16.1 - MollyMcDuffiesPortfolio

Chapter 16.1 Progressivism
What does it mean to be “progressive”?
What types of reforms and/or changes do you think
will occur in the age of Progressivism?
Progressivism rose to address many of the social
problems that industrialism created
These reformers, called Progressives, sought to
improve living conditions for the urban poor
They questioned the power and practices of big
business and called for government to be more
honest and responsive to people’s needs
Muckrakers: reform-minded journalists who
“raked up” or exposed the filth of society.
Ida Tarbell – wrote a scathing report
condemning the business practices of the
Standard Oil Company in McClure’s Magazines;
revealing how Rockefeller crushed his
competition in his quest to gain control over the
oil business.
Lincoln Steffens – exposed the corruption of
city governments in The Shame of the cities
Frank Norris – described the strangling power
of a monopolistic railroad in his novel The
Octopus: A Story of California.
In NYC, activists like Lillian Wald worked to
expand public health services for the poor
Activists scored an early victory with the passage
of the Tenement Act of 1901
This law forced landlords to install lighting in public
hallways and to provide at least one toilet for every
two families
 Outhouses were eventually banned from the slums of
New York City
 Within fifteen years, the death rate had dropped
In 1909, Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, Jane
Addams, and other activists formed the multicultural
NAACP; it’s purpose was to fight for the rights of
African Americans.
In 1913, it protested the introduction of segregation into
the national government
 Two years later, the NAACP protested the film Birth of a
Nation because of its hostile stereotyping
In 1913, Sigmund Livingston, a Jewish man living in
Chicago, founded the Anti-Defamation League
The mission of the ADL was to fight anti-Semitism
(hostility) towards Jews
 ADL began by combating the use of negative stereotypes of
Jews in print, on stage, and in films
By the end the 1800’s, labor unions were already
campaigning for he rights of adult male workers;
Progressive reformers took up the cause of women and
In 1893, Florence Kelley helped persuade Illinois to
prohibit child labor and limit the number of hours worked
by women.
In 1904, Kelley helped found the National Child Labor
Despite this, unskilled workers were still working for
extremely low wages; in 1900, about forty percent of
working classes families lived in poverty.
In 1912, Massachusetts became the first state to pass
minimum wage laws; the rest of the nation would not follow
suit until 1938.
Businesses began to fight labor laws in the early
Lochner v. New York – the Supreme Court sided
with business owners and refused to uphold a law
limiting bakers to a ten hour work day.
Muller v. Oregon – the Supreme Court upheld a
state law establishing a ten hour workday for women
in laundries and factories
The Brandeis Brief – Louis D. Brandeis’s defense; his
research became a model for the defense of other labor
laws, it proved that long hours harmed the health of
Occurred in New York City; nearly 500 young women
were working in a high-rise factory making women’s
blouses called the Triangle Shirtwaist Company
A discarded match set the eighth floor ablaze and,
within minutes, two others were ablaze as well
Because their were no fire escapes, alarms, or
sprinkler systems, nearly 140 women and men either
burned to death or jumped from the windows,
crashing to the pavement below
As a direct result of this, New York passed the
toughest fire safety laws in the nation
During the Progressive Era, energetic new labor
unions joined the fight for better working
The International Ladies’ Garment Workers
Union organized unskilled workers
Led the “Uprising of the 20,000” and won a shorter
workweek and higher wages
The Industrial Workers of the World organized
the unskilled laborers ignored by the AFL under the
leadership of “Big Bill” Haywood
Cleaning up government often meant winning
control of it, one of the most successful reform
mayors was Tom Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio.
Set new rules for police
 Released debtors from prison
 Supported a fairer tax system
In Toledo, Ohio, mayor Samuel M. Jones
Overhauled the police force
 Improved municipal services
 Set a minimum wage for workers
 Opened kindergartens for children.
The fight for Progressive reforms extended to the
state level
In Wisconsin, a progressive governor named Robert M. La
Follette pushed through an ambitious agenda of reforms
that became known as the Wisconsin Idea
La Follette called for electoral reforms such as limits on
campaign spending
He created state commissions to regulate railroads and utilities
He formed commissions to oversee transportation, civil service,
and taxation
Other governors pushed for reforms as well
In New York, Charles Evans Hughes regulated public
utilities and pushed through a worker safety law
In Mississippi, James Vandaman limited the use of convict
labor; however his reforming spirit was marred by extreme
racism, he exploited prejudices of poor white farmers toward
African Americans to gain support for his policies.
Progressives wanted to reform elections to make them fairer and to make
politicians more accountable to voters
They pushed for the direct primary, an election in which voters choose
candidates to run in a general election
The Seventeenth Amendment
Progressives also backed the 17th Amendment, this amendment gave voters, rather
than state legislatures, the power to directly elect their U.S. senators
The Secret Ballot
Mississippi adopted the direct primary in 1903 and most other states followed
Progressives also fought for the use of the secret ballot, which printed all candidates
names on a single piece of paper; previously, each political party printed its own ballot
on colored paper, making it easy to see how people voted and to pressure them to
support certain candidates; by 1900, almost all states had adopted the secret ballot
The Initiative, The Referendum, and the Recall
The Initiative – Allowed voters to put a proposed law on the ballot for public
The Referendum – Allowed citizens to place a recently passed law on the ballot,
allowing voters to approve or reject the measure
The Recall – Enabled citizens to remove an elected official from office by calling for a
special election
Copy the chart below and record the effects of he work of the Progressives in three broad
categories: society, government, and the workplace.
The Progressives