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Write a definition of
anatomy and physiology
(two separate definitions).
Objectives: Lesson 1
• TSWBAT define anatomy and
physiology and sub-divisions.
• TSWBAT evaluate how anatomy and
physiology are closely related.
Overview of Anatomy
Anatomy is………….
• the study of the structure and shape of the
body
• Includes both internal and external
structures of the body
Andreas Vesalius- Father of Human Anatomy
1514-1564
A Belgian physician, Andreas Vesalius, was the
first to dissect human bodies to study anatomy.
He wrote a book on human anatomy in 1538. This book
was the first accurate description of the interior of the
human body.
2 Main Divisions of Anatomy
I. Gross Anatomy
Concerned with those
structures in the body large
enough to be seen with the
naked eye.
II. Microscopic Anatomy
A microscope or magnifying instrument is
used to see very small structures in the body.
Forms of Gross Anatomy
• Surface – the study of general form and superficial
markings
• Regional – focuses on the anatomical organization
of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk)
• Systematic – study of the structure of organ systems
(skeletal system)
• Developmental – describes the changes in form that
occur between conception and physical maturity
• Clinical – subspecialties in clinical practice (surgical
anatomy)
Forms of Microscopic Anatomy:
Cytology – study of the cell (simplest units of life)
Histology – study of tissues
Physiology
Physiology - the study of the functions of the body,
often at the cellular or molecular level.
Physio = nature
Ology = the study of
Sub-groups of Physiology
Considers the operation of specific organ
systems.
Cardiovascular physiology is the study of?
Neurophysiology is the study of?
Renal physiology is the study of?
Respiratory physiology is the study of?
Pathophysiology is the study of?
Exercise physiology is the study of?
Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology are always related
 All specific functions are performed by specific
structures.
 Structure therefore, determines function
Real world application – doctor visit
• Physicians normally use a combination of
anatomical, physiological, chemical, and
psychological information when they evaluate a
patient
• When a patient presents symptoms; the physician
will look at the structures affected (Gross anatomy)
• Collect a fluid or tissue sample (Microscopic
anatomy)
• Evaluates your physiological processes by asking
questions
Anatomy and Physiology Relationship
An anatomist and a physiologist are
asked to examine a car and report
their findings. What would an
anatomist do? What would a
physiologist do?
With your seat partner……
Describe how anatomy and
physiology are closely related?
How are they different? Use an
example of an electronic device
in your rationale.
Introduction to Anatomy – Lesson 2
TSWBAT list the levels of structural
organization.
Levels of Structural Organization
• Chemical (or molecular level)
• Cellular
• Tissue
• Organ
• Organ System
• Organism
Levels of Structural Organization
1. Chemical – Atoms (smallest stable units of matter)
combined to form molecules (complex shapes of two or
more atoms).
2. Cellular – Molecules interact to form organelles.
Organelles are components of cells (smallest living units
in the body). Example – cardiac muscle cells
3. Tissue – Groups of similar cells that have a common
function. (example – cardiac muscle tissue)
Levels of Structural Organization
4. Organ – A structure that is
composed of two or more tissue
types and performs a specific
function for the body (example –
heart: cardiac muscle tissue and
smooth muscle tissue).
5. Organ System – A group of
organs that cooperate to accomplish
a common purpose (example –
cardiovascular system; heart, blood,
blood vessels).
Levels of Structural Organization
6. Organism – Made up of the organ
systems. Highest level of structural
organization (example – human).
Levels of Structural Organization
Smooth muscle cell
Molecules
2 Cellular level
Cells are made up of molecules
Atoms
Smooth
muscle
tissue
3 Tissue level
Tissues consist of
similar types of
cells
1 Chemical level
Atoms combine to
form molecules
Heart
Cardiovascular
system
Epithelial
tissue
Smooth
muscle
tissue
Connective
tissue
4 Organ level
Organs are made up of
different types of tissues
Blood
vessels
Blood
vessel
(organ)
6 Organismal level
The human organism is
made up of many organ
systems
5 Organ system level
Organ systems consist of different organs
that work together closely
Figure 1.1
1. Two or more atoms join together to
form what organizational structures?
2. Which levels of structural organization are you
unable to see with your naked eye?
3.Which level of structural organization is composed
of two or more different types of tissues that work
together to perform a specific function?
4. How are anatomy and physiology different?
Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 3
TSWBAT to identify the 11
Organ Systems of the Body
systems define the functions and
components of each system.
