Fluency PPT

advertisement
What is Fluency?
What is Fluency?
 Speed + Accuracy = Fluency
 Reading quickly and in a meaningful
way (prosody)
 Decoding and comprehending
simultaneously
 Freedom from word identification
problems
 Fluency is derived from the Latin word
fluens which means “to flow”
 Smooth and effortless reading
Indicators of Fluency
 Reading with expression
 Recall/Retelling
 Words per minute
Some Factors that Inhibit
Fluency...
 Unfamiliarity with text
 Limited vocabulary
 Difficulty with syntax
 Decoding breakdown
Questions to Guide Diagnostic
Assessment
Is your student dysfluent because she…
 is slow?





Decodes letter by letter?
Takes too many tries to read the words?
Doesn’t read words automatically?
Doesn’t understand what she is reading?
Is making a speed-accuracy trade off in favor
of accuracy?
Questions to Guide Diagnostic
Assessment
Is your student dysfluent because she…
 is inaccurate?
 Missing phonics skills?
 Lacks phonemic awareness?
 Doesn’t know many high frequency sight
words?
 Doesn’t have the oral vocabulary to match her
decoding attempt to?
 Not using all sources of information in the text
to determine the right pronunciation
 Not monitoring?
Questions to Guide Diagnostic
Assessment
Is your student dysfluent because she…
 lacks prosody?





doesn’t notice punctuation?
lacks syntactic knowledge?
doesn’t notice phrase boundaries?
isn’t paying attention to the meaning?
can’t pay attention to meaning because of
attention to decoding?
Keep in Mind…
 All three areas of reading fluency are
intertwined
 Working on one area will most likely
improve the others
 Attention to a single aspect of fluent
reading such as rate does not preclude
teaching attention to prosody and
meaning.
Improving Prosody
 Reading with
recordings
 Partner reading
 Reader’s Theatre
Partner Reading
 Two students or a student and a tutor are




paired to read the same text aloud
Readers take turns reading
Pair a more capable with a less capable
reader; the more capable reader provides a
model and offers support and feedback
Equally capable readers reread text after
hearing teacher read aloud, or after reading
the passage during instruction
Can also be done as repeated readings
Readers’ Theater
 Choose a pre-written script or adapt your own from a






