# Assistance for Senior Success

```Assistance for
Senior Success
Using the Science Formula Page
And
Calculator Help
The Formula
Chart for
Science



On the science chart,
the meanings of the
letters in the formulas
are given to you.
You must know the
measurement units to
know what numbers
fit to which letter.
The box at the
bottom provides some
help . . . Let’s look.
When you don’t know – look!


Very important
information is here.
Example: Newton
which is the unit of
Force is found by
multiplying kg
(mass) times m/s2
which is the unit for
acceleration.
Example:
What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg
race-car driver while the race car is
accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s?
F 9.8 N
We see kg, but not m/s2, so we have to
calculate acceleration first . .
G 20 N
Acceleration = Vf – Vi
H 201 N
time
A = 44.7 – 0 = 9.9 m/s2
J 894 N
4.5
So F = 90.0kg x 9.9 m/s2 = 893.9 N
Science questions some times give





Match units to formulas on the formula page.
Time should be in seconds in all formulas.
Mass must be in Kilograms for Force,
Momentum, Work and Power.
Work and energy must be in Joules or
Newton-meters.
This can be overwhelming if you try to wait
until the day before to learn them. Try flash
cards with units and what they measure.
A person pushes a large box across a level
floor by applying a horizontal force of 200 N.
If the person pushes the box a distance of 5
XXXXXXXXXXXX
meters in 10
seconds, how much work does
the person do on the box?
In problems with numbers;
A 2000 joules
B 1000 joules
1) find the question word,
C 400 joules
2) look up the formula on
D 100 joules
the formula page,
Work = force x distance
No mention of time!
or 200N x 5 m = 1000 joules
3) Cross out information
you do not need
4) put the numbers in the
CALCULATOR in order.
Let’s look at some related
formulas . . .




The bottom equation
says Speed, but uses v
in the equation.
According to the top
formula, v means
velocity.
Velocity is more
accurate since it is
speed in one direction.
On TAKS these words
are used
interchangeably.
Momentum = mv so . . .
3 Which bike rider has the greatest
momentum?
A A 40 kg person riding at 45 km/h
B A 50 kg person riding at 35 km/h
C A 60 kg person riding at 25 km/h
D A 70 kg person riding at 15 km/h
1800
1750
1500
1050
Just like on the Math test, plug in each answer and see
which one works (it is the largest). . .
Most important . . .
Do not
guess,
look and
calculate!!
What good is the
Periodic Table?
There is a table provided for your
use during the TAKS test, what
What is an element?



Basically, if it is listed anywhere on the
periodic table (of the elements) it is an
element.
If it is on the left side it is a metal
element, if it is on the right side it is a
NONmetal element. (Hydrogen is the
ONLY nonmetal to the left of the
stairstep line.)
Let’s look . . .
Where are the metal elements?
Left of the Stair-step line!
Where are the nonmetals?
To the Right of the stair step line, and Hydrogen!
Where are the metalloids?
Along the stair
step line.
These
elements have
properties of
both metals and
nonmetals.
The center elements on the table are called the
transition metals. Many of them have more than 1 way
they will give away electrons, so they change, or
transition, ion charges. The charge these metals use are
given by a roman numeral in the name. (Iron (II)
chloride)
The Rare Earth Metals are radioactive and
form the bottom 2 rows, also called the
Lanthanide and Actinide Series.
So, I can tell if it’s a metal or
not, what else?




Each column on the table is a group or
family of elements that have similar
chemical properties.
They form the same types of
compounds, in the same ratio.
They have the SAME NUMBER OF
OUTER SHELL (valence) electrons.
Lets look . . .
Group # 18 is the family called Noble
Gases – each one has 8 outer shell
electrons (full shell) so they don’t form
compounds.
Group #1 is called the Alkalai metals,
they have 1 valence electron, and will
form +1 ions. The are Alkalai because
they form the strongest (highest pH)
bases.
Metals and they have 2 valence
electrons, which they will give away to
form +2 ions.
Group #17 are the Halogens, they all have 7
electrons in their valence shell, and want to
have 1 more when they form compounds.
They all become -1 ions when they can.
For each group, they form
compounds the same way, for
example. . .
Beryllium forms a compound with Cl in
the ratio of 1:2 or BeCl2
 Since Mg and Ca are in the same family
or group, they will form the same type
of compounds in the same ratio.
