Assistance for Senior Success Using the Science Formula Page And Calculator Help The Formula Chart for Science On the science chart, the meanings of the letters in the formulas are given to you. You must know the measurement units to know what numbers fit to which letter. The box at the bottom provides some help . . . Let’s look. When you don’t know – look! Very important information is here. Example: Newton which is the unit of Force is found by multiplying kg (mass) times m/s2 which is the unit for acceleration. Example: What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg race-car driver while the race car is accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s? F 9.8 N We see kg, but not m/s2, so we have to calculate acceleration first . . G 20 N Acceleration = Vf – Vi H 201 N time A = 44.7 – 0 = 9.9 m/s2 J 894 N 4.5 So F = 90.0kg x 9.9 m/s2 = 893.9 N Science questions some times give more information than is needed. Match units to formulas on the formula page. Time should be in seconds in all formulas. Mass must be in Kilograms for Force, Momentum, Work and Power. Work and energy must be in Joules or Newton-meters. This can be overwhelming if you try to wait until the day before to learn them. Try flash cards with units and what they measure. A person pushes a large box across a level floor by applying a horizontal force of 200 N. If the person pushes the box a distance of 5 XXXXXXXXXXXX meters in 10 seconds, how much work does the person do on the box? In problems with numbers; A 2000 joules B 1000 joules 1) find the question word, C 400 joules 2) look up the formula on D 100 joules the formula page, Work = force x distance No mention of time! or 200N x 5 m = 1000 joules 3) Cross out information you do not need 4) put the numbers in the CALCULATOR in order. Let’s look at some related formulas . . . The bottom equation says Speed, but uses v in the equation. According to the top formula, v means velocity. Velocity is more accurate since it is speed in one direction. On TAKS these words are used interchangeably. Momentum = mv so . . . 3 Which bike rider has the greatest momentum? A A 40 kg person riding at 45 km/h B A 50 kg person riding at 35 km/h C A 60 kg person riding at 25 km/h D A 70 kg person riding at 15 km/h 1800 1750 1500 1050 Just like on the Math test, plug in each answer and see which one works (it is the largest). . . Most important . . . Do not guess, look and calculate!! What good is the Periodic Table? There is a table provided for your use during the TAKS test, what can it do to help you? What is an element? Basically, if it is listed anywhere on the periodic table (of the elements) it is an element. If it is on the left side it is a metal element, if it is on the right side it is a NONmetal element. (Hydrogen is the ONLY nonmetal to the left of the stairstep line.) Let’s look . . . Where are the metal elements? Left of the Stair-step line! Where are the nonmetals? To the Right of the stair step line, and Hydrogen! Where are the metalloids? Along the stair step line. These elements have properties of both metals and nonmetals. The center elements on the table are called the transition metals. Many of them have more than 1 way they will give away electrons, so they change, or transition, ion charges. The charge these metals use are given by a roman numeral in the name. (Iron (II) chloride) The Rare Earth Metals are radioactive and form the bottom 2 rows, also called the Lanthanide and Actinide Series. So, I can tell if it’s a metal or not, what else? Each column on the table is a group or family of elements that have similar chemical properties. They form the same types of compounds, in the same ratio. They have the SAME NUMBER OF OUTER SHELL (valence) electrons. Lets look . . . Group # 18 is the family called Noble Gases – each one has 8 outer shell electrons (full shell) so they don’t form compounds. Group #1 is called the Alkalai metals, they have 1 valence electron, and will form +1 ions. The are Alkalai because they form the strongest (highest pH) bases. Metals and they have 2 valence electrons, which they will give away to form +2 ions. Group #17 are the Halogens, they all have 7 electrons in their valence shell, and want to have 1 more when they form compounds. They all become -1 ions when they can. For each group, they form compounds the same way, for example. . . Beryllium forms a compound with Cl in the ratio of 1:2 or BeCl2 Since Mg and Ca are in the same family or group, they will form the same type of compounds in the same ratio. MgCl2 and CaCl2 This is what is meant when they have “similar chemical properties” Each square also tells us information about each element. The 1 or 2 letters that represent the element are its symbol. The number at the top of the square is the atomic number. The numbers at the bottom of the square is the average atomic mass. What do the numbers mean? This is the atomic 11 Na 22.990 sodium number. It is the number of protons in a single atom of this element. By the way, its also # of electrons. The symbol for this element. This is the atomic mass, it is the number of protons + neutrons, or the mass of the nucleus of an atom. This is the name of the element. Use the table, it will help you answer at least 5 questions! That may be the difference you need to pass!! Now, let’s write some formulas and names 1. 