Preparing Leadership for the 21st Century

Five Dysfunctions of a Team
Adapted from Patrick Lencioni
book Five Dysfunctions of a Team.
Leadership Overview
Leadership is…….
Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z., The Leadership
Challenge, pg.20
• an identifiable set of skills and practices that are
available to all of us.
• is a relationship between those who aspire to
lead and those who choose to follow.
Managers vs. Leaders
Covey, Stephen R., The 7 Habits of
Highly Effective People, pg.101
Kotter, John P., Leading Change,
Managers vs. Leaders
• Managers know how to
plan, budget, organize,
staff, control, and
problem solve
• Managers deal mostly
with the status quo
• Management is a bottom
line focus: How can I best
accomplish certain
• Management is doing
things right
• Leaders create and
communicate visions and
• Leaders deal mostly with
• Leadership deals with the
top line: What are the
things I want to
• Leadership is doing the
right things
Six Leadership Styles
Goleman (2000, pgs. 82-83)
Coercive-the leader demands compliance. (“Do what I tell you.”)
Authoritative-the leader mobilizes people toward a vision. (“Come
with me.”)
Affiliative-the leader creates harmony and builds emotional bonds.
(“People come first.”)
Democratic-the leader forges consenus through participation.
(“What do you think?”)
Pacesetting-the leader sets high standards for performance. (“Do as
I do, now.”)
Coaching-the leader develops people for the future. (“Try this.”)
Exemplary Leadership
Model the Way
Inspire a Shared Vision
Challenge the Process
Enable Others to Act
Encourage the Heart
5 Dysfunctions Leaders Face
Taken from “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team “
and “ Overcoming The Five Dysfunctions Of A Team”
by Patrick Lencioni
5 Dysfunctions Leaders Face
The dysfunction
How teams operate with the dysfunction
How teams operate without the dysfunction
Suggestions for overcoming the dysfunction
The role of the leader
The 5 Dysfunctions
Inattention to
Avoidance of
Absence of TRUST
#1—the absence of TRUST
• “It simply makes no
difference how good the
rhetoric is or even how good
the intentions are; if there is
little or no trust, there is no
foundation for permanent
• ~Stephen Covey
What is TRUST?
Think of two people: one that you trust and the other that
you don’t.
In the context of team building, trust is the confidence
among team members that their peers’ intentions are
good, and that there is no reason to be careful around the
Members of teams with an with absence of trust . .
Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another
Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback
Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of
Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitudes of
others without attempting to clarify then
Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills and
Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect
Hold grudges
Dread meetings
Members of trusting teams . . .
Admit weakness and mistakes
Ask for help
Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility
Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving to a
negative conclusion
Take risks in offering feedback and assistance
Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences
Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics
Offer and accept apologies without hesitation
Look forward to meetings and other opportunities to work as a
The Role of the Leader
• Demonstrate Vulnerability
#2—the fear of CONFLICT
• “Much unhappiness has come into the world
because of bewilderment and things left
• ~Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Is conflict ever positive?
What is an example of healthy conflict?
What happens to make it quality?
What doesn’t happen that keeps it good?
Teams that engage in productive conflict
know that the only purpose is to produce the
best possible solution in the shortest period
of time
Teams that fear conflict . . .
1. Have boring meetings
2. Create environments where back-channel
politics and personal attacks thrive
3. Ignore controversial topics that are critical to
team success
4. Fail to tap into all the opinions and
perspectives of team members
5. Waste time and energy with posturing and
interpersonal risk management
Teams that Engage in Conflict . . .
1. Have lively interesting meetings
2. Extract and explore the ideas of all team
3. Solve real problems quickly
4. Minimize politics
5. Put critical topics on the table for discussion
Suggestions for overcoming fear of conflict
• Mining
▫ Extracting buried disagreements within the team
and sheds the light of day on them
• Real Time Permission
▫ Coaching one another not to retreat from healthy
Role of the Leader
• Demonstrate restraint when team members
engage in conflict
• Personally model appropriate conflict behavior
#3—the lack of COMMITMENT
• “Always remember the distinction between
contribution and commitment. Take the matter of bacon
and eggs. The chicken makes a contribution. The pig
makes a commitment.”
• ~John Mack Carter
In the context of a team, commitment is a function
of two things: clarity and buy-in
Enemies of Commitment:
1. The need for consensus
sometimes in the pursuit of unanimity we
seek artificial harmony, and that leads to low
levels of commitment.
