File - Ossett History

1. What were the main ideas about the causes of diseases in 1750?
2 marks
2. Give 2 examples of ways of treating people up to 1900.
2 marks
3. Explain the different types of hospitals between 1750 and 1900.
3 marks
4. Explain the Spontaneous Generation Theory regarding germs.
2 marks
5. Who was Louis Pasteur?
6. Why is he important to the study of bacteriology?
7. When did he make his discovery?
8. What technology allowed him to make his discovery?
9. Who was Robert Koch?
10. Why is he important to the study of bacteriology?
11. When did he make his discovery?
12. What technology allowed him to make his discovery?
13. Pasteur worked on creating vaccines to prevent a variety of diseases.
a) Name the C18th doctor who first used vaccines to prevent diseases.
b) Explain Pasteur’s work on the chicken cholera vaccine.
3 marks
14. Why is Emil Behring important to medicine?
15. Why was there such a great rivalry between Pasteur and Koch after 1871?
16. What are ‘magic bullets’ and how do they work?
2 marks
17. What was the name of the 1st magic bullet?
18. What disease did it cure?
19. Who discovered it and when?
20. What was the name of the 2nd magic bullet?
21. When was it discovered?
22. Who discovered it?
23. How was it discovered?
24. Who discovered the 3rd group of magic bullets, sulphonamides?
2 marks
25. What is the name of the most important and effective magic bullet?
26. Who discovered it?
27. When was it discovered?
28. How was it discovered?
29. Who developed it in the 1930s?
30. Who discovered DNA?
31. When was it discovered?
32. Why is this discovery important to medicine?
33. When was the NHS set up?
34. Give 3 reasons why the NHS was set up.
3 marks
35. Explain how the following factors are important in the discovery and
development of all 4 magic bullets:a) chance
b) research teams
c) funding/money
d) war
e) science and technology
15 marks
Total = 60 marks
1. Miasma (bad smells)
Germs, produced by (not causing diseases) rotting vegetation and animals.
2. - Rich = treated at home by doctors.
- Apothecaries and quacks could give out medicines = often including many
which did nothing or contained harmful ingredients (these regulated by 1900).
- Herbal remedies and superstition passed down through family or in village.
3. Hospitals now funded by charities and local councils, rather than the Church.
These were like ‘homes’ were the patient’s relatives and visitors helped the
nurses to look after patients, giving care.
Rich were treated and cared for at home.
Poor, elderly and disabled often in the workhouse.
Cottage hospitals eg small, with nurses for care and doctors to visit and
prescribe medicines etc when needed.
4. Spontaneous Generation is when food/meat/vegetation etc goes ‘bad’ giving off
smells, maggots and germs/microbes are also seen. Here the germs are seen
as a product of the food going bad and not as the cause. There is no
explanation of why it goes bad in this theory hence the word ‘spontaneous’.
5. Pasteur = a French scientist/chemist who worked on the study of
microbes/bacteria and an explanation of why food etc ‘goes bad’.
6. He produced the New Germ Theory, which proved that germs float in the air
and then cause food etc to go ‘bad’.
7. 1861 for theory, work produced in 1865.
8. Research lab. and equipment. Microscope.
9. Koch = German doctor and bacteriologist. He was interested in the idea that
germs could also cause diseases in humans and experimented to prove this.
10. He began to identify the different types of germs and to recognise which ones
cause which diseases in humans eg TB.
11. 1878.
12. Research lab. and equipment. Microscope. Camera and chemical dyes to stain
the germs and make them easier to see.
13. a) Edward Jenner
b) He injected a weakened dose of chicken cholera into chickens. They
survived. He injected them with a strong dose, they survived. He injected a
new set of chickens with a strong dose, they all died. He still called it
vaccination even though it had nothing to do with cows or cowpox.
14. Behring discovered anti-toxins in animals which fight against bacteria in the
body. He had found the body’s immune system.
15. Franco-Prussian War which France lost and this led to the German Empire
being created, France lost her supremacy in Europe to Germany.
16. Magic bullets = man-made chemicals which attack the bacteria which causes
diseases, but leaves the body intact.
17. Salvarsan 606
18. Syphilis.
19. Paul Ehrlich in 1909.
20. Prontosil
21. 1932
22. Gerhard Domagk
23. Prontosil is a red dye which he was using in his experiments with mice when his
daughter cut her finger on a needle and caught blood poisoning. He tested it on
his daughter, who turned bright red from the dye, but was cured.
24. Sulphonamides by French scientists.
25. Penicillin.
26. Alexander Fleming.
27. 1928.
28. By chance, he didn’t wash up some petri dishes and he found spores had
grown on the dishes. There was no bacteria growing near to these spores.
29. Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, along with Fleming in 1930s and 40s.
30. Watson and Crick.
31. 1953
32. Importance = helps to improve knowledge of genetics and hope to change
genes which are faulty to eliminate genetically inherited diseases.
33. NHS = 1948
34. – WWII showed poor health of people, eg poor evacuees from towns/cities.
- Government to be involved more in public health and looking after people.
- Labour Government promises.
- Treatment had been free during war and should be continued.
- Beveridge Report 1942
- more people could vote and wanted things to be better for their children.
- country should be better for soldiers coming home.
35. a) Chance = in discovering the weaker dose of chicken cholera (Chamberland
working for Pasteur) and in not washing up petri dishes in Fleming’s lab to
allow penicillin to grow and kill germs.
b) Research teams = in both Germany (Koch) and France (Pasteur) for
identifying germs/bacteria and then developing vaccines eg Behring working
with Koch, Fleming working with Florey and Chain.
c) Funding/money = governments in France and Germany, from chemical
dye and brewing industries and from USA during WWII for development of
d) War = Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, fuelled rivalry between Koch and
Pasteur. WWI to influence Fleming to find a cure for blood poisoning. WWII
for developing penicillin and Allied soldiers using it on D-Day.
e) Technology = labs, scientific equipment, microscopes, chemical dyes,
Total 60 marks