Find Someone Who………… Goal = get as many signatures as possible! (1 person can only sign up to 2 times on your sheet) What do you know?? Write a definition of anatomy and physiology (two separate definitions). Objectives: Lesson 1 • TSWBAT define anatomy and physiology and sub-divisions. • TSWBAT evaluate how anatomy and physiology are closely related. Overview of Anatomy Anatomy is…………. • the study of the structure and shape of the body • Includes both internal and external structures of the body Andreas Vesalius- Father of Human Anatomy 1514-1564 A Belgian physician, Andreas Vesalius, was the first to dissect human bodies to study anatomy. He wrote a book on human anatomy in 1538. This book was the first accurate description of the interior of the human body. 2 Main Divisions of Anatomy I. Gross Anatomy Concerned with those structures in the body large enough to be seen with the naked eye. II. Microscopic Anatomy A microscope or magnifying instrument is used to see very small structures in the body. Forms of Gross Anatomy • Surface – the study of general form and superficial markings • Regional – focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk) • Systematic – study of the structure of organ systems (skeletal system) • Developmental – describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity • Clinical – subspecialties in clinical practice (surgical anatomy) Forms of Microscopic Anatomy: Cytology – study of the cell (simplest units of life) Histology – study of tissues Physiology Physiology - the study of the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level. Physio = nature Ology = the study of Sub-groups of Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems. Cardiovascular physiology is the study of? Neurophysiology is the study of? Renal physiology is the study of? Respiratory physiology is the study of? Pathophysiology is the study of? Exercise physiology is the study of? Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology are always related All specific functions are performed by specific structures. Structure therefore, determines function Real world application – doctor visit • Physicians normally use a combination of anatomical, physiological, chemical, and psychological information when they evaluate a patient • When a patient presents symptoms; the physician will look at the structures affected (Gross anatomy) • Collect a fluid or tissue sample (Microscopic anatomy) • Evaluates your physiological processes by asking questions Anatomy and Physiology Relationship An anatomist and a physiologist are asked to examine a car and report their findings. What would an anatomist do? What would a physiologist do? With your seat partner…… Describe how anatomy and physiology are closely related? How are they different? Use an example of an electronic device in your rationale. Introduction to Anatomy – Lesson 2 TSWBAT list the levels of structural organization. Levels of Structural Organization • Chemical (or molecular level) • Cellular • Tissue • Organ • Organ System • Organism Levels of Structural Organization 1. Chemical – Atoms (smallest stable units of matter) combined to form molecules (complex shapes of two or more atoms). 2. Cellular – Molecules interact to form organelles. Organelles are components of cells (smallest living units in the body). Example – cardiac muscle cells 3. Tissue – Groups of similar cells that have a common function. (example – cardiac muscle tissue) Levels of Structural Organization 4. Organ – A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body (example – heart: cardiac muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissue). 5. Organ System – A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose (example – cardiovascular system; heart, blood, blood vessels). Levels of Structural Organization 6. Organism – Made up of the organ systems. Highest level of structural organization (example – human). Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cell Molecules 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules Heart Cardiovascular system Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues Blood vessels Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Figure 1.1 1. Two or more atoms join together to form what organizational structures? 2. Which levels of structural organization are you unable to see with your naked eye? 3.Which level of structural organization is composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function? 4. How are anatomy and physiology different? Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 3 TSWBAT to identify the 11 Organ Systems of the Body systems define the functions and components of each system. Organ Systems of the Body - Skeletal Protects body organs/tissues Provides the framework for muscles Produces blood cells Stores minerals (calcium) Composed of: bones, cartilage and ligaments Organ Systems of the Body – Nervous Detects changes Stimulates muscles and glands Receives and interprets sensory information Composed of: the brain, spinal cord, sense organs and nerves Organ Systems of the Body - Lymphatic Return tissue fluid to the blood Carries certain absorbed food molecules Defends against infection and diseases Composed of: thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Organ Systems of the Body - Muscular Provides movement Maintains posture Produces heat Composed of: muscles and tendons Organ Systems of the Body- Integumentary Protects tissues Helps regulate body temperature Provides sensory information Composed of: the skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails Organ Systems of the Body - Digestive Receive, break down, and absorb food Eliminates unabsorbed material Composed of: mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines Organ Systems of the Body – Endocrine System Not connected anatomically in the same way that parts of other organ systems are. Controls metabolic activities of body structures Composed of: Glands that secrete hormones (chemical messengers) - Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Testes, Ovaries Organ Systems of the Body - Respiratory Intake and output of air Exchange of gases between air and blood Composed of: the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, larynx and lungs Organ Systems of the Body - Cardiovascular Moves blood through blood vessels and transports substances throughout the body Composed of: the heart and blood vessels Organ Systems of the Body- Urinary Removes wastes from blood Maintains water and electrolyte balance Stores and transports urine Composed of: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Organ Systems of the Body Female Reproductive • Produce and maintain egg cells • Receive sperm cells • Support development of embryo and function in birth process Composed of: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva Organ Systems of the Body Male Reproductive • Produce and maintain sperm cells • Transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract Composed of: scrotum, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra, penis System Cooperation Body systems must work together for humans to function properly: EX #1 – Integumentary system & Skeletal System…The skin protects all organs & bones, and also produces vitamin D. Vitamin D is used for proper absorption of calcium. Calcium is needed for proper bone growth/development. Not enough Vitamin D, not enough Calcium absorbed weak/broken bones! System Cooperation EX #2: Respiratory system & Circulatory system: Lungs take in oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide. Alveoli in the lungs give oxygen to red blood