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Drama in Creativity
Week 14 NJ Kang
Definitions of creativity
• makes a new idea or product to match his or her social
context, it can be called “creative.” (Yoon, 2012)
• Cognitive and Artistic Creativity(
Cognitive characteristics
• facilitate people to use their imagination and produce novel
and appropriate ideas.
• Cognitively, creative people are generally good at
metaphorical thinking, have flexibility in decision making,
independence in judgment, logical thinking skills, visualization
and are able to find order in chaos.
Metaphorical thinking
• finding commonality between unrelated or remote things to
make new synthesis or perspective, is one of the most
remarkable things (Mednick, 1962).
• Some of creative people use a ‘homospatial process,’ which
brings ideas together in the same physical or psychological
space to create new metaphors, i. e. synectics (Rothenberg,
Flexibility in decision making
• consider a situation from varied standpoints and produce
diverse reactions.
• Schlicher, Palmer, & Palmer (1993), flexibility in decision
making is a crucial component in creativity.
• make open-ended questions in class than close-ended ones
(Fairweather & Cramon, 2010; Fleith, 2000; Horng et al.; 2005).
People who have more independence in judgment tend to
determine situations by their own criteria and are more likely
to follow their own preferences rather than others’ judgments.
Logical thinking skill
• outstanding. In focusing on issues or assessing various ideas,
people need to have the skill of logical thinking. This skill is
needed to have divergent thinking measures to develop
• visualize imagine things beyond the given context to connect
the topic with their real life.
• To do this, students are asked to visualize their ideas after
reading a book or an article, listening to a song or to make
posters or advertisements about a topic.
Finding order in chaos
• Mackinnon (1978) found that it is one of the interesting
characteristics of creative people.
• Disorder provides more opportunities to make use of flexible
and divergent thinking skills than fixed order to elicit various
• According to Barron (1968), creative people prefer disorder
because they are able to impose their own order in a chaotic
Creative personality
• creative people have a willingness to take risks, intuition and
deep emotion, openness to experience and tolerance for
ambiguity (Sternberg, 1988).
• Most creative people are more willing than others to take
intellectual risks. In some measure, they are brave in that they
express their own ideas, not fearing taunts or criticism
(Mackinnon, 1978).
Creative people prefer to learn
• something in a more intuitive or indirect way. As a way to
improve this part of our personality in students, Starko (2010)
suggested that teachers support students with opportunities
to show their opinions about what may not be explainable.
Openness to experience
• refers to accepting new ideas without rejection or reluctance
in an unfamiliar situation. People of this type are willing to
receive their own inner emotional change as well as any
complicated outer input. With this element, students can find
diverse possibilities or ideas which help them evolved into
new ideas (Starko, 2010).
Higher tolerance for ambiguity
• Creative people can produce creative products or ideas after
looking at many things that are uncertain or confused. This
factor is related to openness to diversity and to taking risks,
which is crucial in making an innovative idea.
• For high school students, however, it is one of the most
difficult elements to develop, because older learners want
more explicit explanation to meet their logically direct
thinking needs. In school, it is recommendable to design
learning tasks that can have multiple answers in class (Starko,
Activities to Foster Creativity
• Bernsteins (1999) found out that being creative means feeling
through intuition and “gut feelings.”
• They identified 13 “thinking tools” to mix and blend
imagination and experience.
• The thinking strategies are as follows: imaging, abstracting,
recognizing patterns, pattern forming, analogizing, body
thinking, empathizing, dimensional thinking, modeling,
playing, transforming and synthesizing.
Convergent and divergent thinking
• Guilford (1976).
• convergent thinking aims for a single, correct answer to a
• divergent thinking requires one to think of many ideas
(fluency), think of varied ideas (flexibility) and unusual ideas
(originality) and to add to their ideas to make them better
To promote divergent thinking
• , teachers can use brainstorming based on Osborn’s (1953)
principle of deferred judgment.
• It has variations of popcorn thinking, brain writing, brain
walking, accumulating brainstorming and reverse
• In this study, the researcher employed brainstorming or
popcorn thinking with famous paintings, a drawing or a
movie in introductory step.
• is another way to promote divergent thinking. It stands for
substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to other uses,
eliminate and rearrange or reverse any idea to extend to
deeper thinking. This can guide students’ thinking or problem
solving more actively than brainstorming, which makes them
wait for the new ideas to emerge. In this research, the
researcher developed lesson plans using combine, substitute,
modify and rearrange techniques.
Attribute listing
• Crawford (1954)
• First students need to identify the important attributes of a
product or situation.
• Then they change each item on the lists one by one through
examining each alternative with other students.
• This can be used in representing story structure or creating
fantasy characters, inventions or products.
• It also was applied to CEWT 6 in changing the personality of
characters and the story in a movie.
Definition of Writing
• Byrne (1988) defines writing as creating a whole unit by
putting literal symbols together consistently.