2. 3. 4. Roll one of each color, the positive ion is written first. Use the charge as the subscript to the opposite ion, but remove the + or --. If the ion is a group, DO NOT CHANGE THE GROUP, put it in ( ) with the number as a subscript outside. To name it, write the name of the + ion, then name the – ion, or if it is an element, change the ending to – ide. Don’t forget the Roman Numeral for transition metals. Law of Conservation of Mass Matter can not be created or destroyed. This means if it is on one side of an equation, it must be on the other, and there must be the same number of atoms of that element. Thanks for coming . . . Next week: Monday – Math in Room 593 Tuesday – Using formula charts and calculators with Test Taking Tips in the Teaching Theater Wednesday – Science help here in Room 150 Objective 5 Review Quick Physics and Energy Physics is about Energy and Motion How and why do things move? Do planets move the same way as a ball that is thrown? These are the types of questions physics tries to answer. Quick physics Speed or Velocity = Distance / Time Acceleration = Vfinal – Vstart / time to change Work (joules) = Force (Newton) x distance (meters) Power (watts) = Work / time Distance / Time = Speed so 20m / 40s = .5 m/s or . . . . 5 A toy car moves 20 m in 40 seconds. What is the speed of this car? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Acceleration = Vf – Vi / Change in time so . . . 35m/s – 15m/s / 10 s = 2 m/s/s An object is moving at 15 m/s and after 10 seconds the object is moving at 35 m/s. What is the acceleration of the object? 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 A young man is standing in line at the grocery store holding a 12-pack of Coke weighing 50 N in his arms which are 1.5 meters off the ground. How much work is he doing? Work = force x distance a. 0 Joules = 50N x 1.5m b. 6.25 Joules Or = 75 Joules _ c. 33.3 Joules d. 75 Joules Power = Work/time but nothing here is in Joules Work = force x distance so . . . Power = 550N x 5m / 3.5 s = 9625 watts a. b. c. d. Lakiesha weighs 550 Newtons runs to the top of the 5 m tall staircase in 3.5 seconds. How much power is Lakiesha demonstrating? 385 Watts 559 Watts 786 Watts 9625 Watts Sir Isaac Newton and the 3 Laws of Motion Considered one of the foremost physicists, Described the motion of all things in a gravity and friction free system. For each of the next slides, write at least 3 examples of each law in action. . . Newton’s FIRST Law Law of Inertia An object at rest or in motion remains that way until acted upon by an unbalanced force. Newton’s SECOND Law Force = Mass x Acceleration The greater the force on an object in a single direction the greater the acceleration in that direction will be. Newton’s THIRD Law Law of Action/Reaction For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. Motion is the result of unbalanced forces on the same object. There are 6 simple machines Lever 1st Class with the fulcrum in the middle 2nd Class with the resistance in the middle 3rd Class with the effort in the middle To determine the lever classes three, what is in the middle spells FRE. Pulley, Wheel and Axle, Inclined Plane, Wedge and Screw Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency, Why Not 100% ? Mechanical advantage is how much your force is multiplied by the machine Efficiency is Actual MA/Ideal MA Never 100% due to FRICTION Almost all energy that is not converted into work is converted into heat. Waves Transverse Waves vibrate 90o from the direction of travel. All electromagnetic waves are in this group. Visible light and the color spectrum are all transverse waves. Water ripple waves and microwaves are also of this type Compression Waves move in the same direction as their vibration. Sound waves, caused by a disturbance, carried through a medium are of this type. Some types of earthquakes are also compression waves. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Shortest to Longest Gamma X rays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Micro- TV/Radio Radiation Light Light Radiaion waves Waves Remember: Long – Low – Slow: Long wavelength is a low frequency and slow velocity. Which of the following waves would have the highest pitch and lowest volume? A B C D Speed = frequency x wavelength All radiant energy travels at the same speed. 