 MgCl2 and CaCl2
 This is what is meant when they have
“similar chemical properties”

Each square also tells us



The 1 or 2 letters that
represent the element
are its symbol.
The number at the
top of the square is
the atomic number.
The numbers at the
bottom of the square
is the average atomic
mass.
What do the numbers
mean?
This is the atomic
11
Na
22.990
sodium
number. It is the number
of protons in a single
atom of this element. By
the way, its also # of
electrons.
The symbol for this element.
This is the atomic mass, it is
the number of protons +
neutrons, or the mass of the
nucleus of an atom.
This is the name of the element.
That may be the difference you need to pass!!
Now, let’s write some
formulas and names
1.
2.
3.
4.
Roll one of each color, the positive
ion is written first.
Use the charge as the subscript to
the opposite ion, but remove the +
or --.
If the ion is a group, DO NOT
CHANGE THE GROUP, put it in ( )
with the number as a subscript
outside.
To name it, write the name of the +
ion, then name the – ion, or if it is
an element, change the ending to –
ide. Don’t forget the Roman
Numeral for transition metals.
Law of Conservation of Mass


Matter can not be
created or destroyed.
This means if it is on
one side of an equation,
it must be on the other,
and there must be the
same number of atoms
of that element.
Thanks for coming
.
.
.
Next week:
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Monday – Math in Room
593
Tuesday – Using formula
charts and calculators with
Test Taking Tips in the
Teaching Theater
Wednesday – Science help
here in Room 150
Objective 5 Review
Quick Physics
and Energy
Energy and Motion



How and why do
things move?
Do planets move the
same way as a ball
that is thrown?
These are the types
of questions physics
Quick physics

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

Speed or Velocity = Distance / Time
Acceleration = Vfinal – Vstart / time to change
Work (joules) = Force (Newton) x distance (meters)
Power (watts) = Work / time
Distance / Time = Speed so
20m / 40s = .5 m/s or . . . .
5

A toy car
moves 20 m
in 40
seconds.
What is the
speed of this
car?
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
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3
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8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Acceleration = Vf – Vi / Change in time so . . .
35m/s – 15m/s / 10 s = 2 m/s/s

An object is
moving at 15
m/s and after
10 seconds
the object is
moving at 35
m/s. What is
the
acceleration
of the object?
5
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
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3
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9
9
9
9
9
A young man is standing in line at
the grocery store holding a 12-pack
of Coke weighing 50 N in his arms
which are 1.5 meters off the
ground. How much work is he
doing?
Work = force x distance
a. 0 Joules
= 50N x 1.5m
b. 6.25 Joules
Or
= 75 Joules _
c. 33.3 Joules
d. 75 Joules

Power = Work/time but nothing here is in Joules
Work = force x distance so . . .
Power = 550N x 5m / 3.5 s = 9625 watts

a.
b.
c.
d.
Lakiesha weighs 550 Newtons
runs to the top of the 5 m tall
staircase in 3.5 seconds. How
much power is Lakiesha
demonstrating?
385 Watts
559 Watts
786 Watts
9625 Watts
Sir Isaac Newton and the
3 Laws of Motion



Considered one of the
foremost physicists,
Described the motion of
all things in a gravity
and friction free system.
For each of the next
slides, write at least 3
examples of each law in
action. . .
Newton’s FIRST Law


Law of Inertia
An object at rest or
in motion remains
that way until acted
upon by an
unbalanced force.
Newton’s SECOND Law


Force = Mass x
Acceleration
The greater the
force on an object
in a single direction
the greater the
acceleration in that
direction will be.
Newton’s THIRD Law



Law of Action/Reaction
For every action force
there is an equal and
opposite reaction
force.
Motion is the result of
unbalanced forces on
the same object.
There are 6 simple
machines

Lever
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1st Class with the
fulcrum in the middle
2nd Class with the
resistance in the middle
3rd Class with the effort
in the middle
To determine the lever
classes three, what is in
the middle spells FRE.
Pulley, Wheel and Axle,
Inclined Plane, Wedge
and Screw
Efficiency, Why Not 100% ?


by the machine
Efficiency is

Actual MA/Ideal MA

Never 100% due to
FRICTION

Almost all energy that is
not converted into work
is converted into heat.
Waves
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Transverse Waves vibrate
90o from the direction of
travel.