• Lynch (1996) said that writing is a process of communication
between a writer and a reader, which makes it successful to
do the task, considering the readers.
• Lee (2005) stated that writing is the process of thinking to
express and modifying the idea of the writer, communicating
with the invisible readers or audience in the course.
Three kinds of approaches to teaching
• product-oriented, process-oriented, and an integrated view of writing
• The product-oriented approach; writing is viewed as the writer’s knowledge
about language and copying the right form in a text provided by a teacher
(Ferris & Hedgecock, 1998).
• The process-oriented approach put emphasis on the process in writing:
generating ideas and collecting and organizing data into a unit (Ferris &
Hedgecock, 1998).
• focuses on content, rather than linguistic form (Zamel, 1982; Rames, 1985)
• three steps for this process: pre-writing, writing, and post-writing.
• An integrated view of writing postulates that the aim of writing process is to
consider each writer’s development in writing ability (Celce-Murcia, 2001).
Writers are to be independent to create, modify and revise their own ideas
while completing writing tasks. This approach supports students’ work on
meaningful tasks through extended cycles of planning, drafting and revising.
Cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies
• Tsai (2004)
• Cognitive strategy (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990) includes
psychological operation and material modification in
comprehending and memory-retrieving process.
• Meta-cognitive strategy (Purpura, 1999) is applied in planning,
considering the audience, monitoring and evaluating
• Writers use different strategies in the process of writing.
Previous Researches
• Noh (2006) used English poetry to activate students’ thinking and motivation
in research. Based on good poetry, she developed 13 class activities in
teaching vocabulary, reading and writing that were excelled at showing human
being’s thoughts, emotions and reality in life and were easy to memorize due
to their rhythmical rhymes. Because it generally has good metaphor and visual
images which encourages students’ understanding, poetry can be a good
material to enhance students’ creativity.
• Lee (2011) suggested using English learning and teaching materials to help
improve students’ creativity in communicative language teaching (CLT)
classrooms. She designed the class through using integrated skill activities
with authentic audio-visual aids including movies, advertisements, and
artwork. To develop activities to promote students’ creativity, she suggested
using a variety of authentic communicative materials for pair or group work
about personally familiar topics, considering students' proficiency levels. She
asserted open-ended questions which have no right answers, to make the
learning integrated and meaningful for the students.
Research Questions
• How do the students perceive CEWT tailored to the NEAT
writing section to prepare for the test?
• Does a student’s perception of CEWT have something to do
with that student’s English proficiency or creativity?
• Experimental lessons using CEWT
• Survey
NEAT Writing Question Type 1
• The first type of writing question on the NEAT is to write
about one’s daily life.
• Test-takers are supposed to write about topics closely
related to their daily lives such as their favorite teacher,
places, or movies according to three required prompts
within 60 ~ 80 words for 10 minutes.
• the name of the teacher
• · the description of teacher
• · the reasons why you respect the teacher
NEAT Writing Question Type 2
write an essay on a debatable issue like the advantages or disadvantages of online shopping or
paper books, the pros and cons of college education or the use of cellphones in school.
This type is assumed to be the most difficult one among the 6 NEAT writing question types, which
requires a typical essay form in English writing. Though two reasons for each argument are given as a
form of a phrase, students are required to think about the last reason on their own and organize a
whole paragraph based on those three reasons. This test lasts for 20 minutes and has a limit of 80 to
120 words in time.
1. contact with adults in urgent cases
1. distract from studying
2. use other useful functions
2. cost a lot of money
3. __________________________
3. _____________________
To greet and review
To warm-up introduce the topic
To teach transition words and expr To choose one abstract painting, find features in it
essions for essay
and relate them together in each group of five stud
To help students write the assign ents
ed sentence in their own group
To synthesize and make a title of their own in their
To write a sentence for each student
To connect the sentences with suitable transition w
ords and compose a whole paragraph
Students edit each other’s work
To give feedback and comment on the best work
NEAT Writing Question Type 3
To greet and review
To warm-up introduce the topic
To choose one of the options in the pi To show students sample writing
cture and show a sample work to the s
To present words about feeling
To help students make sentences with
To help students write on their own
“I feel ~.”
Students edit each other’s work
To give feedback and comment on the best work
for NEAT Writing Question Type 4
To greet and review
To warm-up introduce the topic
To show students how to m
ake a present progressive fo
To help students write sente
nces, using present progress
ive form
To make students choose two figures from the pai
To have students make a lining drawing with the s
elected figures and make interaction between the
To help students describe the people and the int
eraction using present progressive form
Students edit each other’s work
NEAT Writing Question Type 5
To greet and review
To warm-up introduce the topic
To teach the form of a letter and r To randomly choose two different pictures drawn by othe
elated words and sentences
To help students write an invitatio rs
n card on their own
To make students imagine about one object inviting the
other object
To make students think about needed information of th
e invitation
To write an invitation letter as an object
Students edit each other’s work
To give feedback and comment on the best work
NEAT Writing Question Type 6
To greet and review
To warm-up introduce the topic
To think of the characters and adapt them
To describe the picture one by one
To make a list of the adapted characters in th
To infer the following last scene i e story
n the picture
To predict what happened with the new charac
To connect the sentences and mak ters in the story
e a whole story
To describe and write a whole story based on t
he characters
Students edit each other’s work
One word drama
A: Good.
