Study Guide: Anatomy/Physiology Finals – 2014 Written and BM2

Study Guide: Anatomy/Physiology Finals – 2014
Written and BM2
For the Written Portion (you must write in complete sentences in paragraph
1. What is the purpose of the skeletal system? Write in detail about the parts of
bone (cancellous bone, compact bone, epiphysis, etc). Explain how bone forms.
What constitutes the appendicular skeleton and axial skeleton?
2. Write about 2 types of epithelial tissues. Describe what each one looks like,
where you find it in the body, and what the functions are. Write about 2 types of
connective tissues. Describe what each one looks like, where you find them in the
body, and what their functions are.
3. Write about the 3 types of muscles. Describe what each one looks like, give an
example of each, and if they are voluntary and involuntary. Write the definitions of
voluntary and involuntary.
4. Explain how muscle contracts. Include these terms in your explanation:
actin, myosin, Ca++, Na+, Acetylcholine, Neuron, Synapse, Motor End
Plate or sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum
For finals week:
Chapter 1 – Introduction to Anatomy
1. What are the anatomical planes? How do you describe them?
2. What do these Anatomical Positions mean?
Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior, Distal, Proximal, Medial, Lateral,
Superficial, Deep
3. What are the 4 main tissues called?
Chapter 5 - Tissues
4. In terms of epithelial tissue, what does simple, stratified, cuboidal, squamous,
columnar, transitional, and pseudostratified mean?
5. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue called? Which ones are striated? Which
ones are voluntary? Which ones are involuntary?
6. Give examples of connective tissue.
7. What kind of cells makes up cartilage?
8. Give examples of Nervous Tissue
Chapter 3 - Cells
9. What is the process of cell division called? (not sex cells)
10. What does the mitochondria do?
Chapter 7 – Skeletal System
11. What are the functions of the skeletal system?
12. In terms of the long bone, where are the epiphysis and diaphysis?
13. In terms of the long bone, where does primary ossification start? Where does
secondary ossification start?
14. In terms of the long bone, where is yellow marrow found? Where is red marrow
15. What is hematopoeisis?
16. What does the axial skeleton include? What does the appendicular skeleton
17. Name all the bones and sutures of the skull we have learned.
18. Name all the vertebrae bones and how many there are of each.
19. What are the three types of ribs called, and why are they named that way?
20. What is another name for the collar bone?
21. What are the bones of the Pectoral Girdle?
22. What are the bones of the Pelvic Girdle?
23. What are osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts?
Chapter 8 – Muscular System
24. Know where you can locate the Epimysium, Perimysium, and Endomysium.
25. What are fascicles?
26. What is another name for muscle cell?
27. What is a neuromuscular junction?
28. State the roles of Acetylcholine, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Actin,
and Myosin to muscle contraction.
29. In terms of muscle, what do insertion and origin mean?
30. Know the meanings of anatomical movements:
Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Dorsiflexion, Plantar Flexion, Rotation,
Circumduction, Abduction, Adduction, Pronation, Supination, Eversion,
Inversion, Protraction, Retraction, Elevation, Depression
31. Know the muscles of the head and neck and their functions.
32. Know where these muscles are located and their functions:
Rectus Abdominis, Deltoid, External Oblique, Trapezius
Sartorius, Rectus Femoris, Gastrocnemius, Biceps brachii, Brachioradialis,
Pectoralis Major, Gluteus Maximus, Sartorius
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