REVOLUTIONS IN SCIENCE AND POLITICS 1600-1715 CHAPTER 15 Theories of the Universe • Geocentricism – Earth is center of the universe – Supported by Aristotelian deductive logic – Expounded upon by Ptolemy (Egypt) • Heliocentrism – The sun is the center of our solar system. – Promoted by Nicolas Copernicus (Poland), but not published until near death. – Tycho Brahe (Denmark) in part supported Copernican system, but had a stationary earth. • Johannes Kepler (Germany) inherited Brahe’s data, mathematically proposed 3 planetary laws: – Planets move in ellipses, not circles – The closer to the sun, the faster a planetary body moves in orbit; the farther moves slower – The solar system is regular and organized by mathematical relationships – “Inter Jovem et Martem planetum interposui.” Between Jupiter and Mars a planet I will place. • Galileo Galilei (Italy) postulated or discovered – The universe was larger than Ptolemy guessed – Jupiter has moons – Earliest law of inertia (a mass remains in motion until a force stops it) – The Earth moves • Sir Isaac Newton (England) is know for law of gravity, calculus, and three laws of motion: – A mass in motion remains in motion until acted upon by an outside force (and corollary) – F=ma – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. INDUCTIVE LOGIC • Based upon the collection of data through observation • Reasons from the specific (data) to the general (a conclusion) • Basis of Western thought (empiricism) and the scientific method Scientific Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State problem Review literature Formulate hypothesis Collect data Analyze data Draw conclusions Chemistry and Medicine • Alchemy, while looking at the elements, concentrated on – Transmuting metals into gold or silver – Discovery of a panacea (elixir of life) – Discovery of a universal solvent • Chemistry, particularly inorganic chemistry, would evolve from alchemy, with Englishman Robert Boyle leading the way. Known for Boyle’s Law of Gases: – There exists an inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. • Andreas Versalius (Italy) researched the circulation of the blood in the body, refuting Galen and Aristotle • William Harvey (England/Italy) proved a constant quantity of blood continuously circulated throughout the body [no ebb & flow] • Marcello Malpighi discovered the capillaries Philosophy • Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) – Advocated inductive reasoning – “Knowledge is Power” • René Descartes(1596-1650) – Mathematician, provided foundation for analytic geometry – Wrote Discourse on Method his 4 step approach to knowledge (problem solving) 1. 2. 3. 4. Accept nothing as true unless self-evident Split problems into manageable parts Start with the simplest and move to the more complex Review & re-examine solutions – Practiced skepticism (questioned everything) and deductive reasoning – Pushed a dualistic theory of knowledge (the realm of the body—physical--and the realm of the mind) • Mind and body only interact through the intervention of God • “ Cogito ergo sum” [I think, therefore I am.] • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) mathematician and Jansenist – Human beings can’t know the natural world NOR themselves. Only limited knowledge. – Pascal’s wager Political Thought NATURAL LAW • Hugo Grotius maintained “natural law” should govern relations between states. • Natural law was founded in human reason, applied to all, and was unchanging. • The “Golden Rule” applied to states. DIVINE RIGHT • Bishop Bouisset defended theory kings rule by divine right • Divine right monarch had power to intervene in subjects lives as ordained by God, not reason ABSOLUTISM • Thomas Hobbes believed everything could be explained using mechanistic, natural laws. • Wrote Leviathan, setting forth a theory of government based on idea that Humans are driven by 2 forces: fear of death, and quest for power. • Advocated a Social Contract between ruler and subjects, in which they surrender absolute power to the ruler LIBERALISM • Promulgated by John Locke • Believed human nature was naturally good, and humans could govern selves. • Ideal System: a government limited by laws, subject to will of citizens, existing to protect life and property • Believed humans possess reason • If rulers break agreement, revolt is justified • Locke believed the newborn was a tabula rasa, rather than Descartes’ progammed individual. Responses to New Thought • Virtuosos appeared, dabbling in the latest science • Bernard de Fontenelle wrote Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, a dialogue between himself and a countess, explaining science [shades of Castglione] • Pierre Bayle authored the Historical and Critical Dictionary, a combo encyclopedia and dictionary, remarkable because it paid for itself, and proved there was a literate public.