1700 to 1780 - Davis School District

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Out of Many
A History of the American People
Seventh Edition Brief Sixth Edition
Chapter
5
The Cultures of
Colonial North America
1700-1780
Out of Many: A History of the American People, Brief Sixth Edition
John Mack Faragher • Mari Jo Buhle • Daniel Czitrom • Susan H. Armitage
Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
North American Regions
North American Region
• British North America was a land of
regions, both European and Native, with
customs and traditions constantly adapting
to each other.
Indian America
• Indians adapted to European culture and
participated in trade
• The introduction of the horse stimulated
the rise of nomadic Plains culture.
MAP 5.2 Growing Use of the Horse by Plains
Indians
A portrait of the Delaware chief Tishcohan
MAP 5.1 Regions in Eighteenth-Century North
America
The Spanish Borderlands
• New Mexico
 Population expanded by developing ranches
and farms along the Rio Grande River
The Spanish Borderlands
• Florida: Spanish alliances with Indians and
runaway slaves create a multiracial society
An eighteenthcentury genre
painting from
New Spain
showing various
racial castas,
the result of
ethnic mixing.
A mounted Soldado de Cuera
(Spanish Leather-Coated Soldier)
TABLE 5.1 Population of North America in 1750
Crevecoeur Describing the Natives
• “They are hastening
towards a total annihilation.”
• Between 1680 and 1760 many Native
American cultures disappeared or
merged with other cultures.
FIGURE 5.2 The
Ancestry of the British
Colonial Population
MAP 5.5 Ethnic Groups
in Eighteenth- Century
British North America
Growth and Immigration
• In 1700, 290,000 colonists lived north of
Mexico; by 1750, almost 1.3 million.
• Britain alone encouraged immigration of
foreign nationals, making her colonies the
most diverse.
New England
• Puritan congregations governed local
communities with little distinction between
church and state.
New England (cont’d)
• New England towns grew rapidly and the
expanding population pressed against
available land.
The Persistence of Traditional
Culture in the New World
•
•
•
•
Family, kinship, church, local community
Regional cultures via oral transmission
Community over individual
Rural Americans
 Self-sufficient farmers, diverse agriculture,
crafts on the side
• Cities
 Artisans
New England
• Although New England farmers tried to
grow wheat, in most places the soil was
too poor, and the presence of a fungus
called black rust prevented any real
success during the colonial era.
• As a result, the main crop grown in
colonial New England was corn.
New England
• New England had fishing as a major
industry in the region.
• The Grand Banks, a shallow region
• in the Atlantic Ocean saw cod, mackerel,
halibut, and herring, and of course whaling
A spinner and potter from The Book of Trades
Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA.
Philadelphia - 1720a
View of the Philadelphia waterfront, painted
about 1720
MAP 5.4 Spread of Settlement: Movement into
the Backcountry, 1720–60
A Plan of an American New Cleared Farm
New France
• The first French settlements were fishing
villages along the coast, but fur displaced
fish as the center of New France’s
economy
• New France encompassed the Great
Lakes region and the area of the
Mississippi River valley to the Gulf Coast
MAP 5.3 The French Crescent
New France
• Although New France often lost money
with the fur trade, the French did not want
to lose the fur trade to their imperial rivals,
the English
Fur Trade
• The French went to great lengths to
continue the fur trade in order to maintain
their relationships with Native allies.
FIGURE 5.1 Estimated Total Population of New
Spain, New France, and the British North
American Colonies, 1700–1800
America’s Enlightenment and
Great Awakening
A period marking the contrasting
ideas of intellectual reason and
religious emotionalism
Literacy
• The American
Colonies were the
most literate
society in the world
(90% of males in
NE, 40% of
females)
• Literacy
throughout varied
from 35-50%.
England averaged
about 30%.
REASON OVER REVELATION
 Great advances in
Europe (Newton)
moved the world as
people became more
dependent on reason
to unlocking the laws
of nature. Inspired
others to search for
reason.
John Locke
• Character of individuals was not fixed could
be changed through education.
• Governmental power was not derived through
god to monarchs but rather was derived from
the need to preserve “life, liberty, and
property” of the governed.
The Father of America’s Enlightenment
• Franklin and the
Junto a mutual
improvement society,
bent on debate.
• Poor Richards
Almanack: a collection
of essays, maxims, and
proverbs.
Insurance
Founded the Philadelphia Library
The Philadelphia Hospital, the nations
first—courtesy of Franklin
Philadelphia Hospital
• "to care for the sick-poor and insane who were wandering the
streets of Philadelphia."
• "a melting pot for diseases, where Europeans, Africans and
Indians engaged in free exchange of their respective
infections."
• Franklin saved the day with a clever plan to counter the claim
by challenging the Assembly that he could prove the populace
supported the hospital bill by agreeing to raise 2000 pounds
from private citizens. If he was able to raise the funds,
Franklin proposed, the Assembly had to match the funds with
an additional 2000 pounds. The Assembly agreed to Franklin's
plan, thinking his task was impossible, but they were ready to
receive the "credit of being charitable without the expense."
• Franklin's fundraising effort brought in more than the required
amount.
American Philosophical Society
•
•
American Philosophical
Society: 1743 (Jefferson a later
president) “all philosophical
experiments that let light into
the nature of things tend to
increase the power of man over
matter, and multiply the
conveniences and pleasures of
life”.
Other impacts: started
volunteer fire department, first
library, founded the college of
Philadelphia (now Penn) which
founded the first medical
school. Electricity, stoves, etc…
Deism
• Deists: rational god
who created the
universe not to
intervene.
• Religion? Viewed as
valuable as it
regulated morals.
Great Awakening
• Began in the mid
1730’s, when
Americans had fallen
“asleep” religiously
and needed
awakening.
• Religion was an
emotionally charged
matter.
• Revivals were held to
restore the faith.
New Lights vs. Old Lights
New Lights
• Part of the new “revivals”
• Felt that religious
message had run astray.
• Baptists, Methodists, and
Presbyterians
•
•
•
•
Old Lights
Traditional “old” beliefs
within the colonies.
Congregationalists
Quakers
Anglicans
Baptism by Full Immersion in the Schuylkill River
of Pennsylvania, an engraving by Henry Dawkins
George Whitefield
• His tours inspired
thousands to seek
salvation, after one
Connecticut tour the
population of the church
jumped from 630 in 1740
to 3,217 one year later!
• Franklin “that I emptied
my pocket wholly into the
collectors dish, gold, silver,
and all!”
Jonathan Edwards
 “The god that holds you
over the pit of Hell, much
as one holds a spider or
other loathsome insect
over the fire abhors
you…his wrath toward
you burns like a fire; he
looks upon you as worthy
of nothing else but to be
cast into the fire.”
Revivalists
• James Davenport of New York once
preached to his audience for 24
straight hours.
• Old lights condemned the movement
as violating the reason of the
enlightenment. “sort of madness”
Impacts of the Awakening
• Decline of “Old light” groups
such as the Quakers, Anglicans,
and Congregationalists.
• Increase of Presbyterians,
Baptists, and Methodists, all
revival groups of the period.
(American Protestantism)
Samson Occam:
Mohegan
Impacts of the Great Awakening
• Foundation of new colleges:
-
Princeton (New Light Presbyterians)
Kings College-Columbia (Anglicans)
College of Rhode Island-Brown (Baptists)
Queen’s College-Rutgers (Dutch Reformed)
Dartmouth (NH) Congregationalists
• Appeal to African and Native Americans, there
was little racism in the movement, by 1790 most
blacks were Christians
• Religious toleration, the new protestant
movements were very willing to work together.
Chronology
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