All electromagnetic
waves are in this group. 
Visible light and the color
spectrum are all
transverse waves.
Water ripple waves and 
microwaves are also of
this type
Compression Waves
move in the same
direction as their
vibration.
Sound waves, caused by
a disturbance, carried
through a medium are of
this type.
Some types of
earthquakes are also
compression waves.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Shortest
to
Longest
Gamma
X rays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Micro- TV/Radio
Light
Remember: Long – Low – Slow: Long wavelength is a low
frequency and slow velocity.

Which of the following waves would
have the highest pitch and lowest
volume?
A
B
C
D
Speed = frequency x wavelength




travels at the same
speed.
3 x 108 meters/sec
This is the speed of
light through space.
nuclear energy
waves travel at the
same velocity.
Speed = frequency x wavelength so
343 m/s = 512.5 Hz x wavelength

a.
b.
c.
d.
A sound wave is traveling at 343
m/s and has a frequency of
512.5 Hz, what is its
wavelength?
0.67 m
1.5 m
169.5 m
855.5 m
Light Spectrum
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

Visible light is a small
part of the
electromagnetic
spectrum.
Violet is the shortest
wavelength, red the
longest of visible light.
As wavelength
increases, frequency?
Waves move, so there can be
interference . . .



When something is an
interference, it changes
the path of movement.
Constructive means it
energy or amplitude
Destructive cancels or
decreases the wave’s
amplitude
The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier.
Which pattern will be formed after the waves
pass through the opening in the barrier?
After passing through the barrier, it
will spread back out and continue on
the same path.
Ohm’s Law
Voltage = Current x Resistance
Standard American Current –
110V @ 15 or 20 Amps
Power, measured in Watts is
P = VI
Voltage = Current x Resistance
9V = Amperes x 6 ohms or 9V/6ohms =

a.
b.
c.
d.
A 9 V battery is connected to a
6 Ohm resistor. How much
current will flow through the
circuit?
54 Amperes
15 Amperes
3 Amperes
1.5 Amperes

Which of the following electromagnets would
be able to pick up the greatest number of
paperclips if each one was connected to the
same battery?
A
B
C
D
More current from more wraps means a stronger magnet.
What is the rule for charges and magnetic poles?
LIKE REPELS LIKE! Since the N pole is marked, these
must both be south.
N

a.
b.
c.
In the diagram above, which poles of
the magnets are interacting?
A north and a south pole
Two north poles
Two south poles
PASS TAKS Tutorial Week IV
Objective 3
Interactions in the Living World
All living things have a life cycle, and
interact with the non-living world in
cycles...


We are born, develop and grow into adults and
have children and then die. This is our life cycle.
We interact with the world as do all animals.
Water Cycle
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
Precipitation (rain
and snow) fall on
plants and
ground.
Plants respire and
water evaporates
back into clouds.
It condenses in
the clouds back
into a liquid.
The ground filters
the water run-off
into the lakes
where it
Carbon Cycle


Photosynthesis
Glucose C6H12O6 and
oxygen are produced
by plants, taken in
by animals.
Cellular
Respiration
Animals exhale CO2
which is taken in by
plants to make
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Rock Cycle
Man’s Effects on the Environment


Ozone O3 is a protective layer at the top of
the atmosphere.
However, when it occurs near the ground, it is
very harmful to all living things, it is SMOG
Man’s Effects on the Environment


More than 90% of
fresh water is locked
in ice at the polar
caps and in glaciers.
Much of the fresh
water is polluted by
land run-off,
dumping of wastes
and excess heat
pumped directly into
lakes, oceans and
rivers.
Man’s Effects on the Environment
Global warming, also
called the Greenhouse
Effect is caused by
excess burning of
fossil fuels,
destruction of our
oxygen producing
protista in the oceans,
and deforestation on
land. Less plants
means less oxygen
and more CO2.
Biological Organization begins
with cells . . .


Cells which work together form
tissues
Tissues that are layered form
organs
And .. . . .


Organs that work
together form an
ORGAN SYSTEM
Organ systems
work together to
maintain
homeostasis for
the organism
Homeostasis


This is the maintenance of the normal
operating conditions of an organism.
Control of body temperature, pulse
rate, blood pressure, blood sugar,
urine output, digestive absorption,
metabolism rate, growth rate and
hormone levels all need to be
maintained.
What are they referring to?