3 x 108 meters/sec This is the speed of light through space. Radio waves and nuclear energy waves travel at the same velocity. Speed = frequency x wavelength so 343 m/s = 512.5 Hz x wavelength a. b. c. d. A sound wave is traveling at 343 m/s and has a frequency of 512.5 Hz, what is its wavelength? 0.67 m 1.5 m 169.5 m 855.5 m Light Spectrum Visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Violet is the shortest wavelength, red the longest of visible light. As wavelength increases, frequency? Answer: Decreases! Waves move, so there can be interference . . . When something is an interference, it changes the path of movement. Constructive means it adds to the wave’s energy or amplitude Destructive cancels or decreases the wave’s amplitude The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier. Which pattern will be formed after the waves pass through the opening in the barrier? After passing through the barrier, it will spread back out and continue on the same path. Ohm’s Law Voltage = Current x Resistance Standard American Current – 110V @ 15 or 20 Amps Power, measured in Watts is P = VI Voltage = Current x Resistance 9V = Amperes x 6 ohms or 9V/6ohms = a. b. c. d. A 9 V battery is connected to a 6 Ohm resistor. How much current will flow through the circuit? 54 Amperes 15 Amperes 3 Amperes 1.5 Amperes Which of the following electromagnets would be able to pick up the greatest number of paperclips if each one was connected to the same battery? A B C D More current from more wraps means a stronger magnet. What is the rule for charges and magnetic poles? LIKE REPELS LIKE! Since the N pole is marked, these must both be south. N a. b. c. In the diagram above, which poles of the magnets are interacting? A north and a south pole Two north poles Two south poles PASS TAKS Tutorial Week IV Objective 3 Interactions in the Living World All living things have a life cycle, and interact with the non-living world in cycles... We are born, develop and grow into adults and have children and then die. This is our life cycle. We interact with the world as do all animals. Water Cycle Precipitation (rain and snow) fall on plants and ground. Plants respire and water evaporates back into clouds. It condenses in the clouds back into a liquid. The ground filters the water run-off into the lakes where it Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis Glucose C6H12O6 and oxygen are produced by plants, taken in by animals. Cellular Respiration Animals exhale CO2 which is taken in by plants to make Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Rock Cycle Man’s Effects on the Environment Ozone O3 is a protective layer at the top of the atmosphere. However, when it occurs near the ground, it is very harmful to all living things, it is SMOG Man’s Effects on the Environment More than 90% of fresh water is locked in ice at the polar caps and in glaciers. Much of the fresh water is polluted by land run-off, dumping of wastes and excess heat pumped directly into lakes, oceans and rivers. Man’s Effects on the Environment Global warming, also called the Greenhouse Effect is caused by excess burning of fossil fuels, destruction of our oxygen producing protista in the oceans, and deforestation on land. Less plants means less oxygen and more CO2. Biological Organization begins with cells . . . Cells which work together form tissues Tissues that are layered form organs And .. . . . Organs that work together form an ORGAN SYSTEM Organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis for the organism Homeostasis This is the maintenance of the normal operating conditions of an organism. Control of body temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, urine output, digestive absorption, metabolism rate, growth rate and hormone levels all need to be maintained. What are they referring to? Biosphere – The entire area of the planet that supports life. Biome – An area defined by specific abiotic and biotic factors. Community – The groups of living things in an area and how What is extinction and what causes it? A population is extinct when the last of that species is dead. Example: There are no more dinosaurs. What happened? Their habitat was destroyed. When they no longer have what they need to live, they die. Ecology – The study of the relationships among living things Symbiosis is a close relationship between two living things. When both are helped it is called mutualism When one is helped and there is no effect on the other it is called commensulism When one is helped and the other is harmed it is called parasitism Mutualism . . . Sharks are cleaned by