Chapter 8 : The Rise of Europe

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World History: Connection to Today
Chapter 8, Section
Chapter 8
The Rise of Europe
(500–1300)
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
World History: Connection to Today
Chapter 8, Section
Chapter 8 : The Rise of Europe
(500–1300)
Section 1: The Early Middle Ages
Section 2: Feudalism and the Manor Economy
Section 3: The Medieval Church
Section 4: Economic Expansion and Change
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8, Section 1
The Early Middle Ages
• Why was Western Europe a frontier land
during the early Middle Ages?
• How did Germanic kingdoms gain power in
the early Middle Ages?
• How did Charlemagne briefly reunite much
of Western Europe?
Chapter 8, Section
Europe after Rome: 476 AD or CE
Chapter 8, Section 1
The Early Middle Ages
• From about 500 to 1000, Europe was a frontier
land, a sparsely populated, undeveloped area on the
outskirts of civilization.
• During this time, Europe was cut off from advanced
civilizations in the Middle East, China, and India.
• Eventually, a new European civilization emerged that
blended Greco-Roman, Germanic, and Christian
traditions.
Chapter 8, Section 1
Invasions of Europe, 700–1000
The Germanic Kingdoms
Chapter 8, Section 1
Clovis
After the fall of Rome, Germanic tribes divided Western
Europe into many small kingdoms.
The Germanic peoples
• were farmers and herders.
• had no cities or written laws.
• elected kings to lead them in war.
• rewarded warrior nobles who swore loyalty to the king with weapons
and loot.
The Franks were the strongest of the Germanic tribes. Clovis, king
of the Franks, conquered Gaul and then converted to Christianity,
the religion of the people in Gaul. By doing so, he gained a powerful
ally in the Christian Church of Rome.
Chapter 8, Section 1
The Empire of Charlemagne
Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III by crushing a rebellion
in Rome.
In gratitude, the pope crowned Charlemagne Emperor of
the Romans.
SIGNIFICANCE:
By crowning a Germanic king successor to the Roman
emperors, the pope revived the ideal of a united Christian
community.
This action laid the ground for struggles between future
Roman Catholic popes and German emperors.
Chapter 8, Section 1
The Age of Charlemagne
Charlemagne tried to exercise control over his empire and create
a united Christian Europe. He helped spread Christianity to the
conquered people on the fringes of the empire.
Charlemagne revived Latin learning in his empire and strived to
create a “second Rome.”
Chapter 8, Section 1
Section 1 Assessment
Which group invaded Spain?
a) Franks
b) Vikings
c) Muslims
d) Magyars
The Germanic invaders of Europe
a) built elaborate cities and temples.
b) had no written laws.
c) sought to destroy the Christian
church.
d) wanted to preserve the Roman empire.
Chapter 8, Section 1
Section 1 Assessment
Which group invaded Spain?
a) Franks
b) Vikings
c) Muslims
d) Magyars
The Germanic invaders of Europe
a) built elaborate cities and temples.
b) had no written laws.
c) sought to destroy the Christian
church.
d) wanted to preserve the Roman empire.
Chapter 8, Section 2
Feudalism and the Manor Economy
• How did feudalism shape medieval society?
• What was feudal life like for nobles and
peasants?
• What was the basis of the manor economy?
Chapter 8, Section 2
The Emergence of Feudalism
In the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and
Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to
maintain law and order.
In response to this need for protection, a new political
and social system called feudalism evolved.
Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in
which powerful local lords divided their landholdings
among lesser lords. In exchange, lesser lords, or
vassals, pledged military service and loyalty to the
greater lord.
Fief – estate granted to a vassal
Chapter 8, Section 2
Peasants and Nobles
PEASANTS
Serfs were bound to the
land. They were not slaves,
yet they were not free.
Serfs made up the majority
of the population in
medieval society.
Life was very harsh.
NOBLES
Warfare was a way of
life.
Many trained from
boyhood to be knights,
or mounted warriors.
(trained to be brave,
loyal, and true)
Chivalry – code of
conduct of knights
Chapter 8, Section 2
The Manor Economy
The manor, or lord’s estate, was the heart of the
medieval economy. Based on farming and selfsufficiency.
Peasants and lords were bound by mutual obligation.
The peasant worked for the lord.
In exchange, the peasant received protection and a small
amount of land to farm.
Chapter 8, Section 2
Feudal Society
Under the feudal
system, everyone had
a well-defined place in
society.
Chapter 8, Section 2
Section 2 Assessment
Lesser lords who pledged service to the greater lords were called
a)
serfs.
b) vassals.
c)
nobles.
d)
peasants.
The heart of the medieval economy was
a)
the village.
b)
the marketplace.
c)
the castle.
d)
the manor.
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Chapter 8, Section 2
Section 2 Assessment
Lesser lords who pledged service to the greater lords were called
a)
serfs.
b) vassals.
c)
nobles.
d)
peasants.
The heart of the medieval economy was
a)
the village.
b)
the marketplace.
c)
the castle.
d)
the manor.
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Chapter 8, Section 3
The Medieval Church
• How did the Church and its monks and nuns shape
medieval life?
• How did the power of the Church grow?
• How did reformers work for change in the Church?
• What problems did Jewish communities face?