Organ Systems of the Body - Skeletal
 Protects body organs/tissues
 Provides the framework for muscles
 Produces blood cells
 Stores minerals (calcium)
Composed of: bones, cartilage and ligaments
Organ Systems of the Body – Nervous
 Detects changes
 Stimulates muscles and
glands
 Receives and interprets
sensory information
Composed of: the brain, spinal cord, sense organs
and nerves
Organ Systems of the Body - Lymphatic
 Return tissue fluid to the blood
 Carries certain absorbed food
molecules
 Defends against infection and
diseases
Composed of: thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and
lymphatic vessels
Organ Systems of the Body - Muscular
 Provides movement
 Maintains posture
 Produces heat
Composed of: muscles and tendons
Organ Systems of the Body- Integumentary
 Protects tissues
 Helps regulate body temperature
 Provides sensory information
Composed of: the skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails
Organ Systems of the Body - Digestive
Receive, break down,
and absorb food
Eliminates
unabsorbed material
Composed of: mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands,
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder,
pancreas, small and large intestines
Organ Systems of the Body – Endocrine System
Not connected anatomically in the same way that parts of
other organ systems are.
Controls metabolic activities
of body structures
Composed of: Glands that secrete hormones (chemical
messengers) - Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid
gland, Thymus gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Testes,
Ovaries
Organ Systems of the Body - Respiratory
 Intake and output of air
 Exchange of gases between air and blood
Composed of: the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, trachea,
bronchi, larynx and lungs
Organ Systems of the Body - Cardiovascular
 Moves blood through blood
vessels and transports substances
throughout the body
Composed of: the heart and blood vessels
Organ Systems of the Body- Urinary
 Removes wastes from blood
 Maintains water and electrolyte balance
 Stores and transports urine
Composed of: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Organ Systems of the Body
Female Reproductive
• Produce and maintain egg cells
• Receive sperm cells
• Support development of
embryo and function in birth
process
 Composed of: ovaries,
fallopian tubes, uterus,
vagina, clitoris, vulva
Organ Systems of the Body
Male Reproductive
• Produce and maintain sperm cells
• Transfer sperm cells into female reproductive
tract
Composed of: scrotum, testes,
epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate
gland, urethra, penis
System Cooperation
Body systems must work together for
humans to function properly:
EX #1 – Integumentary system & Skeletal
System…The skin protects all organs &
bones, and also produces vitamin D. Vitamin D
is used for proper absorption of calcium.
Calcium is needed for proper bone
growth/development. Not enough Vitamin D, not
enough Calcium absorbed  weak/broken bones!
System Cooperation
EX #2: Respiratory system & Circulatory
system: Lungs take in oxygen in exchange for
carbon dioxide. Alveoli in the lungs give
oxygen to red blood cells (hemoglobin) to carry
to all parts of the body for respiration. If alveoi
are affected, not enough oxygen is taken in and
respiration slows  decrease in the amount of
energy produced
Organ Systems Interrelationships
 Nutrients and oxygen
are distributed by the
blood
 Metabolic wastes are
eliminated by the
urinary and
respiratory systems
Figure 1.2
Create Want Ad
• CHOOSE ONE OF THE 11 BODY SYSTEMS
• WRITE EITHER A “FOR SALE” OR “WANTED TO
BUY” AD FOR THAT SYSTEM.
• AD MUST INCLUDE FACTS, FUNCTIONS, AND
PARTS OF THE SYSTEM.
• AD MUST INCLUDE AT LEAST 3 GRAPHICS
• WRITE IN AD FORMAT (25 +/- WORDS IN
LENGTH)
• SEE RUBRIC FOR HOW IT WILL BE GRADED
Survival Need or Necessary Life Function?
Metabolism
Nutrients
Reproduction
Oxygen
Water
Maintaining Boundaries
Excretion
Normal Body Temperature
Responsiveness
Atmospheric Pressure
Movement
Growth
Digestion
Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 4
TSWBAT identify the eight
necessary life functions and five
survival needs that are necessary
for an organism to sustain life.
Necessary Life Functions and Survival Needs
• Organisms must be able to carry out various
functions in order to maintain life.
• If any of these necessary functions are disrupted, the
organism may not survive.
• Organisms have several survival needs that must be
present in order to sustain life.
Necessary Life Functions I
1. Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment
remains distinct from the external environment.
A. Cellular level – accomplished by plasma
membranes
B. Organismal level – accomplished by the
integumentary system
Necessary Life Functions I
2. Movement – locomotion, circulation, absorption, and respiration
I.E: All of the activities promoted by the muscular system as well as
the movement of substances such as blood, food, and urine.
Necessary Life Functions I
3. Responsiveness (Irritability) – the body’s ability to
sense changes in its environment and then react to them
I.E. If you touch a hot burner you will involuntarily pull
your hand away from the painful stimulus (fire).
I.E. When the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood
rises to dangerously high levels, your breathing rate
speeds up to blow off the excess carbon dioxide.
Necessary Life Functions I
4. Digestion – breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules
that can be absorbed into the blood.
5. Metabolism – refers to all chemical reactions that occur within
body cells. Regulates the ability to convert nutrients to energy.