a little fish known as a Remora. The shark never eats them since they clean bacteria off the shark. Since both species are helped, Commensulism . . . Orchids live high in tree-tops on the branches of large trees. They do not harm the tree, but they are helped by being raised up into the sunshine and receiving water. Parasites . . . Parasites harm or kill the host. A good example is a tape worm. It intercepts all of the hosts food, causing the host to starve to death. All energy on the earth comes from the sun. Energy Diagrams At one end of the diagram are plants. They are called producers since they are capable of turning sunlight into food by photosynthesis. They pass 10% of the energy they absorb to animals that eat them. Consumers 1st Order Consumers eat only plants and are also called herbivores. 2nd Order Consumers eat only animals and are called carnivores. 3rd Order Consumers eat both plants and animals, they are 10% Energy Rule – Only 10% of the energy moves up to the next trophic level. Omnivore Carnivores Herbivores Producers - Plants Decomposers Food Chain – One of many feeding relationships in a community Arrows in a food chain show the direction of energy flow. This is not the only feeding relationship for these organisms. When several or all of the food relationships are shown it’s a . . . Food Web Food Webs Food webs attempt to show all the feeding relationships in a community. The direction of the arrows shows the direction of energy flow. At the bottom of every web and every chain is a plant. These are the only things that can turn sunshine into food. Predator and Prey Prey are the animals that are eaten as a food source for the . .. Predator This is the hunter animal. The population of the predator must be Time (months) less than the prey or they do not have enough food. Population (100s) Prey Predator Population (100s) Carrying Capacity Time (months) P rey P redat or This is the maximum number of a specific population that an area can support with enough food and living requirements. It is shown by a line on population graphs for a specific species. Also remember to review: Human Body Systems Virus and Bacteria Illnesses, Transmission methods Organization of the Biological Taxonomy Assistance for Senior Success Tutorial TAKS Science Objective 1 Scientific Method, Safety and Equipment Science vs. Technology Science is a body of knowledge. It is knowledge based upon observations and experimentation. Science consists of information that has been formed into theories that become laws after many years of testing and verification. Technology is what science has been used to build. Application of science principles and ideas, made into products and equipment that were not possible without the information learned is called technology. Electronics is the science, computers the technology. Scientific Theory After observations and repeated experiments are completed, and the data analyzed the results are written into a Theory. Theories are based upon repeated tests, not just ideas. They must have significant evidence. Scientific Laws Once a Scientific Theory has been tested and tried for many years (over 100) and is still found to be true, it becomes a Scientific LAW. However, if new evidence or information causes it to be changed, it becomes a new Theory again When answering a question with a table, diagram or graph. . . 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the title of the graph, table or diagram. Read each label, and any measurement units for the labels. Look at the data presented to determine if you see a trend. For example, in a row do the numbers go up or down? or is there no pattern? In a column, do the numbers go up or down? Carefully look at pictures to determine changes from one diagram to the next. Once you have gathered the information from the diagram. . . Now you are ready to find the question in the question. That means look for a question mark. Use a highlighter! If none, Look for a question word or blank that needs to be completed. Let’s try this on a data table . . . What arelooking we looking at? We are at 4 solutions if they conduct electricity, what they do to litmus paper, and their pH. Now we know what the table says… What trends do you see? What happens to pH and litmus when the electrical conductivity is VERY HIGH? When is electrical conductivity LOW? The pH is 10.0 (litmus blue) or 2.0 (litmus red) The pH is 6.5 (litmus blue) Only MODERATE when pH is 5.6 (litmus red) So, what does the pH and litmus tell you about the electrical conductivity? Strong bases (high pH) and strong acids (low pH) are better at conducting electricity. Now look at the question. . . 