Chapter 8, Section 3
Spread of Christianity in Europe
Chapter 8, Section 3
The Church and Medieval Life
The Church’s teachings and practices shaped the lives of
the people of Europe.
•
The church was a social center as well as a place of
worship.
•
Christian rituals and faith were part of the fabric of
everyday life.
•
Priests guided people on issues of values and morality.
•
Monks and nuns cared for the poor and sick, set up
schools for children, and gave food and lodging to
travelers.
Chapter 8, Section 3
The Power of the Church Grows
In the centuries after the fall of Rome, the Church became
the most powerful secular, or worldly, force in medieval
Europe.
•
Medieval popes began to claim papal supremacy,
or authority over all secular rulers.
•
The medieval Church developed its own body of
laws, known as canon law, as well as its own
courts. Anyone who disobeyed canon law faced a
range of penalties.
•
The Church also had absolute power in religious
matters.
Tithe – Tax the Church required Christians to pay
•
Chapter 8, Section 3
Reform Movements
The success of the Church brought problems:
•
•
•
As Church wealth and power grew, discipline weakened.
Some clergy ignored their vows and lived in luxury.
Some priests focused more on family than on Church duties.
A number of reform movements spread across Europe:
•
•
•
•
Abbot Berno of Cluny revived the Benedictine Rule, under which
monks and nuns took vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity.
Pope Gregory VII outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited
simony, the selling of Church offices.
Frances of Assisi set up the Franciscan order to teach poverty,
humility, and love of God.
Dominic set up the Dominican order to teach official Roman
Catholic beliefs.
Chapter 8, Section 3
Jews in Europe
Jewish communities existed across Europe.
In hard times, Christians persecuted the Jews, blaming
them for economic problems, illness, and disasters.
Prejudice against Jews is called antisemitism.
In response to growing persecution, thousands of Jews
migrated from Western to Eastern Europe.
Chapter 8, Section 3
Section 3 Assessment
What were the three vows of the Benedictine Rule?
a) obedience, poverty, and humility
b) obedience, poverty, and hard work
c) humility, poverty, and chastity
d) obedience, poverty, and chastity
Why did many Jews migrate from Western to Eastern Europe?
a) to escape persecution they faced in Western Europe
b) to escape from Muslim invaders
c) to join large communities of Jews already established in
Eastern Europe
d) to search for better farming conditions
Chapter 8, Section 3
Section 3 Assessment
What were the three vows of the Benedictine Rule?
a) obedience, poverty, and humility
b) obedience, poverty, and hard work
c) humility, poverty, and chastity
d) obedience, poverty, and chastity
Why did many Jews migrate from Western to Eastern Europe?
a) to escape persecution they faced in Western Europe
b) to escape from Muslim invaders
c) to join large communities of Jews already established in
Eastern Europe
d) to search for better farming conditions
Chapter 8, Section 4
Economic Expansion and Change
• How did new technologies spark an
agricultural revolution?
• How did the revival of trade revolutionize
commerce?
• How were guilds linked to the rise of towns
and cities?
Chapter 8, Section 4
Agricultural Revolution
New farming technologies
iron plow
harness
windmill
three-field system
Increase in food production
Population explosion
Between 1000 and 1300, the population of Europe doubled.
Chapter 8, Section 4
Trade in Medieval Europe, 1000–1300
Europe’s growing
population needed
goods that were not
available to them.
As foreign invasions
and feudal warfare
declined, trade
increased.
Chapter 8, Section 4
A Commercial Revolution
The revival of trade led to a revolution in commerce.
As trade revived, merchants needed money to buy
goods. The reintroduction of money led European
merchants to develop new business practices, such as
•
•
•
•
setting up banks
joining together to set up partnerships
developing insurance
adopting the bill of exchange
Chapter 8, Section 4
Social Changes
The commercial revolution not only transformed the medieval
economy, it also reshaped medieval society.
The use of money undermined serfdom. Most peasants
became tenant farmers or hired farm laborers.
In towns, a new middle class of merchants, traders, and
artisans emerged. Trade became most important economic
activity.
The Church forbade Christians from becoming moneylenders.
Since Jews were barred from other professions, many took on
this role.
Chapter 8, Section 4
Guilds
In medieval towns, merchants and artisans formed
associations called guilds.
Merchant guilds appeared first. They dominated town life,
passing laws, levying taxes, and making other important
decisions.
A craft guild was made up of workers in a particular
occupation. To prevent competition, only a certain number of
people could work in any trade.
Becoming a guild member involved many years of hard
work.
Apprentice – learns trade from master
Chapter 8, Section 4
Section 4 Assessment
One effect of the agricultural revolution was that
a) the population of Europe decreased.
b) the population of Europe doubled.
c) the population of Europe remained the same.
d) the population of Europe tripled.
Which of the following was not part of the medieval commercial
revolution?
a) banking
b) Partnerships
c) Insurance
d) three–field system
Chapter 8, Section 4
Section 4 Assessment
One effect of the agricultural revolution was that
a) the population of Europe decreased.
b) the population of Europe doubled.
c) the population of Europe remained the same.
d) the population of Europe tripled.
Which of the following was not part of the medieval commercial
revolution?
a) banking
b) Partnerships
c) Insurance
d) three–field system
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