narrative, expository passage, poem, speech, or other
interesting text that is rich in dialogue.
Make sure the script is at the right reading level for your
students and adapt as needed.
Highlighting tape can be used to identify roles, lessening
the need for writing scripts.
Read aloud the text on which the script is based or the
script to provide modeling.
Discuss characters’ feelings and how they might sound as
they speak.
Practice the script
Perform the play.
What Do I Do for Students Who Do
Not Reach Fluency Targets?
 Determine whether the problem is accuracy or
fluency.
• Look for possible patterns:
o More than 1 error every 10 words indicates a need to look
at accuracy.
o Few errors but low rate - work on fluency.
o Rates less than 30–40 wpm typically indicate a need for
word recognition instruction.
• If students are not firm on word recognition skills,
focusing on increasing speed will be counter
productive.
(Simmons/Kame’enui 1998)
Designing Word Recognition
Instruction
 Identify word recognition error types.
 Provide systematic word recognition instruction on
specific skills.
 Pre-teach word types in the text prior to reading.
 Structure time for student to practice the text with a
peer, adult, or tape.
 High frequency/site words: is, be, to, us, am, in
 High frequency phrases:
• by the dog
• for the day
• on the bed
• over the top
Reading Decodable Text and
Phrases
 The bad cat
 The bad cat sat.
 The mad cat sat.
 The mad cat’s hat
 The sad cat’s black hat
 The black cat’s sad dad
If the Problem is Fluency...
Students who read significantly below
fluency targets will require:
 Fluency instruction and modeling
 Daily fluency practice
Teacher Instruction and
Modeling
 Read aloud
 Think aloud
 Echo reading
 Choral reading
To develop fluency, students need to:
 Develop a high level of accuracy in word
recognition
 Maintain a rate of reading brisk enough to
facilitate comprehension
 Use phrasing and expression so that
oral reading sounds like speech
 Transform deliberate strategies for word
recognition and comprehension into
automatic skills
If it weren’t for students impeding our progress in the
race to the end of the term, we certainly could be
sure of covering all the content.”
However, the question should not be whether we
are covering the content, but whether students
are with us on the journey.” Pat Cross
“Give me a fish while you’re teaching me
how to catch my own. That way I won’t
starve to death while I’m learning to tie
flies.”
The challenge of continuing growth in fluency
becomes even greater after third grade
•4th, 5th, and 6th graders encounter about
10,000 words they have never seen before in
print during a year’s worth of reading
Furthermore, each of these “new” words
occurs only about 10 times in a year’s worth
of reading
Unfortunately, it’s very difficult to correctly
guess the identity of these “new words” just
from the context of the passage
Teaching Reading is Urgent
A student at the 10th
percentile reads
about 60,000 words a
year in 5th grade
A student at the 50th
percentile reads
about 900,000words
a year in 5th grade
Average students
receive about 15
times as much
practice in a year
(Anderson, R. C., 1992)
Closing the gap in middle and high school: the
fundamental challenge
Each year, the demands of text become more
challenging
New words appear for the first time
Sentences become longer and more complex
Correct interpretation requires a broader
range of knowledge
The length of what you are expected to read
increases
How do you “close the gap” when the requirements
for “grade level proficiency” increase every year?
If they are to continue growing in their
ability to fluently read passages at higher
levels of difficulty, children must add
large numbers of words to their “sight
vocabulary” every year.
Thus, its important to have reliable
decoding strategies to improve the
accuracy with which “new” words are
identified when they are first encountered
in text.
What we know about the factors that
affect reading comprehension
Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by:
Accurate and fluent word reading skills
Oral language skills (vocabulary, linguistic comprehension)
Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge
Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to
improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down.
Reasoning and inferential skills
Motivation to understand and interest in task and
materials
Word reading fluency and accuracy
X
Knowledge and Strategies for Linguistic
comprehension
X
Motivation and interest
=
Reading Comprehension
The problems of our poorest readers:
1. Cannot decode novel words accurately because they
are weak in phonics skills, and cannot read fluently
because their “sight vocabulary” is restricted.
2. They frequently have relatively weak vocabularies
because they have not been able to read widely during
previous school years- broad knowledge deficits
3. They have not practiced comprehension strategies
because of limited reading experience, and because
of their struggle with words
4. They frequently have given up on the idea of ever
becoming a good reader
The problems of mid level readers (grades 4-6)
Can usually “sound out” short novel words with reasonable
accuracy--frequently stumble on multi-syllable words
They are relatively non fluent readers because they have
not had enough reading practice
Vocabulary is frequently relatively low because of lack of
broad and deep reading-other knowledge deficits as well
Comprehension strategies are usually inadequate
because of lack of instruction and practice
They often say they “don’t like to read” because reading is
still relatively difficult for them
Because reading in middle and high
school is “thinking guided by print,”
helping students meet grade level
standards in reading is a job for all
teachers, not just “reading teachers.”
It’s at least as much about building
content knowledge, vocabulary, and
thinking skills as it is about helping
struggling readers learn to read
accurately and fluently
Building Reading Fluency
 Model fluent reading, then have students
reread the text on their own.
 Provide guided, oral, repeated reading
practice.
 student-adult reading (parent, tutor,
paraeducator)
 partner reading (small group, class-wide)
 tape-assisted reading
 computer-assisted
 reader’s theater
Osborn & Lehr, 2003
Guided, Oral, Repeated
Reading
 Guided
 benefits from feedback
 feedback from peers or adults
 Oral
 student engagement
 Repeated
• three or more repetitions or to specified
criterion
• motivating activity
Repeated Reading: StudentAdult
 Significantly increases reading rate,
accuracy, and comprehension
 Works with older students as well as
elementary children
 Fosters fluent word recognition through
multiple exposures to words
Repeated Reading: Partner
Reading
Before using partner reading for repeated
reading, do the following:
1. Designate reading partners.
2. Select appropriate reading materials.
3. Assemble materials.
4. Implement the program.
Step 1:
Designate Partners
a. Rank order students according to results
of survey-level assessment.
b. Split the list in half to form pairs.
c. Pair top-ranked reader of the higherperforming half with top-ranked reader of
the lower-performing half; do the same
for the two students who are second on
each list and so on until all students are
paired.
Step 2:
Select Reading Materials
a. Identify materials appropriate for the
lower reader’s instructional reading level
(90%-94% accuracy).
b. Have both partners read the same
passage from the same material.
c. Have enough materials selected for two
new passages per week.
Step 3:
Assemble Materials
 What Teachers Need
 timing device
 list of partner pairings
 description of partner roles
 What Students Need
 reading partner
 reading material
 folder
Step 4:
Implement Partner Reading
 The stronger reader reads aloud; this
models fluent reading.
 The less fluent reader reads aloud the
SAME text for the same length of time.
 After both partners have read, one partner
asks the other to:
 identify the sequence of the key ideas.
 tell the main idea.
Tape-Assisted Reading
 Purpose: To give students support and a
sense of the proper phrasing and speed of
fluent reading.
 The student:
 listens to text read at 80-100 wpm by a fluent
reader and follows along by pointing to the
text.
 reads aloud in sync with tape subvocalizing
the words.
 reads same text independently following
Reader’s Theater
 Use of scripts (plays, poetry, expository
text)
 No costumes, props, or scenery
 Multiple opportunities for meaningful
practice
Reader’s Theater Weekly
Activities
 Select or write a script (see Resources)
 Monday: Introduce activity; assign parts.
 Tuesday-Thursday: Have students
practice.
 Friday: Have students perform.
Rasinski, 2003
Guided, Oral, Repeated
Reading
Two essential features:

Opportunities for Practice
 Guidance and Feedback
Monitoring Fluency
Progress
Graphing Fluency Progress
Making Instructional Decisions
Determining WCPM
Graphing Fluency Progress
 Adult Monitoring (teacher, paraeducator,
tutor)
 Student Self-Monitoring
As part of a repeated reading program, the
student may record the wcpm of their first
“cold” reading on a graph.
On each subsequent reading, the student
records the increase in fluency.
© 2004, Pearson Education, Inc.
Quick Reads
Download