Cold War – Pt 2 • Content Standard – 5.3 – Cite specific textural and visual evidence to analyze the series of events and long term foreign and domestic consequences of the US military involvement in Vietnam, including the Domino Theory, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the Tet Offensive, Presidential Election of 1968, University Student Protest, TV Coverage, War Powers Act and the 26th Amendment. The Domino Theory was that if North Vietnam won the war then Cambodia, Laos, and the rest of Asia will turn communist. America and South Vietnam did not want to be communist and let it spread throughout Asia. U.S. Military Involvement Begins Kennedy elected 1960 Increases military “advisors” to 16,000 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2) Kennedy was assassinated just weeks later (Nov. 22) Johnson Sends Ground Forces Tonkin Gulf Resolution “The Blank Check” * was a joint resolution which the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in response to a sea battle between the North Vietnamese Navy's Torpedo Squadron 135 and the destroyer USS Maddox Who Is the Enemy? Vietcong: Farmers by day; guerillas at night. Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness. The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win. -- Mao Zedong Anti-War Demonstrations May 4, 1970 4 students shot dead. 11 students wounded Jackson State University May 10, 1970 Kent State University 2 dead; 12 wounded The Tet Offensive, January 1968 N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon) Take every major southern city Viet Cong destroyed N. Vietnamese army debilitated BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat by the media Nixon on Vietnam Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor Appealed to the great “Silent Majority” Vietnamization Expansion of the conflict The “Secret War” Cambodia Laos Agent Orange (chemical defoliant) The Ceasefire, 1973 Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAs Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City Impact of the War • War Powers Act – Congress takes back some of the presidents power to engage in military conflict without their consent – Response to Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • 26th Amendment – Makes it legal for 18 yr olds to vote. If you can die for your country you should be able to vote. • Media Coverage – Changes Americans view of War – They can see it everyday! Thawing the Cold War • China – Nixon makes first trip to China and opens communications for the first time in 25 years. •Détente – Brezhnev invites Nixon to visit Moscow and begins thawing out of relations – carries over into the 80’s. •SALT I •Gorbachev – Peristrokia and Glasnost Fall of the Soviet Union • Broke – USSR can’t keep up with the spending rate of the US and maintain control of their satellite countries. – Reagan – “Tear Down this Wall” speech (Berlin) – East Germans escape (West takes them in) – Poland – Solidarity Campaign – 1991 – Boris Yelstin leads revolution in Moscow and Communism falls apart. • US and NATO – left to pick up pieces of these countries trying to get back on their feet. • US no longer has an enemy!