Chapter 16


Chapter 16

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution


State Charles Darwin’s contributions to science.

Describe the three patterns of biodiversity

16.1 Darwins Voyage

1. Young Charles Darwin

2. Born in 1809 in Shrewbury, England

2. Studied medicine and ministry in his twenties

3. His true interest was nature

2. Encouraged by his Cambridge professor to take a job as a naturalist

1. Darwin’s Voyage

2. After Graduating, Darwin took an invitation to be an unpaid naturalist on a 5 year expedition to South


3. The ship Darwin was aboard was called the

H.M.S. Beagle fossils.

3. While on the ship Darwin collected and studied

1. The Galapagos Islands

2. The Galapagos Islands are located about 600 miles west of South America

2. On the different Islands Dawin carefully collected different species specimen.

2. While traveling Darwin noticed THREE distinctive patterns of diversity

3. Species vary globally

3. Species vary locally

3. Species vary over time

Global Diversity

Local Diversity

Diversity over time

1. Darwin’s Finches

2. While on the Galapagos Islands Darwin found 13 species of finches

3. This lead to his idea of descent from a common ancestor

2. After careful inspection of the finches Darwin developed a scientific theory of biological evolution.

3. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution explains how modern organisms change over long periods of time.

2. The process of changing over time is called Evolution.

1. Natural Selection

2. Tendency towards overproduction

2. Not all offspring survive

2. Variations exist in any population

2. Variations are inherited

2. The best organism will live longer and produce more offspring

2. Populations change as it becomes better adapted to it’s environment

1. Origin of Species

2. After Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Natural

Selection he published his findings in a book called, The

Origin of Species

3. The book was written in 1844, but was not published until 1859

Ostriches and Rheas are in the same super order.

Ostriches, Rheas, and Emus are all in the same class.

Not an Emu,

Ostrich, or

Rheas. This is a

Road Runner

16. 2 Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking.


Identify the conclusions drawn by Hutton & Lyell about Earth’s history

Describe Lamarck’s hypothesis of evolution

Describe Malthus’s view of population growth.

Explain the role of inherited variation in artificial selection.

1. Hutton and Lyell

2. In the 18oo’s most people (including scientists) thought the Earth was only a few thousand years old and hadn’t changed much.

2. Two Geologist, Hutton and Lyell were the first to form hypotheses about the Earth being extremely old and ever changing.

2. After witnessing an earthquake while in South

America, Darwin concluded that Hutton and Lyell were correct.

3. Darwin asked himself, “ If Earth can change, could life change too?”

1. Lamarck

2. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was a French naturalist

2. He was the first to SAY species change

2. Lamarck thought that species changed in 2 ways:

3. Organisms can change by selective use and disuse of body parts. (Don’t use it, you lose it)

3. Acquired traits could be passed on to offspring.


Think about Lamarck and Darwin’s evolutionary ideas:

Which makes more sense and why?

How would you argue against the one the makes the least sense?


2. Evolution does not have a predetermined path, it is completely random.

1. Malthus

2. Thomas Malthus was an English economist.

2. Malthus said that when birth rate in humans exceeds death rate, it will lead to over crowding.

3. This helped Darwin form the mechanism of evolution.

1. Artificial Selection

2. selective breeding of plants or animals for a desired trait

3. ex: farmers select traits in crops and livestock

3. ex: Darwin breed pigeons at his own home