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Study Guide Overview Vocabulary: • • • • • Matter Volume Celsius scale Measurement Mass • • • • • Weight Organic chemistry Chemistry Temperature International System of Units (SI) Rules of Rounding When rounding to a certain place value (ex: the tenth) look at the next digit. 48.46 48.5 • If that digit is 0-4 then leave the number the same. • If that digit is 5 or higher then round the number up one. Prefix Meanings Numeric Values kilo 1000 hecto 100 deka 10 deci 0.1 centi 0.01 milli 0.001 Temperature Conversions 5/9(F-32) = (F-32) 1.8 9/5(C) + 32 = 1.8(C) + 32 Scientific Notation Only one digit to the left of the decimal Digit must be equal to or greater than one and less than 10 mx n 10 m is the coefficient and n is the exponent 5.67 x 8 10 Significant Figures Calculations Preform the operation and round to the correct significant figure Multiplying and dividing, limit and round to the least number of significant figures. Ex: 23.0 x 432 x 19 = 188 784 19 only has 2 significant figures so round answer to 2 significant figures Answer: 190 000 Adding and subtracting, limit and round your answer to the least place value. Ex: 123.25 + 46.0 + 86.257 = 255.507 46.0 is only to the tenths place value so round answer to the tenths place Answer: 255.5 Want to exempt out of the test with an A? You can take the challenge. One challenge question that covers all our concepts. Get it right and you get an A and do not have to take the test. 426 970 831 527 839.062 927 148 Ones 9 Hundreds 8 Tenths 0 Thousandths 2 What digit is in the tenths place? 76.5 5 564.92 9 What digit is in the hundredths place? 38.1238 0.28 2 8 What digit is in the tens place? 382.302 8 4736.02 3 What digit is in the thousands place? 41000 816 214 983 1 4 What digit is in the thousandths place? 439.016 6 564.9287 8 Convert Using Metric to English Conversion Sheet 16 in = 16 x 2.54 = 40.64 cm 62 acres = 62 x 0.40 = 24.80 hectares 57 lb = 57 x 4.45 =253.65 N Convert Within the Metric System 18 km = 18000 m 496.87 kg = 496870000 mg 0.2 cm = 0.002 m Convert the Temperature 87 °F = 5/9(87-32) = 5/9(55) = 30.6 °C -13 °F = 5/9(-13-32) = 5/9(-45) = -25 °C 14 °C = 9/5(14) + 32 = 25.2 + 32 = 57.2 °F 73 °C = 9/5(73) + 32 = 131.4 + 32 = 163.4 °F Write following in scientific notation 10 = 1 x 101 4829300000 = 4.8293 x 9 10 0.001 = 1 x 10-3 0.00002341 = 2.341 x 10-5 Write in standard notation 1.562 x 106 = 1562000 4.59 x 104 = 45900 5.69 x 10-2 = 0.0569 7.32 x 10-5 = 0.0000732 Add and Subtract Scientific notation (1.42 x 104) + (7.105 x 105) = (0.142 x 105) + (7.105 x 105) = (0.142 + 7.105) x 105 = 7.247 x 105 (1.41 x 10-3) – (1.31 x 10-4) = (1.41 x 10-3) – (0.131 x 10-3) = (1.41-0.131) x 10-3 = 1.279 x 10-3 Multiply in scientific notation 4 10 )(8.0 5 10 ) -1 10 )(7.2 5 10 ) (6.0 x x = 4+5 9 (6.0 x 8.0) x 10 = 48 x 10 (3.1 x x = -1+5 4 (3.1 x 7.2) x 10 = 22.32 x 10 Divide in scientific notation (2.4 x ÷ (3.5 x = (2.4 ÷ 3.5) x 107-9 = 0.69 x 10-2 7 10 ) 9 10 ) = 6.9 x 10-3 -1 10 ) -3 10 ) (9.0 x ÷ (3.0 x = (9.0 ÷ 3.0) x 10-1-(-3) = 3.0 x 102 Significant Figures 1234 780.0 0.0001 -2 9.010 x 10 4 4 1 4 Solve and round to proper sig. fig. 12.037 – 3.93 = 8.107 = 8.11 6.79 + 1.1 = 7.89 = 7.9 0.059 x 36.524 x 3006 = 6477.6774 = 6500 500 ÷ 84.12 = 5.9438896 = 6