THEA Objective #4 Idea Relationships or Author’s Writing Patterns Writing patterns Definition- the way the author organizes his or her information. 6 types of questions (skills) • • • • • • Sequence Pattern List pattern Compare-Contrast Pattern Cause – Effect Pattern Definition / example pattern Drawing Conclusions • Sequence (time) Pattern- The ideas presented by the author must be in order. • List (addition) Pattern -In this pattern, the author organizes his/her information by making a list. This list need not be in any order. • Definition/Example (illustration ) Pattern -In this pattern, the author defines a particular term, idea, or concept then follows it with examples. • Cause – Effect Pattern -The author explains the reason why something happened or the results of something. (the cause happens first!) • Compare-Contrast Pattern -This pattern shows how two things are alike (compare) and how they are different (contrast), or both. Key Words that help »Red Book (pg. 252) List Pattern • Additional Key Words: – – – – – – characteristics elements features types ways the author may also use letters (a, b, c) or bullets to list information Cause/Effect Pattern Cause Why? Reason Explanation Effect results consequences affects Compare-Contrast Pattern • Comparison: how 2 things are alike • Contrast: how they are different 1Psychologists use several theories to explain different sides of human behavior. 2Best-known is the psychoanalytic theory, which holds that people are driven largely by needs and desires that they are not aware of—the so-called “subconscious” mind. 3Another theory, behaviorism, suggests that people’s actions are based largely on past experiences of reward and punishment. 4We do things that brought us pleasant results in the past and avoid things that brought unpleasant results. 5Yet another theory, “gestalt” psychology, emphasizes the role of overall patterns in our thinking. 6For example, we find it much easier to remember a tune than a series of unconnected musical notes. 1The mere exposure effect—the tendency to like someone better simply because of frequent exposure to him or her—has been observed in studies. 2In one study, college students were shown pictures of faces. 3Some of the faces were shown as many as twenty-five times, others only once or twice. 4Afterward, subjects indicated how much they liked each face and how much they thought they would like the person pictured. 5The more often the subjects had seen a face, the more they said they liked it and thought they would like the person. 6The same result has been found for repeated exposure to actual people. 7In a recent study, researchers enlisted the aid of four college women who served as confederates in an experiment. 8A pretest showed that all women were rated as equally attractive. 9In the study, each woman attended a large lecture class in social psychology, posing as a student in the course. 10Each woman attended a different number of class sessions—once, five times, ten times, or fifteen times during the term. 11At the end of the term, students in the class were asked to rate each woman, based on a casual photo shown as a slide. 12The more often students had seen a woman, the more they thought they would like her. 1One reason tabloids publish untrue stories about celebrities, even though they know the celebrities might sue, is free advertising. 2If there is a lawsuit, it will make the news, and the tabloid gains the publicity. 3Furthermore, in a lawsuit the burden of proof is on the celebrity, not the paper. 4Also, such lawsuits are both expensive and time-consuming. 5A court delay, for example, can prevent a movie star from beginning work on a new project. 6And the chances of collecting a significant amount of damages are slim. 7Finally, tabloids publish untrue stories for the obvious reason: whether it is true or not, people love celebrity gossip—and it sells papers. 1Identical twins such as Jack Yufe and Oskar Stohr share the same genes. 2They were separated at six months of age, when their parents divorced. 3Yufe was raised as a Jew, joined an Israeli kibbutz in his youth, and served in the Israeli navy. 4Stohr was brought up as a Catholic and later became involved in the Hitler youth movement. 5Despite the differences in their backgrounds, when they first met at the airport, both sported mustaches and two-pocket shirts, and each carried a pair of wire-rimmed glasses with him. 6Both read magazines from back to front. 7Both excel at sports and have difficulty with math. 8And both have similar personality profiles as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Many students find it difficult to make the transition from high school to college. In high school, teachers often treat students like children. For instance, teachers may require homework to be done in a certain color ink, or they may call parents when children misbehave. On the other hand, college teachers treat students as adults. No one other than the students themselves is expected to take responsibility for learning. Also, adjusting to greater independence can be a challenge for many college freshmen. Students in high school usually live at home. In college, however, many students live on their own and have no one to answer to or depend on but themselves. Events leading to alcohol abuse in the United States took place in the 18th century. At that time, developments in agriculture had caused a surplus of grain. Farmers in the Midwest wanted to sell their surplus grain on the East Coast, which was more heavily populated. The cheapest way to do this was to transport the grain in the form of whiskey. As a result, whiskey production rose. And the increase in whiskey led to an increase in its use. Before long, alcohol consumption in the country rose to alarming proportions. About 5% of all babies born alive, or 175,000 babies per year, have a significant defect. Such birth defects account for about 15% of deaths among newborns. Recall from the genetics chapters that birth defects may be caused by genetic as well a environmental factors, or by a combination of the two. According to the selection, which of the following is a result of birth defects? a. Fifteen percent of newborns die b. Five percent of babies born alive have significant birth defects c. Poor social development results. Skill #4, continued Drawing Conclusions Making Inferences Making inferences or Drawing Conclusions • discovering ideas in writing that are not stated directly. • Use hints and clues from the passage to “read between the lines” Always make sure to underline the hint or clue that gave you your answer. If you have nothing to underline, your answer is wrong! All answers must be based on what was in the passage!! Based on what you read, what do you know is true? Among the heroes of history are animals. One was a canary named Bibs. Bibs was the pet of an elderly woman, Tess, who lived alone. Tess’s niece lived nearby. One day the niece heard a tapping at her window and discovered Bibs. The niece quickly went to her aunt’s house and found Tess had struck her head on something and fallen over. Bibs died after alerting the niece. What do you know is true? A. Bibs knew where the niece lived. B. Bibs was always kept in a cage. C. Bibs was never caged.