B: Good?
A; Good.
B: OK, then.
A: Sorry.
B: Whew---.
A: Sorry.
B: Oh!
A: shut up.
B: why?
A: look.
B: Oh!
A: Gone!
B: Really?
A: Surprise?
B: Oh, no!!!
Is it interesting and exciting?
Physical setting;
Where are they?
Emotional setting:
Who are they?
What relationship?
Are they happy, tired, excited,
sad, angry?
Scripted role- play
A: How about going to the
B: If you like to.
A: You do want to go, don’t
B: Well, you know very well, I
like going to a movie.
• Physical setting
• Emotional setting.
Textbook dialogues
A: Is this your book?
B: yes, it is. Thanks.
A: your welcome.
A: Is this your ball?
B: No.
Scripted role-play (Refering)
A: It’s me.
B: Me who?
A: Who’s talking?
B: Who’s that?
A:Police man!
B: You!
Does this dialogue make sense?
Referring problem?
Open ended.
A: some one.
B: Sanshinryung.
In front of a pond.
A: Ahhhhh Ahhhh.
B: Why are you crying?
A: I’ve lost my ____________.
B: (goes into the pond and comes out holding something he lost on his hands) Is this your ___?
A: Oh, no that isn’t mine.
B: (goes into the pond and comes out holding something he lost on his hands) Is this your ___?
A: Oh, no that isn’t mine.
B: (goes into the pond and comes out holding something he lost on his hands) Is this your ___?
A: Oh, yes, that is my ______.
B: _________________________.
3.3 Open drama activities
Mapped role-plays
• Written mapped role play
• Picture mapped role play.
Written mapped role-play.
1. The beast invited the beauty.
2. The beast introduced his place to the beauty
3 The beauty felt hungry and the beast offered some food and drin
4. The beauty was sleepy and fell a sleep in one the rooms.
5 When the beauty was sleeping alone, a bad witch appeared to th
e beauty and woke her up.
6. The witch forced her to play sports.
7 The witch also threatened to curse her if she did not do as the wi
tch said.
8. What would they do?
Picture mapped role-play
Situational role-plays
Your self in an imaginative situation.
Imaginative roles in an imaginative situation.
Your self in an imaginative situation.
• You are walking on a street. A stranger comes to you and say
whether you can give the person some money.
• What would you do?
Imaginative roles in an imaginative
• You are a city mouse and a country mouse. The city mouse is
invited by the country mouse. The city mouse is offered to
eat something it cannot eat. The city mouse must not eat the
food and the country mouse must make the city mouse eat it.
• What would you do if you were they?
• You are in an isolate island. There is no sign of water. You hav
e no food, no fire. There are pine trees and bamboos in the
woods. Each person should give one suggestion to survive in
the island and to be saved. Suggestions should reflect each o
ne’s professions.
Carpenter, geologist, hunter, cook, mathematic teacher.
Just outside a village in the town of Brobnag, a deep hole appears overnight. A
small child discovers it in the morning and runs to inform the police.
What would people with different kinds of job respond on this situation?
• The child
• The police chief
• The mayor
• A scientist
• An artist
• A practical joker
• A businessman
• A pessimist
• A retired army colonel.
Issue 1: Cinderella Accusation.
Cinderella accused her step mother and two step sisters on
their physical and mental abusing.
Issue 2: Plastic surgery.
You have to think about this issue from different views of
different people.
Positive viewers.
Negative viewers.
Process drama
Every one participate in this drama.
Death of the Former president Noh, Moo Hyun.
What kinds of people would have different views on this sudden death?
Process drama
Read a newspaper article. Choose one event from the news article.
Analyze main event within a few parts.
Identify the main people who are involved in this event
Analyze each character of the event and their perspectives and attitudes
for this event.
• Divide a class into a few groups of people that represent each party of
the event.
Creativity in Drama using Attributing
Read and adapt the story using attributing lists.
Read or watch a story
Analyze the structure of a story
Analyze the physical context
Analyze characters
Change characters’ personalities and appearances
Think of expected outcome of a story due to change of a story
Write a role play script
Edit your story
Have peer editing
Revise your story
Have a performance.
Analyze this one using SCAMPER.
• Use one of the historical moment make a role play
• Use one of a non-human feature and empathize your feelings
toward the feature and make a role play.
Inductive Approaches
• Concept formation: identifying and enumerating data
grouping items into categories.
• Interpretation of data
• Application of principles.
• Watch and think about what are the commonalities of these
• Explain how these three strategies of inductive approaches
• How can you make a commercial for this creative class?
Read chapter 10