Biosphere – The entire
area of the planet that
supports life.
Biome – An area
defined by specific
abiotic and biotic
factors.
Community – The
groups of living things
in an area and how
What is extinction and what causes
it?



A population is extinct when the last of that
Example: There are no more dinosaurs.
What happened? Their habitat was destroyed.
When they no longer have what they need to
live, they die.
Ecology – The study of the
relationships among living things


Symbiosis is a close relationship
between two living things.
When both are helped it is called
mutualism

When one is helped and there is no
effect on the other it is called
commensulism

When one is helped and the other is
harmed it is called parasitism
Mutualism . . .
Sharks are cleaned
by a little fish
known as a
Remora. The shark
never eats them
since they clean
bacteria off the
shark. Since both
species are helped,
Commensulism . . .
Orchids live high in
tree-tops on the
branches of large
trees. They do not
harm the tree, but
they are helped by
being raised up into
the sunshine and
receiving water.
Parasites . . .
Parasites harm or
kill the host. A
good example is
a tape worm. It
intercepts all of
the hosts food,
causing the host
to starve to
death.
All energy on the earth comes from the
sun.
Energy Diagrams
At one end of the diagram are plants.
They are called producers since
they are capable of turning sunlight
into food by photosynthesis. They
pass 10% of the energy they
absorb to animals that eat them.
Consumers
1st Order Consumers
eat only plants and
are also called
herbivores.
2nd Order Consumers
eat only animals
and are called
carnivores.
3rd Order Consumers
eat both plants and
animals, they are
10% Energy Rule –
Only 10% of the energy moves
up to the next trophic level.
Omnivore
Carnivores
Herbivores
Producers - Plants
Decomposers
Food Chain – One of many
feeding relationships in a
community



Arrows in a food chain
show the direction of
energy flow.
This is not the only
feeding relationship for
these organisms.
When several or all of the
food relationships are
shown it’s a . . .
Food Web
Food Webs



Food webs attempt to show all the
feeding relationships in a community.
The direction of the arrows shows the
direction of energy flow.
At the bottom of every web and every
chain is a plant. These are the only
things that can turn sunshine into food.
Predator and Prey

Prey are the animals
that are eaten as a
food source for the .
..
Predator This is the
hunter animal. The
population of the
predator must be
Time (months)
less than the prey or
they do not have
enough food.
Population (100s)

Prey
Predator
Population (100s)
Carrying Capacity
Time (months)

P rey
P redat or
This is the maximum number of a specific
population that an area can support with
enough food and living requirements. It is
shown by a line on population graphs for a
specific species.
Also remember to review:


Human Body Systems
Virus and Bacteria



Illnesses,
Transmission methods
Organization of the Biological
Taxonomy
Assistance for
Senior Success
Tutorial
TAKS Science Objective 1
Scientific Method,
Safety and Equipment
Science vs. Technology
Science is a body of
knowledge.
It is knowledge based
upon observations and
experimentation.
Science consists of
information that has been
formed into theories that
become laws after many
years of testing and
verification.
Technology is what science
has been used to build.
Application of science
into products and equipment
that were not possible
without the information
learned is called technology.
Electronics is the science,
computers the technology.
Scientific Theory


After observations and repeated experiments
are completed, and the data analyzed the
results are written into a Theory.
Theories are based upon repeated tests, not
just ideas. They must have significant
evidence.
Scientific Laws


Once a Scientific Theory has been tested and
tried for many years (over 100) and is still
found to be true, it becomes a Scientific LAW.
However, if new evidence or information
causes it to be changed, it becomes a new
Theory again
When answering a question with a
table, diagram or graph. . .
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read the title of the graph, table or diagram.
Read each label, and any measurement units
for the labels.
Look at the data presented to determine if
you see a trend. For example, in a row do
the numbers go up or down? or is there no
pattern? In a column, do the numbers go
up or down?
Carefully look at pictures to determine
changes from one diagram to the next.
Once you have gathered the
information from the diagram. . .

find the question in the
question.


That means look for a
question mark. Use a
highlighter! If none,
Look for a question word
or blank that needs to
be completed.
Let’s try this on a data table . .
.


What
arelooking
we looking
at?
We are
at 4 solutions
 if they conduct electricity,
 what they do to litmus paper, and
 their pH.
Now we know what the table says…

What trends do you see?