29 The table shows data from an investigation designed to find a liquid solution that is both an acid and a strong electrolyte. Based on the data, a solution that is both an acid and a strong electrolyte is — What are we looking for? A Solution 1 B Solution 2 Acid and strong electrolyte, so, low pH C Solution 3 and Very High Electrical Conductivity, D Solution 4 which we already had identified!!! Scientific Method Observe and propose a question. Make a testable HYPOTHESIS. Design an experiment Only one variable is changed All other conditions must be held constant. Collect and Analyze data. Propose a conclusion based upon evidence from the data collected. Hypothesis In order to be an hypothesis, it must be a statement that can be tested in an experiment. Often it is “When this happens, then this will happen” or an “if this, then this” type of statement. Only one change can occur, and the response to that change must be measurable and/or observable. 55 In an activity, a ball is dropped from a height of 100 cm onto five different materials. The rebound height of each drop is shown in the graph. Which of the following describes the hypothesis most likely being tested? A The mass of the ball affects the rebound height. B The material the ball is made of affects the rebound height. C The height the ball is dropped from affects the rebound Read the labels on the graph height. or data table, they tell you D The surface the ball is dropped what changed (x-axis) and onto affects the rebound what was measured (y-axis). height. Ask yourself, what was changed for the experimental group? That should be in the first part of the hypothesis. You try! 5 Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis for the experiment described Above? A Vegetation that grows near roadways requires more water than vegetation in other areas. B De-icing solution causes roadways to have more space for vegetation. C Vegetation near roadways changes the effectiveness of de-icing solution. D De-icing solution affects some types of vegetation that grow near roadways. Variables Independent: This is what is being changed – Manipulated, Independent on the X-axis – MIX Dependent: This is what is being measured – Dependent, Responding on the Y-axis – DRY Controlled – These are those things that could change, but by the design of the experiment are made to stay the same. Examples could be the temperature or amount of liquid, soil or pot type, amount of light or dark. Data Tables This is an organized place to record data collected during an experiment. The first column is the independent (MIX) variable. The second column should be the dependent variable or what was measured in response The farther away, the less photosynthesis and bubbles! 3 The picture shows an experiment designed to investigate biochemical activity in a water plant in a dark room. Over time, bubbles can be easily observed and counted as they escape from the funnel. The number of bubbles is an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis. Which of these data tables best reflects the expected results of this experiment? Analyzing Data Look for data trends. That means do the numbers go up or down in the first column, and as they go one direction, is there a pattern in the next column. Are they doing the same, are they opposite? Conclusions Conclusions must be based upon the data collected. Opinions are not to be included, however an inference based upon data and observations may be included to propose another type of experiment. Conclusions also should include an error analysis. What possible changes to the experiment are needed to improve results? Can the experiment be repeated with the same outcome? 54 Which conclusion is best supported by the information in the diagram? F Volcanic eruptions were common in the area. G The area was once a marine environment. H Organisms in the area reproduced frequently. J Consumers once outnumbered producers in the area. 1 Which of the following conclusions is supported by these data? A Alertness is directly related to level of distraction. B Shuffling methods can affect alertness. C Alertness levels vary during the day. D Long periods of rest improve alertness. Reading Tables and Graphs When a question includes a table or graph, read it first, before the question. Don’t just Look at it READ IT. What is the Title? What is being measured or compared? What units (grams, mLs, minutes, years) are given? Are the numbers or slope increasing, decreasing? After reading the data, read the question! The graph above compares the acidity of apples stored for 270 days under different conditions to the acidity of apples that were just harvested. Some apples were stored at room temperature (20°C), and other apples were stored at 0.5°C. Some of the apples were treated with MCP, an anti-spoilage chemical. According to these data, it can be inferred that — A apples treated with MCP and kept at a low temperature retain acidity best B low temperature prevents any loss of acidity in stored apples C apples stored at room temperature are unaffected by treatment with MCP D high temperature promotes acid production in stored apples Graphs Bar – These graphs compare data that it not linear. Comparing number of several species in a biome would be a bar graph. Pie – This circular graph shows percent of several different parts of the 100%. Line – Most typically used to show linear and exponential relationships. X-axis would be independent, and Y-axis the measured response. 