Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics 3-year scheme of work This document provides a scheme of work for teaching the Physics content from the 2014 Key Stage 3 Science National Curriculum in 3 years, using the Exploring Science course. Exploring Science: Working Scientifically has been designed with flexibility at its heart. We appreciate that some teachers will want to complete Key Stage 3 in two years and then move on to GCSEs. Others prefer to spend two and a half years on Key Stage 3, and others prefer to teach Key Stage 3 in three years. Exploring Science is designed to work with all of these approaches. Each year is divided into 12 units and each unit contains 5 topics. Each topic is divided into Starters, Exploring tasks, Explaining tasks and Plenaries. This scheme of work is designed so that each topic is a lesson. Along with full coverage of the Key Stage 3 National Curriculum, this 3-year route includes three revision units, and three units that support students’ transition to GCSE. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ia: Energy from food Learning objectives Developing Compare the temperature rise of water when some fuels are burnt. Identify situations in which energy is stored. Identify situations in which an energy transfer is taking place. Recall the factors that affect the amount of energy needed in a person's diet. Describe the factors that affect body mass. Recall some substances that are used as sources of energy. Securing Explain the differing energy needs of people of different ages and activity levels. Exceeding Calculate the energy requirements for a particular person or activity. Working Scientifically Use ratio notation to compare things. Simplify and use ratios. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Energy brainstorm Brainstorm about energy by asking questions such as: ‘Does it take energy to lift a book onto a shelf?’; ‘Does it take energy to leave the book resting on the shelf?’ Follow this by asking about things that store energy. Exploring: Energy in food A simple experiment for students to use to compare at least three different foods to determine how much energy is stored in each type. Explaining: 7Ia Energy from food Explain that humans and other animals get their energy from food and outline the reasons why different people need different amounts of energy in their food. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: Ben needs to eat more than Hilary. (Possible answers: Ben is a teenager and Hilary is a toddler; Ben is more active than Hilary; Ben and Hilary have similar activity levels but Ben is trying to gain weight.) Differentiation Exploring: Energy in food Extend this by describing other ways of comparing quantities, for example, ratios. Resources Resources from 7Ia Exploring Science. Maths skills Using ratios to compare experimental results. Practical skills A simple experiment for students to use to compare at least three different foods to determine how much energy is stored in each type. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ib: Energy transfers and stores Learning objectives Exemplar teaching activities Developing Starter: Energy transfer Identify situations in which energy is demonstration stored. Heat a beaker of water over a Bunsen Identify situations in which an energy burner. Ask students what is transfer is taking place. happening to the water and where Recall the different ways in which the energy is coming from. Show energy can be stored. them a battery powered fan (or Recall the different ways in which other, similar device) and elicit the energy can be transferred. idea that here the energy store is in Securing the cell, and that this energy is Recall the law of conservation of transferred to the moving air. energy. Identify situations in which energy is Exploring: Circus of energy transfers stored. Set up a circus of energy transfer Identify situations in which an energy devices around the lab and ask transfer is taking place. students to identify the initial energy Describe energy transfer chains for and final energy stores for each one. given situations. Exceeding Explaining: Energy demonstrations Identify useful and wasted energies. Set up some demonstrations (e.g. a pendulum, motor-lifting weight, windup toy) and discuss the way that energy is stored in the beginning and at the end, and ways in which energy is transferred. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: strain energy. (Possible questions: What do we call energy when it is stored in a bent bow/stretched spring/ stretched elastic band/bent ruler?) Differentiation Explaining: Energy demonstrations Extend the discussion to look at the energy transfers in more detail. Resources Resources from 7Ib Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Set up a circus of energy transfer devices around the lab and ask students to identify the initial energy and final energy stores for each one. Set up some demonstrations (e.g. a pendulum, motor-lifting weight, wind-up toy) and discuss the way that energy is stored in the beginning and at the end, and ways in which energy is transferred. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ic: Fuels Learning objectives Developing Recall what power stations are used for. State the meaning of: biomass/biofuel, fuel, renewable, non-renewable. Describe advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. Recall examples of renewable and nonrenewable fuels and their sources. Recall the different ways in which energy can be stored. Recall some substances that are used as sources of energy. Securing Describe the factors that make up a good fuel. Compare the temperature rise of water when some fuels are burnt. Describe what happens in a fuel cell. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Brainstorm fuels Ask students to think of three different fuels and some uses for these fuels. Exploring: Energy in liquid fuels Students compare the energy released by ethanol and paraffin, using spirit burners to heat a fixed volume of water for a fixed time. Explaining: Oil and gas extraction and uses Ask students to research the origins of oil and natural gas, and how they are extracted from deep underground, including the fracking process. Plenary: Thinking skills Odd One Out: natural gas, hydrogen, coal. (Possible answers: coal is the only solid; hydrogen is the only one not used in power stations, hydrogen is the only one that has to be made/ can be renewable.) Differentiation Exploring: Energy in liquid fuels Students could calculate the actual energy transferred. Resources Resources from 7Ic Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students compare the energy released by ethanol and paraffin, using spirit burners to heat a fixed volume of water for a fixed time. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Id: Other energy resources Learning objectives Developing State the meaning of: hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar energy, wind energy, tidal power. Recall examples of renewable fuels and their sources. Recall the different ways in which energy can be stored. Recall the different ways in which energy can be transferred. Securing Apply the idea of different colours being good or poor absorbers. Describe advantages and disadvantages of different renewable, energy resources. Explain how the Sun is the ultimate source of the energy used in renewable resources. Describe what happens in a fuel cell. Identify situations in which energy is stored. Identify situations in which an energy transfer is taking place. Exceeding Decide and explain the best energy resources to use in an area. Describe energy transfer chains for given situations. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Renewable resources Demonstrate examples of renewable resources in action (e.g. use light shining on solar cells to drive a small motor). Ask students to suggest how these demonstrations could relate to larger scale equivalents. Exploring: Solar panels Students find the best colour for a solar panel by using foil trays or old cans painted a variety of colours and measuring the temperature rise of water inside them. Explaining: Energy from the Sun Ensure students understand the link between energy from the Sun and rain with reference to the water cycle. Explain how energy from the Sun causes wind and waves, which involves more complex ideas. Plenary: Thinking skills Odd One Out: solar, wind, waves. (Possible answers: all originate with the Sun, but solar is the only one that uses the Sun’s energy directly, is the only one that can be used directly for heating and is the only one that can be used in two ways; waves are the only one that cannot be used on land.) Differentiation Exploring: Solar panels Discuss fair ways to carry out the experiment. Resources Resources from 7Id Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students find the best colour for a solar panel by using foil trays or old cans painted a variety of colours and measuring the temperature rise of water inside them. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ie: Using resources Learning objectives Developing State the meaning of: efficiency, climate change. Recall some effects of climate change. Recall the different ways in which energy can be stored. Recall the different ways in which energy can be transferred. Recall some substances that are used as sources of energy. Recall examples of renewable and nonrenewable fuels and their sources. Securing Identify useful and wasted energies. Describe advantages and disadvantages of different renewable, energy resources. Suggest ways in which our use of fossil fuels/non-renewable fuels can be reduced. Identify situations in which energy is stored. Identify situations in which an energy transfer is taking place. Explain how certain gases cause the greenhouse effect. Explain how the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be prevented from increasing further. Explain the source of the energy in fuels. Exceeding Describe energy transfer chains for given situations. Explain whether a machine is more efficient than another. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Making sentences Ask students to make sentences using these groups of three words: oil, Sun, plants; rain, hydroelectricity, Sun; nuclear, geothermal, Sun. They should spot the connections: the Sun being the original source for the energy stored in oil and the energy transferred by hydroelectricity. Exploring: Making changes Ask students to think about the different ways of using less energy and then to choose one they are interested in. They can work alone or in small groups to design and carry out a survey. Students should consider their results and work out something they can do to make a difference. Explaining: Climate change Outline some of the possible consequences of climate change, and explain that while increased carbon dioxide emissions is widely thought to be the major cause not all scientists agree. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: carbon dioxide. (Possible questions: What gas is released when fossil fuels burn? What gas is contributing to climate change?) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Ie Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students design and carry out a survey into energy use and how to use less. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ja: Current Learning objectives Developing Recall materials that are conductors and insulators. State the meaning of: conductor, insulator, complete circuit, ammeter, current. Describe why a cell is needed in a circuit. Explain how switches work to turn a circuit on or off. Identify common circuit components and their symbols. Model circuits using simple circuit diagrams. Measure current and state its unit. Recall that current is not used up. Securing Describe the effects of breaking or removing bulbs in a circuit. Use the idea of a complete circuit to test whether different materials conduct electricity. Describe and explain how adding more bulbs affects the brightness of bulbs in a circuit. Construct a circuit from instructions provided in the form of a circuit diagram. Recall the link between current and bulb brightness. Describe how changing the number or type of components in a circuit affects the current. Describe what the current is like at different points in a series circuit. Exceeding Recall how electrical cells work. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Torch circuits Show students a torch and, if possible, dismantle it to show the circuit inside. Ask students to describe how the torch works in words and/or diagrams. Exploring: Testing wires Supply students with a set of insulated wires and ask them to check which ones work. The wires should have been prepared so that some of them have the metal broken inside and will not conduct. Explaining: Circuit diagrams Provide drawings of symbols and circuit diagrams and ask students to match them. Give the students some practice in drawing circuit diagrams. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: the bulb in a circuit will not light. (Possible answers: the bulb is broken; there is a break in the circuit; the cell does not have any stored energy left; there is no cell in the circuit.) Differentiation Exploring: Testing wires The circuit can be extended to include faulty bulbs. Resources Resources from 7Ja Exploring Science. Maths skills The use of symbols when communicating science. Practical skills Students check a set of insulated wires to see which ones work. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Jb: Models for circuits Learning objectives Developing Identify common circuit components and their symbols. Model circuits using simple circuit diagrams. Recall that current is not used up. State what is meant by: current. Securing Construct a circuit from instructions provided in the form of a circuit diagram. Use a model to describe how an electrical circuit works. Exceeding Evaluate a physical model for electric circuits on how well it explains data or observations. Working Scientifically Identify when a physical model is being used, and what its parts represent. Use a simple physical model to explain a simple phenomenon. Identify when an abstract model is being used. Explain why models are used. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Ideas about electricity Elicit students' ideas about what electricity is, by asking questions. Once a model has been suggested, elicit ideas about what is flowing, does the quantity of the ‘stuff’ flowing changes around the circuit etc. Exploring: The ‘counter’ model Set up a model using a bucket full of counters to represent energy, you as the cell, students as the charges and one student as a bulb: the ‘charges' take a counter from you, hand it over as they pass the ‘bulb’, and then return to you for more. Ask students to suggest what each part represents. Explaining: Which model is helpful? Students decide which models of electricity are most helpful by considering their strengths and weaknesses. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question?: cell (Possible questions: what is needed to make current flow around a circuit?; what does the boiler and pump represent in a real circuit? what does a coal mine (or anything else suitable) represent in a circuit?) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Jb Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students participate in a ‘model’ of a circuit. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Jc: Series and parallel Learning objectives Developing Explain how switches and broken bulbs affect a circuit. Identify common circuit components and their symbols. Model circuits using simple circuit diagrams. Measure current and state its unit. State what is meant by series circuit, parallel circuit. Securing Construct a circuit from instructions provided in the form of a circuit diagram. Describe how changing the number or type of components in a circuit affects the current. Recall the differences between how current behaves in series and parallel circuits and describe and predict what the current is like at different points in a series circuit and parallel circuit. Explain how switches can be used to control different parts of a parallel circuit. Explain why the lights in a house are wired in parallel. Analyse a given parallel circuit and say which components will be on or off with different combinations of switches closed. Recall the link between current and bulb brightness. Exceeding Use their knowledge of switches and parallel circuits to devise circuits for specified purposes. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Series and parallel circuits Set up a series circuit with two bulbs and a parallel circuit with two bulbs and ask students to list the differences between them. Remove/add a bulb from each circuit and elicit the differences. Exploring: Switches in parallel circuits Ask students to build a series circuit with one switch and two bulbs and then ask them if they can use a second switch to turn just one bulb on or off. Explaining: 7Jc Using tables Introduce the use of tables for effective science communication and the idea of qualitative and quantitative data. Plenary: Bridges in parallel Show students a map or photo showing the two bridges across the River Severn. Explain that the first bridge was opened in 1966 but by 1990 there were severe traffic jams, so the Second Severn Crossing was opened in 1996. Ask students to suggest how this is a model for a parallel circuit and to point out what characteristics of a circuit it can and cannot represent. Differentiation Exploring: Switches in parallel circuits Challenge students to make a circuit with two bulbs and two switches that can be switched independently. Resources Resources from 7Jc Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students build a series circuit with one switch and two bulbs. Ask them if they can use a second switch to turn just one bulb on or off. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Jd: Voltage and resistance Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by: voltage, resistance. State the units for voltage. Describe how a voltmeter is used. Recall how the current changes when the voltage of the supply changes. Securing Explain why the current increases when the voltage of the supply is increased. Describe how voltage is divided between the components in a series circuit. Describe how voltage varies in a parallel circuit. Describe the relationship between resistance and current. Describe how the resistance of a wire varies with its length and thickness. Explain how a variable resistor works. Exceeding Use a model to explain the idea of voltage. Describe how voltage and energy are linked. Explain why a voltmeter is connected in parallel. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Variable resistor Show students a rheostat connected in series in a circuit with a bulb. Show the effect on brightness of moving the slider and ask them to suggest how the rheostat works. A display ammeter can help to reinforce the link between size of current and brightness of bulbs. Exploring: Length of wire and resistance Students investigate the effect of the length of a wire on its resistance (measured only in terms of the size of the current in the circuit). Explaining: Lorry model for measuring electricity Use a lorry model to help students to think about how ammeters and voltmeters work. Discuss what the various parts represent and how useful the model is. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: the current in a circuit is very low. (Possible answers: there are lots of components in the circuit; the connecting wires are very thin; there is only one cell in the circuit; most of the chemicals in the cell have been used up.) Differentiation Exploring: Length of wire and resistance Students can plot a scatter graph and a line of best fit to show their results. Resources Resources from 7Jd Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students investigate the effect of the length of a wire on its resistance (measured only in terms of the size of the current in the circuit). Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Je: Using electricity Learning objectives Developing Recall some dangers of electricity. Recall some safety precautions to be followed when using electricity. Identify electrical hazards in a scenario. Describe the job that fuses do. Recall how the different wires are connected in a plug. Securing Explain why electricity is more convenient than other sources of energy, and classify some of its uses. Explain some safety precautions to be followed when using electricity. Explain how a fuse works. Explain how a domestic ring main is a form of parallel circuit. Identify errors in the wiring of a plug. Exceeding Apply their knowledge of voltage, current and electrical safety to novel situations. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Heating effect of current Demonstrate the heating effect of a current, by holding a length of nichrome wire between two clamp stands and making it part of a circuit. When the wire has been warmed up it can be used to cut paper. Exploring: Testing fuse wire Provide students with lengths of fuse wire of different ratings and ask them to find out the maximum current for each wire. Explaining: Wiring plugs Show students how to wire a plug, including precautions such as making sure no strands of wire are sticking out, the outer cable is held by the cable grip, etc. Plenary: Thinking skills Odd One Out: light bulb filament, connecting wire, fuse. (Possible answers: the connecting wire as it is not designed to convert electrical energy into other forms of energy; the fuse is the only one designed to melt.) Differentiation Starter: Heating effect of current Extend the demonstration to show how fuses work. Exploring: Testing fuse wire Encourage students to consider the inherent inaccuracy of attempting to determine the current at the exact moment that the wire melts, and ways of allowing for this, such as repeating the measurement several times. Resources Resources from 7Je Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate the heating effect of a current, by holding a length of nichrome wire between two clamp stands and making it part of a circuit. Students use lengths of fuse wire of different ratings to find out the maximum current for each wire. Show students how to wire a plug. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ka: Forces Learning objectives Developing Describe what a force is. Recall the names of simple forces. State what is meant by: contact force, non-contact force. Recall the effects of forces on an object. State what is meant by: friction, air resistance, water resistance. Securing Classify forces as contact and noncontact. Recall the unit for measuring forces. Describe how to use a force meter, newtonmeter. State what is meant by: mass, weight. Recall the direction in which gravity acts. Identify situations and places where different forces are likely to be found. Represent sizes and directions of forces using arrows. Explain the difference between mass and weight. Exceeding Compare the way in which force meters and balances that compare masses work. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Forces concept map Ask students to create a concept map to summarise what they already know about forces. Exploring: More forces Give students practice using force meters by asking them to weigh a range of objects and also to measure other forces, such as the force required to open a door, to drag a book or other object along a bench, or the force they can exert with their little fingers. Explaining: Cycle helmets Discuss the differing views on the use of cycle helmets. Many people consider that they may do more harm than good. Opposing views may be found on the Internet. Plenary: Thinking about forces Odd One Out: friction, gravity, magnetism. (Possible answers: friction is the only contact force and is the only one that always tries to slow things down; magnetism is the only one that can push or pull; gravity is the only one that gives us weight.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Ka Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students practice using force meters by weighing a range of objects and other forces. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Kb: Springs Learning objectives Developing Recall the effects of forces on an object. Explain how a force has caused certain effects on an object. State what is meant by extension, compress, stretch, elastic, plastic. Securing Describe how the extension of a spring depends on the force applied. Explain what is meant by elastic limit, limit of proportionality. Exceeding Students analyse new situations involving springs. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Jumping high Ask students to suggest how they can make the highest jump possible. This could be done by asking them to sketch a labelled diagram. Show the sketches and ask what all the ideas have in common. Exploring: Investigating stretching Students investigate the stretching characteristics of various materials (e.g. springs and elastic bands) to find out whether a material stretches in a linear or non-linear fashion. Explaining: Bathroom scales Remove the cover from a set of mechanical bathroom or kitchen scales. Get students to make an annotated sketch explaining how these scales work. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: extension (Possible question: What is the name for the amount a spring stretches when there is a force on it?); it will not go back to its original length (Possible question: What happens if a spring is stretched beyond its elastic limit?); if the force doubles the extension doubles (Possible question: What does Hooke's law say about springs?) Differentiation Exploring: Investigating stretching Students can plot scatter graphs to determine the elastic limit and limit of proportionality for the springs. Resources Resources from 7Kb Exploring Science. Maths skills Present data in scatter graphs. Draw lines of best fit on scatter graphs. Practical skills Students investigate the stretching characteristics of various materials (e.g. springs and elastic bands) to find out whether a material stretches in a linear or nonlinear fashion. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Kc: Friction Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by friction. Describe how friction forces affect movement. Describe some ways in which friction can be changed. Identify simple situations in which friction is helpful or not helpful. Securing Recall some effects of frictional forces. Explain some ways in which friction can be changed. Suggest how and why friction has been reduced or increased in unfamiliar situations. Exceeding Draw lines of best fit on scatter graphs. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Woodpecker Show students the woodpecker toy with the woodpecker stationary at the top of the pole and then moving, to explain friction. Get students to sketch a diagram of this toy, annotating it to explain how it works. Exploring: Light a fire Ask students to use the Internet to find out how to light a fire without using matches. Ask them to explain the methods used in terms of friction. Explaining: Lubrication demonstration Demonstrate how a linear air track works and show students how long a glider can continue to move if the track is set up with rubber bands at each end. Get students to explain what a lubricant is. Use alternative demonstrations if you wish. Plenary: Thinking about friction Consider All Possibilities: A bicycle is not going very fast. (Possible answers: the axles need lubricating; the brakes are catching; there is a strong wind blowing; the cyclist is not pedalling hard.