What happens to pH and litmus when the
electrical conductivity is VERY HIGH?


When is electrical conductivity LOW?



The pH is 10.0 (litmus blue) or 2.0 (litmus red)
The pH is 6.5 (litmus blue)
Only MODERATE when pH is 5.6 (litmus red)
So, what does the pH and litmus tell you

Strong bases (high pH) and strong acids (low
pH) are better at conducting electricity.
Now look at the question. . .
29 The table shows data from an investigation designed
to find a liquid solution that is both an acid and a strong
electrolyte. Based on the data, a solution that is both an
acid and a strong electrolyte is —
What are we looking for?
A Solution 1
B Solution 2
Acid and strong electrolyte, so, low pH
C Solution 3
and Very High Electrical Conductivity,
D Solution 4
Scientific Method



Observe and propose a
question.
Make a testable
HYPOTHESIS.
Design an experiment




Only one variable is changed
All other conditions must be
held constant.
Collect and Analyze data.
Propose a conclusion based
upon evidence from the
data collected.
Hypothesis
In order to be an hypothesis, it must
be a statement that can be tested in an
experiment.
Often it is “When this happens, then
this will happen” or an “if this, then
this” type of statement.
Only one change can occur, and the
response to that change must be
measurable and/or observable.
55 In an activity, a ball is dropped
from a height of 100 cm onto
five different materials. The
rebound height of each drop is
shown in the graph. Which of
the following describes the
hypothesis most likely being
tested?
A The mass of the ball affects the
rebound height.
B The material the ball is made of
affects the rebound height.
C The height the ball is dropped
from affects the rebound
Read the labels on the graph
height.
or data table, they tell you
D The surface the ball is dropped
what changed (x-axis) and
onto affects the rebound
what was measured (y-axis).
height.
Ask yourself, what was changed for
the experimental group? That should
be in the first part of the hypothesis.
You try!
5 Which of the following is the
most likely hypothesis for the
experiment described Above?
A Vegetation that grows near
than vegetation in other areas.
B De-icing solution causes
for vegetation.
changes the effectiveness of
de-icing solution.
D De-icing solution affects some
types of vegetation that grow
Variables
Independent: This is what is being changed –
Manipulated, Independent on the X-axis – MIX
Dependent: This is what is being measured –
Dependent, Responding on the Y-axis – DRY
Controlled – These are those things that could
change, but by the design of the experiment are
made to stay the same. Examples could be the
temperature or amount of liquid, soil or pot
type, amount of light or dark.
Data Tables



This is an organized
place to record data
collected during an
experiment.
The first column is the
independent (MIX)
variable.
The second column
should be the dependent
variable or what was
measured in response
The farther away, the less
photosynthesis and bubbles!
3 The picture shows an experiment designed to investigate
biochemical activity in a water plant in a dark room. Over
time, bubbles can be easily observed and counted as they
escape from the funnel. The number of bubbles is an
indicator of the rate of photosynthesis. Which of these data
tables best reflects the expected results of this experiment?
Analyzing Data



Look for data
trends.
That means do the
numbers go up or
down in the first
column, and as they
go one direction, is
there a pattern in
the next column.
Are they doing the
same, are they
opposite?
Conclusions


Conclusions must be
based upon the data
collected.
Opinions are not to
be included,
however an
inference based
upon data and
observations may be
included to propose
another type of
experiment.



Conclusions also
should include an
error analysis.
What possible
changes to the
experiment are
needed to improve
results?
Can the experiment
be repeated with the
same outcome?
54 Which conclusion is
best supported by the
information in the
diagram?
F Volcanic eruptions were
common in the area.
G The area was once a
marine environment.
H Organisms in the area
reproduced frequently.
J Consumers once
outnumbered producers
in the area.
1 Which of the following
conclusions is supported
by these data?
related to level of
distraction.
B Shuffling methods can
during the day.
D Long periods of rest






When a question includes a table or graph, read it first,
before the question. Don’t just Look at it READ IT.
What is the Title?
What is being measured or compared?
What units (grams, mLs, minutes, years) are given?
Are the numbers or slope increasing, decreasing?
The graph above compares the acidity of apples stored for 270 days
under different conditions to the acidity of apples that were just
harvested. Some apples were stored at room temperature
(20&deg;C), and other apples were stored at 0.5&deg;C. Some of the
apples were treated with MCP, an anti-spoilage chemical.