6. Excretion – removal of wastes from the body
7. Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels
 Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical
daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repair
 Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new
person
8. Growth – increase in body size
5 Survival Needs – The goal of all body
systems is to maintain life. Several factors
need to be available for this to occur.
1. Nutrients
Chemical substances used for energy and cell
building.
2. Oxygen
Needed for metabolic reactions (human cells can
only survive for a few seconds without it).
5 Survival Needs
3. Water
Provides the necessary environment for
chemical reactions. Accounts for 60-80
percent of body weight.
4. Normal body temperature (Heat)
Necessary for chemical reactions to occur at lifesustaining rates. For good health, body
temperature must be maintained at or around 98
degrees.
5 Survival Needs
5. Atmospheric pressure
Required for proper breathing and gas exchange in
the lungs.
Check Point:
1. Having a fever, high blood pressure, or low blood
sugar are all examples of what process being out of
balance?
2. Reproduction can occur on two levels, they are?
3. The ability to keep the “inside” inside and the
“outside” outside is an example of which necessary
life function?
4. What is needed for metabolic reactions to occur?
5. What survival need provides energy for the body?
Answer to checkpoint
1. Responsiveness
2. Cellular or organismal
3. Maintenance of boundaries
4. Oxygen
5. Nutrients
Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 5
TSWBAT to define homeostasis
and explain negative and
positive feedback mechanisms.
Homeostasis
Homeostasis - the ability to maintain a relatively
stable internal environment in an ever-changing
outside world
Maintaining homeostasis is absolutely vital to an
organism’s survival; failure to maintain homeostasis
soon leads to illness or even death.
Homeostasis
Homeostasis is disrupted by…
STRESS!!!
Stress can be ANY change in the
environment!
Homeostatic Regulation
• Adjustment of physiological systems to preserve
homeostasis
• Two general mechanisms are involved in
homeostatic regulation:
1. Autoregulation – occurs when a cell, tissue, organ
or organ system adjusts its activities automatically
in response to some environmental change.
2. Extrinsic regulation – results from the activities of
the nervous system or endocrine system; they
control or adjust the activities of many other systems
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
If a variable produces a change in the body, control
mechanisms are activated to regain homeostasis.
Communication within the body is essential for
homeostasis and is accomplished chiefly by the
nervous and endocrine systems.
The three interdependent components of control
mechanisms are:
 Receptor
 Control center
 Effector
FEEDBACK LOOP
CONTROL CENTER
RECEPTOR
STIMULUS (Change)
EFFECTOR
RESPONSE
Receptor – The first component
 A sensor that monitors and responds to changes
(stimuli) in the environment
• Responds to stimuli by sending information to the
control center (second component)
Example: Thermometer of your thermostat of your
AC/Heat source in your home
Control Center – Second Component
Determines:
A) Set point at which the variable is to be maintained
B) Analyzes the information it receives
C) Determines the appropriate response or course of
action
Example: Thermostat
Effector – Third component
Provides the means for the control center’s response
to the stimulus. Responds to the commands of the
control center.
The results of the response influence the stimulus
either by:
1) Depressing it (negative feedback) so that
the whole control mechanism is shut off.
-Or-
2) Enhancing it (positive feedback) so that
the reaction continues at an even faster rate.
Negative Feedback

Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback
mechanisms

Negative does NOT mean that it is “bad” for the body

In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off (or reverses)
the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Negative feedback regulates:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Heart rate
Blood pressure
Breathing rate
Blood levels of glucose
Body temperature
NEGATIVE FB LOOP
Brain
Skin Cells
Drop in Body Temp
Muscles shiver
Increase Body Temp
Positive Feedback
• In positive feedback systems, the output
enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
• Positive does NOT mean that it is always
“good” for the body
 Examples:
 Release of oxytocin (hormone) during
pregnancy/childbirth
 Increased blood flow to injury site
Figure 1.6
Positive FB Loop
Brain
Blood Vessels Dilate
Bleeding
Paper Cut
Heart & Blood Vessels
Increase blood flow
Blood clots
Homeostatic Imbalance
Homeostasis is so important that if the body’s normal equilibrium is
not corrected, illness occurs.
Feedback mechanisms may be overwhelmed or may be not functioning
correctly (diabetes, clotting disorders)
 Disorder – Any derangement or abnormality of
function.
 Disease – More specific term for illness characterized by a
recognizable set of signs and symptoms.
This is called homeostatic imbalance.
Homeostatic Review Video
Check Point
1
1. What two organ systems are largely
responsible for maintaining homeostasis?
2. What is the specific name for the body structure
that responds to the control center signal in a
feedback system?
3. Most homeostatic control mechanisms are?
4. Create and explain an example of negative
feedback within the human body. Not one that
has already been discussed in class.
5. What are two examples of positive feedback?
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Chapter 1 Power Point