2. The fear of failure
• this is the most common reason people do not
commit. They would rather not ever take a
stand on something than risk being “wrong.”
3. Lack of communication
• if someone is not being heard or listened to,
they will not invest in any decisions or goals.
4. Mismatch
a person who is in the wrong position for him
or her will not contain the interest or passion
necessary to achieve high levels of commitment.
A team that fails to commit…
Creates ambiguity among the team about
direction and priorities
Watches windows of opportunity close due to
excessive analysis and unnecessary delay
Breeds lack of confidence and fear of failure
Revisits discussions and decisions again and
Encourages second-guessing among team
A team that commits…
1. Creates clarity around direction and priorities
2. Aligns the entire team around common
3. Develops an ability to learn from mistakes
4. Take advantage of opportunities before
competitors do
5. Move forward without hesitation
6. Change direction without hesitation or guilt
Suggestions for overcoming the lack of commitment
Cascading Messaging
Contingency and Worst-Case scenario Analysis
Low-Risk Exposure Therapy
• Clarity and buy-in are two functions that must
happen every time.
• Consensus—all ideas must be heard and
considered before this can be effective
• Certainty—unity behind decisions yet little
assurance about clarity and buy-in—used when
consensus not possible
• Important—conflict underlies the willingness to
commit without perfect information
Commitment is….
• Clarity around directions and priorities
• Alignment of entire team around common
• Developing an ability to learn from mistakes
• Taking advantage of opportunities before
competitors do
• Moving forward without hesitation
• Changing direction without hesitation or guilt
The Role of the Leader
• Be comfortable with the prospect of making a
decision that ultimately turns out to be wrong
• Constantly push the group for closure around
issues and adherence to schedules the team has
#4—avoidance of ACCOUNTABILITY
• “The secret of discipline is motivation. When a
man is sufficiently motivated, discipline will
take care of itself.”
• ~Sir Alexander Paterson
In the context of teamwork, accountability
refers specifically to the willingness of team
members to call their peers on performance
of behaviors that might hurt the team
Quick Self Check—
see how your team does
•3—usually 2—sometimes
____ We call out one another’s deficiencies or
unproductive behaviors.
____ We are deeply concerned about the
prospect of letting down our peers.
____ We challenge one another about our
plans and approaches.
A team that avoids accountability…
Creates resentment among team members
who have different standards of
2. Encourages mediocrity
3. Misses deadlines and key deliverables
4. Place an undue burden on the team leader
as the sole source of discipline
A team that holds one another accountable …
Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to
2. Identifies potential problems quickly by
questioning one another’s approaches without
3. Establishes respect among team members who
are held to the same high standards
4. Avoids excessive bureaucracy around
performance management and corrective
• Peer Pressure is the most effective and efficient
means of keeping high standards.
• Defined as willingness to call their peers on
performance or behaviors that might hurt the
• Ways to assist: publish goals and standards for
all to see; frequent progress reports; team
Suggestions for overcoming avoidance of accountability
• Team Rewards
• Explicitly communicate goals and standards
of behavior
• Regularly discuss performance versus goals
and standards
The Role of the Leader
• Allow the team to serve as the first and primary
accountability mechanism
• Be willing to serve as the ultimate arbiter of
discipline when the team itself fails
#5—inattention to RESULTS
• “Teamwork is the quintessential contradiction of a
society grounded in individual achievement.”
• ~Marvin Weisbord
“The ultimate dysfunction of a team is
the tendency of members to care
about something other than the
collective goals of the group.”
~Patrick Lencioni
Individual Status—success
of a specific person without
regard to the status of the
team as a larger unit. The
desire for individual credit
erodes the focus on collective
Status—to some people just
being on the team means that
they have met their goals, and
because of this no longer buy
into the goals, vision, and/or
mission of the team
A team that is not focused on results…
Stagnates/fails to grow
Rarely defeats competitors
Loses achievement-oriented employees
Encourages team members to focus on their
own careers and individual goals
5. Is easily distracted
A team that focuses on collective results…
Retains achievement-oriented employees
Minimize individualistic behavior
Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely
Benefits from individuals who subjugate their
own goals/interests for the good of the team
5. Avoids Distractions
Overcoming inattention to …
• Public declaration of results
• Results-based rewards
The Role of the Leader
• Set the tone for a focus on results
• Be selfless and objective, reserve the rewards
and recognition for those who make real
contributions to achievement of group goals
Where we would like to be!
focus on