According to these data, it can be inferred that —
A apples treated with MCP and kept at a low temperature retain
acidity best
B low temperature prevents any loss of acidity in stored apples
C apples stored at room temperature are unaffected by treatment
with MCP
D high temperature promotes acid production in stored apples
Graphs



Bar – These graphs compare data that it
not linear. Comparing number of several
species in a biome would be a bar graph.
Pie – This circular graph shows percent of
several different parts of the 100%.
Line – Most typically used to show linear
and exponential relationships. X-axis
would be independent, and Y-axis the
measured response.
30 A researcher determined
the percentage of electrical
energy transformed into
different forms of energy
by a toaster. The best way
to communicate these
results is to display the
data using a —
F histogram
G circle graph
H line graph
J box-whisker graph
Accuracy vs. Precision
Accuracy is the
closeness to the
true value of a
measurement. The
smaller the units of
measurement, and
the maintenance of
the equipment
increases accuracy.
It is possible to be
accurate and not
precise.



Precision is the
ability to repeat the
same measurement
and get the same
results.
It is possible to be
precise and not
accurate.
The closer the
repeat
measurements are
to each other, the
Measurement Tools and Units:
What does it measure?
Temperature in oC
Mass in grams
Volume in mL
10. Which of the following pieces of
equipment would be most appropriate
for measuring the volume of a marble
A.
B.
C.
D.
Safety and Equipment
5. The reason for wafting or
fanning a small amount of
The safest way to dilute
chemical vapors toward the nose
concentrated sulfuric acid is
as a means to detect odors in a
.
test tube is to
A. of water to the acid while
A. rid experimental error from
stirring
excessive loss of mass for
B. the acid to water slowly reactants or products.
while stirring constantly
B. avoid splashing chemicals into
C. the acid to a small
the face of any person.
volume of water and then
C. protect the respiratory tract
against potentially harmful
D. dilute sulfuric acid to a vapors.
small volume of the
D. determine the relative
concentrated acid.
strength of the odor before
smelling directly.

PASS Tutorial
Science Measurements
And
Use of the formula page ruler
What is on the
side?




Along the side of the
science chart is a
ruler.
What are Centimeters
the units
of this ruler?
20 Cm
How many
of them
are there?
What are the
smallest
divisions of
Millimeters
units called?
We need to measure . . .



Length in meters, or centimeters, or millimeters.
Volume of a liquid or odd shaped solid, in Liters or
milliliters.
Mass remember is always in grams or Kilograms.
Typical science measurement
question . . .
The pictures above show two organisms.
Measure their body lengths to the nearest
tenth of a centimeter. What is the difference
between the body lengths of the grasshopper
and cricket? Record and bubble in your
But,the
Difference,
that’s
not
thatall,
means
is it? subtract,
It wants
you
right?
to
nearest
tenth
on
use some
Okay,
big –math
little,also
to the
. . .nearest
..
1/10. . .
document.
2.22 cm is just smaller than an inch - Just so you know!!
Do you know how to read the
ruler?
Which of the
following shows
the length of a
rubber strip
measured
precisely to 2.22
centimeters?
In science, precise means repeatable. So, you
should measure each line more than once!!
Pay attention to precision
requested! Again, measure more
than once!!
Now that you measured, use it to
calculate speed! After all the real
reason for math is to DO Science . . .
20 An ant crawled from Point A to Point B in
4.0 seconds. To the nearest tenth, what
was the ant’s speed in centimeters per
second?
You may have noticed . . .

I have not given you
is because the copy
that is placed on the
projector is not the
same ‘size’ as you
have on your
handout. So, our
measurements will
be different.
What4
doThe
you need
picture
to doshows
the
the position
question?
of a ball
every
0.25 second
onbya2,photogram.
Multiply
measured
since we only Using
measured
&frac12; second.
a ruler,
determine the velocity of the ball.
.25 s
F 3.5 cm/s
G 10.5 cm/s
H 14.0 cm/s
J 28.0 cm/s
.25 s
When measuring anything,
make sure you measure
from and to the same
position, front to front or
back to back.
Be sure you measure more than
once . . .



The key on the science test to
measuring problems, is in 9 released
tests, only one question asked for just a
measurement.
In order to answer correctly, you must
measure correctly AND calculated
correctly. Do not stop until you have