30 A researcher determined the percentage of electrical energy transformed into different forms of energy by a toaster. The best way to communicate these results is to display the data using a — F histogram G circle graph H line graph J box-whisker graph Accuracy vs. Precision Accuracy is the closeness to the true value of a measurement. The smaller the units of measurement, and the maintenance of the equipment increases accuracy. It is possible to be accurate and not precise. Precision is the ability to repeat the same measurement and get the same results. It is possible to be precise and not accurate. The closer the repeat measurements are to each other, the Measurement Tools and Units: What does it measure? Temperature in oC Mass in grams Volume in mL Your turn! 10. Which of the following pieces of equipment would be most appropriate for measuring the volume of a marble A. B. C. D. Safety and Equipment 5. The reason for wafting or fanning a small amount of The safest way to dilute chemical vapors toward the nose concentrated sulfuric acid is as a means to detect odors in a to add . test tube is to A. of water to the acid while A. rid experimental error from stirring excessive loss of mass for B. the acid to water slowly reactants or products. while stirring constantly B. avoid splashing chemicals into C. the acid to a small the face of any person. volume of water and then C. protect the respiratory tract add more water against potentially harmful D. dilute sulfuric acid to a vapors. small volume of the D. determine the relative concentrated acid. strength of the odor before smelling directly. PASS Tutorial Science Measurements And Use of the formula page ruler What is on the side? Along the side of the science chart is a ruler. What are Centimeters the units of this ruler? 20 Cm How many of them are there? What are the smallest divisions of Millimeters units called? We need to measure . . . Length in meters, or centimeters, or millimeters. Volume of a liquid or odd shaped solid, in Liters or milliliters. Mass remember is always in grams or Kilograms. Typical science measurement question . . . The pictures above show two organisms. Measure their body lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. What is the difference between the body lengths of the grasshopper and cricket? Record and bubble in your But,the Difference, that’s not thatall, means is it? subtract, It wants you right? to answer to nearest tenth on the answer use some Okay, big –math little,also to the . . .nearest .. 1/10. . . document. 2.22 cm is just smaller than an inch - Just so you know!! Do you know how to read the ruler? Which of the following shows the length of a rubber strip measured precisely to 2.22 centimeters? In science, precise means repeatable. So, you should measure each line more than once!! Pay attention to precision requested! Again, measure more than once!! Now that you measured, use it to calculate speed! After all the real reason for math is to DO Science . . . 20 An ant crawled from Point A to Point B in 4.0 seconds. To the nearest tenth, what was the ant’s speed in centimeters per second? You may have noticed . . . I have not given you answers today. That is because the copy that is placed on the projector is not the same ‘size’ as you have on your handout. So, our measurements will be different. What4 doThe you need picture to doshows to answer the the position question? of a ball every 0.25 second onbya2,photogram. Multiply your distance measured since we only Using measured ½ second. a ruler, determine the velocity of the ball. .25 s F 3.5 cm/s G 10.5 cm/s H 14.0 cm/s J 28.0 cm/s .25 s When measuring anything, make sure you measure from and to the same position, front to front or back to back. Be sure you measure more than once . . . The key on the science test to measuring problems, is in 9 released tests, only one question asked for just a measurement. In order to answer correctly, you must measure correctly AND calculated correctly. Do not stop until you have actually answered the question. Do not answer in cm if you want cm/s, calculate using your formula page.