Pattern - Adalia Reyna

THEA Objective #4
Idea Relationships
Author’s Writing
Writing patterns
Definition- the way the author
organizes his or her information.
6 types of questions (skills)
Sequence Pattern
List pattern
Compare-Contrast Pattern
Cause – Effect Pattern
Definition / example pattern
Drawing Conclusions
• Sequence (time) Pattern- The ideas presented
by the author must be in order.
• List (addition) Pattern -In this pattern, the author
organizes his/her information by making a list.
This list need not be in any order.
• Definition/Example (illustration ) Pattern -In this
pattern, the author defines a particular term, idea,
or concept then follows it with examples.
• Cause – Effect Pattern -The author explains the
reason why something happened or the results of
something. (the cause happens first!)
• Compare-Contrast Pattern -This pattern shows
how two things are alike (compare) and how they
are different (contrast), or both.
Key Words that help
»Red Book (pg. 252)
List Pattern
• Additional Key Words:
the author may also use letters (a, b, c)
or bullets to list information
Cause/Effect Pattern
• Comparison: how 2 things are alike
• Contrast: how they are different
use several theories to explain
different sides of human behavior. 2Best-known is the
psychoanalytic theory, which holds that people are
driven largely by needs and desires that they are not
aware of—the so-called “subconscious” mind. 3Another
theory, behaviorism, suggests that people’s actions are
based largely on past experiences of reward and
punishment. 4We do things that brought us pleasant
results in the past and avoid things that brought
unpleasant results. 5Yet another theory, “gestalt”
psychology, emphasizes the role of overall patterns in
our thinking. 6For example, we find it much easier to
remember a tune than a series of unconnected musical
mere exposure effect—the tendency to like someone better simply
because of frequent exposure to him or her—has been observed in
studies. 2In one study, college students were shown pictures of faces.
3Some of the faces were shown as many as twenty-five times, others only
once or twice. 4Afterward, subjects indicated how much they liked each
face and how much they thought they would like the person pictured.
5The more often the subjects had seen a face, the more they said they
liked it and thought they would like the person. 6The same result has
been found for repeated exposure to actual people. 7In a recent study,
researchers enlisted the aid of four college women who served as
confederates in an experiment. 8A pretest showed that all women were
rated as equally attractive. 9In the study, each woman attended a large
lecture class in social psychology, posing as a student in the course.
10Each woman attended a different number of class sessions—once, five
times, ten times, or fifteen times during the term. 11At the end of the
term, students in the class were asked to rate each woman, based on a
casual photo shown as a slide. 12The more often students had seen a
woman, the more they thought they would like her.
reason tabloids publish untrue stories about
celebrities, even though they know the celebrities might
sue, is free advertising. 2If there is a lawsuit, it will make
the news, and the tabloid gains the publicity.
3Furthermore, in a lawsuit the burden of proof is on the
celebrity, not the paper. 4Also, such lawsuits are both
expensive and time-consuming. 5A court delay, for
example, can prevent a movie star from beginning work on
a new project. 6And the chances of collecting a significant
amount of damages are slim. 7Finally, tabloids publish
untrue stories for the obvious reason: whether it is true
or not, people love celebrity gossip—and it sells papers.
twins such as Jack Yufe and Oskar Stohr
share the same genes. 2They were separated at six
months of age, when their parents divorced. 3Yufe was
raised as a Jew, joined an Israeli kibbutz in his youth,
and served in the Israeli navy. 4Stohr was brought up
as a Catholic and later became involved in the Hitler
youth movement. 5Despite the differences in their
backgrounds, when they first met at the airport, both
sported mustaches and two-pocket shirts, and each
carried a pair of wire-rimmed glasses with him. 6Both
read magazines from back to front. 7Both excel at
sports and have difficulty with math. 8And both have
similar personality profiles as measured by the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
Many students find it difficult to make the transition from high
school to college. In high school, teachers often treat students
like children. For instance, teachers may require homework to
be done in a certain color ink, or they may call parents when
children misbehave. On the other hand, college teachers treat
students as adults. No one other than the students themselves is
expected to take responsibility for learning. Also, adjusting to
greater independence can be a challenge for many college
freshmen. Students in high school usually live at home. In
college, however, many students live on their own and have no
one to answer to or depend on but themselves.
Events leading to alcohol abuse in the United States
took place in the 18th century. At that time,
developments in agriculture had caused a surplus of
grain. Farmers in the Midwest wanted to sell their
surplus grain on the East Coast, which was more
heavily populated. The cheapest way to do this was
to transport the grain in the form of whiskey. As a
result, whiskey production rose. And the increase in
whiskey led to an increase in its use. Before long,
alcohol consumption in the country rose to alarming
About 5% of all babies born alive, or 175,000 babies
per year, have a significant defect. Such birth defects
account for about 15% of deaths among newborns.
Recall from the genetics chapters that birth defects may
be caused by genetic as well a environmental factors, or
by a combination of the two.
According to the selection, which of the following is a
result of birth defects?
a. Fifteen percent of newborns die
b. Five percent of babies born alive have significant birth
c. Poor social development results.
Skill #4, continued
Drawing Conclusions
Making Inferences
Making inferences or
Drawing Conclusions
• discovering ideas in writing that are
not stated directly.
• Use hints and clues from the passage
to “read between the lines”
Always make sure to underline the hint
or clue that gave you your answer.
If you have nothing to underline, your
answer is wrong!
All answers must be based on what was
in the passage!!
Based on what you read, what do
you know is true?
Among the heroes of history are animals. One was a
canary named Bibs. Bibs was the pet of an elderly
woman, Tess, who lived alone. Tess’s niece lived
nearby. One day the niece heard a tapping at her
window and discovered Bibs. The niece quickly
went to her aunt’s house and found Tess had
struck her head on something and fallen over.
Bibs died after alerting the niece.
What do you know is true?
A. Bibs knew where the niece lived.
B. Bibs was always kept in a cage.
C. Bibs was never caged.