cells (hemoglobin) to carry to all parts of the body for respiration. If alveoi are affected, not enough oxygen is taken in and respiration slows decrease in the amount of energy produced Organ Systems Interrelationships Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2 Create Want Ad • CHOOSE ONE OF THE 11 BODY SYSTEMS • WRITE EITHER A “FOR SALE” OR “WANTED TO BUY” AD FOR THAT SYSTEM. • AD MUST INCLUDE FACTS, FUNCTIONS, AND PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. • AD MUST INCLUDE AT LEAST 3 GRAPHICS • WRITE IN AD FORMAT (25 +/- WORDS IN LENGTH) • SEE RUBRIC FOR HOW IT WILL BE GRADED Survival Need or Necessary Life Function? Metabolism Nutrients Reproduction Oxygen Water Maintaining Boundaries Excretion Normal Body Temperature Responsiveness Atmospheric Pressure Movement Growth Digestion Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 4 TSWBAT identify the eight necessary life functions and five survival needs that are necessary for an organism to sustain life. Necessary Life Functions and Survival Needs • Organisms must be able to carry out various functions in order to maintain life. • If any of these necessary functions are disrupted, the organism may not survive. • Organisms have several survival needs that must be present in order to sustain life. Necessary Life Functions I 1. Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment. A. Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes B. Organismal level – accomplished by the integumentary system Necessary Life Functions I 2. Movement – locomotion, circulation, absorption, and respiration I.E: All of the activities promoted by the muscular system as well as the movement of substances such as blood, food, and urine. Necessary Life Functions I 3. Responsiveness (Irritability) – the body’s ability to sense changes in its environment and then react to them I.E. If you touch a hot burner you will involuntarily pull your hand away from the painful stimulus (fire). I.E. When the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises to dangerously high levels, your breathing rate speeds up to blow off the excess carbon dioxide. Necessary Life Functions I 4. Digestion – breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. 5. Metabolism – refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. Regulates the ability to convert nutrients to energy. 6. Excretion – removal of wastes from the body 7. Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repair Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person 8. Growth – increase in body size 5 Survival Needs – The goal of all body systems is to maintain life. Several factors need to be available for this to occur. 1. Nutrients Chemical substances used for energy and cell building. 2. Oxygen Needed for metabolic reactions (human cells can only survive for a few seconds without it). 5 Survival Needs 3. Water Provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions. Accounts for 60-80 percent of body weight. 4. Normal body temperature (Heat) Necessary for chemical reactions to occur at lifesustaining rates. For good health, body temperature must be maintained at or around 98 degrees. 5 Survival Needs 5. Atmospheric pressure Required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs. Check Point: 1. Having a fever, high blood pressure, or low blood sugar are all examples of what process being out of balance? 2. Reproduction can occur on two levels, they are? 3. The ability to keep the “inside” inside and the “outside” outside is an example of which necessary life function? 4. What is needed for metabolic reactions to occur? 5. What survival need provides energy for the body? Answer to checkpoint 1. Responsiveness 2. Cellular or organismal 3. Maintenance of boundaries 4. Oxygen 5. Nutrients Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 5 TSWBAT to define homeostasis and explain negative and positive feedback mechanisms. Homeostasis Homeostasis - the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world Maintaining homeostasis is absolutely vital to an organism’s survival; failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to illness or even death. Homeostasis Homeostasis is disrupted by… STRESS!!! Stress can be ANY change in the environment! Homeostatic Regulation • Adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis • Two general mechanisms are involved in homeostatic regulation: 1. Autoregulation – occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change. 2. Extrinsic regulation – results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system; they control or adjust the activities of many other systems Homeostatic Control Mechanisms If a variable produces a change in the body, control mechanisms are activated to regain homeostasis. Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis and is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems. The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are: Receptor Control center Effector FEEDBACK LOOP CONTROL CENTER RECEPTOR STIMULUS (Change) EFFECTOR RESPONSE Receptor – The first component A sensor that monitors and responds to changes (stimuli) in the environment • Responds to stimuli by sending information to the control center (second component) Example: Thermometer of your thermostat of your AC/Heat source in your home Control Center – Second Component Determines: A) Set point at which the variable is to be maintained B) Analyzes the information it receives C) Determines the appropriate response or course of action Example: Thermostat Effector – Third component Provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus. Responds to the commands of the control center. The results of the response influence the stimulus either by: 1) Depressing it (negative feedback) so that the whole control mechanism is shut off. -Or- 2) Enhancing it (positive feedback) so that the reaction continues at an even faster rate. Negative Feedback Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms Negative does NOT mean that it is “bad” for the body In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off (or reverses) the original stimulus or reduces its intensity. Negative feedback regulates: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Heart rate Blood pressure Breathing rate Blood levels of glucose Body temperature NEGATIVE FB LOOP Brain Skin Cells Drop in Body Temp Muscles shiver Increase Body Temp Positive Feedback • In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus • Positive does NOT mean that it is always “good” for the body Examples: Release of oxytocin (hormone) during pregnancy/childbirth Increased blood flow to injury site Figure 1.6 Positive FB Loop Brain Blood Vessels Dilate Bleeding Paper Cut Heart & Blood Vessels Increase blood flow Blood clots Homeostatic Imbalance Homeostasis is so important that if the body’s normal equilibrium is not corrected, illness occurs. Feedback mechanisms may be overwhelmed or may be not functioning correctly (diabetes, clotting disorders) Disorder – Any derangement or abnormality of function. Disease – More specific term for illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. This is called homeostatic imbalance. Homeostatic Review Video Check Point 1 1. What two organ systems are largely responsible for maintaining homeostasis? 2. What is the specific name for the body structure that responds to the control center signal in a feedback system? 3. Most homeostatic control mechanisms are? 4. Create and explain an example of negative feedback within the human body. Not one that has already been discussed in class. 5. What are two examples of positive feedback?