from oppression in the novel. Nancy Fraser’s explication of the “redistribution-recognition dilemma” adds a deeper dimension of understanding as to why the problems of the previous system of apartheid remain. Acknowledging the complexities Layer 2: Specific disciplinary discourses • Writing in economics, biochemistry, physics Layer 3: Specific genres within disciplines • Literary analysis essay in English • Model-based argumentation in economics • Research paper in Biology • Conservation Biology v. Wildlife Biology • Theatre review “Good” writing is field specific “Writing is highly situated and tied to a field’s discourse and ways of knowing and therefore writing in the disciplines (WID) is most effectively guided by those with expertise in that discipline” (Statement of WAC Principles and Practices) * Handout TEACHING STRATEGIES 2. Establish a scale of concerns Differentiate between HOCs and LOCs: Higher Order Concerns: • Does the paper fulfill the assignment? • Does the writer have a thesis that addresses the question? • What is the quality of the argument itself? • Is the paper well structured overall? • Is the paper well structured at the micro-level? Lower Order Concerns • Are there syntax errors? • Are there errors in grammar and sentence structure? • Are there word choice and other stylistic problems? • Are there so many errors that a reader’s attention is distracted from the content? Four myths about marking student writing: 1. 2. 3. 4. I have to “fix” every error and comment on every point, so they’ll learn the correct way to write. Once I’ve marked and/or explained an error the student should be able to get it right on the next paper and/or for all the writing they do in my course and other courses. I shouldn’t have to correct these errors; after all, they should have learned how to write in their composition course. If they read the specified pages in the writing handbook, they’ll be able to find and fix their errors themselves the next time. What composition research tells us: • Too many comments overwhelm students, especially if comments are not prioritized and/or directed to learning and writing goals. • Comments focused on specific concerns in the paper are more effective than generic comments like “good” or “vague.” • Students learn more by the practice of writing and revising than by reading about how to write and revise. • Students learn by correcting their own mistakes, once a pattern of error has been pointed out, than by having all of their mistakes corrected for them. Identify patterns and priorities of errors • Avoid the temptation to “correct” right away. • Do not mark everything: choose in a principled manner. • Identify patterns of errors, if you can. • Identify priorities of errors, global vs. local. • Let’s Practice: See sample of student writing Advice and strategies for working with English second language writers: • Give feedback on content and structure first. • Think of minor errors as a kind of “foreign accent” in writing. What errors are you willing to tolerate? • If errors interfere with meaning by “disturbing” syntax, correct the sentence and give an explanation if possible. Consider “return on investment” when you grade: Invest time up front: Explain assignment in class and leave time for questions Give criteria, rubrics, models, and model writing for students Invest response time wisely: Focus comments on assignment goals Distinguish between formative and summative comments Prioritize comments--higher-order to lower-order Resist the urge to edit (but model correct phrasing for L2 writers) Invest trust in students: Use self-evaluation and peer review Ask writer to be responsible for telling you what’s been improved Develop shortcuts: All writing does not need to be graded the same way.