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Kc Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate how a linear air track works and show students how long a glider can continue to move if the track is set up with rubber bands at each end. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Kd: Pressure Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by: pressure. Recall that 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. Describe how the pressure depends on force and area. Describe the effects of high or low pressure in simple situations. Securing Recall some common units for measuring pressures. Use the formula relating force, pressure and area. Exceeding Explain applications of pressure in different situations. Working Scientifically Record numbers using appropriate units for common measurements (e.g. of length, mass, time, temperature, current). Recognise the need to convert measurements into the same units in order to compare them. Recall the meanings of some prefixes used in the SI system (centi, milli, kilo). Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Demonstrating pressure Demonstrate the effects of pressure by placing various masses on modelling clay and measuring the depth of the impression made. Ask students to explain the relationship between pressure, weight and area. Exploring: Reducing pressure under vehicles Ask students to use the Internet to find pictures of different ways in which the pressure beneath vehicles can be reduced, and to explain why this is necessary. Explaining: Gas pressure Ask students to describe how gases can cause pressure. Demonstrate the effect using a lever arm balance (or top pan kitchen scales), and allowing a stream of small balls to fall onto the pan. Plenary: Thinking about pressure Consider All Possibilities: You are sinking into the ground. (Possible answers: your feet do not have a big enough surface area to reduce the pressure; you are too heavy for the surface; the ground is boggy.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Kd Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate the effects of pressure by placing various masses on modelling clay and measuring the depth of the impression made. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ke: Balanced and unbalanced Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by: balanced forces, unbalanced forces. Explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces in simple situations. Securing Explain why a vehicle needs a force from the engine to keep moving at a constant speed. Describe how new evidence changed scientific ideas. Exceeding Explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces in unfamiliar situations. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Balanced forces Demonstrate various situations where forces are balanced (e.g. a heliumfilled balloon tied to a mass to stop it rising). Discuss the types of forces and how students know they are balanced. Exploring: Modelling forces Show students an image of a situation with a way of showing the forces present. Ask them to design better or clearer ways of representing forces and movement. Explaining: Forces and speed Show students clips of moving objects (e.g. motor cars, boats) and explain the forces on them to show that balanced forces do not affect the speed of moving objects. Provide additional clips for students to discuss whether the forces on the objects are balanced or unbalanced. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: A car is slowing down. (Possible answers: the driver has applied the brakes; the car is going uphill; the driver has taken their foot off the accelerator so the friction forces are greater than the driving force.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Ke Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate various situations where forces are balanced. Discuss the types of forces and how students know they are balanced. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7La: Animal sounds Learning objectives Developing Recall that sounds are made by vibrations. State the meaning of pitch, volume, intensity, frequency, amplitude. Describe how to make different sources of sound louder or quieter, or make sounds of different pitches. Securing Relate the size of a source of sound to the pitch of the sound it produces. Relate the volume/intensity of a sound to the size of the vibrations producing it. Exceeding Apply knowledge of sound to new contexts. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Ideas about sound Get students to volunteer their ideas about sound. Organise these through class votes (hands up) into ‘confident this is correct’, ‘uncertain about this’ and ‘sure this is incorrect’. Exploring: Bird calls Students use the Internet to find information on the sizes of different birds and listen to their calls. Ask them to investigate the hypothesis that the pitch of a bird’s call depends on its body size. Explaining: Loudspeaker demonstration Use a loudspeaker cone attached to a signal generator to demonstrate that vibrations produce sound. Start with a very low frequency, so that students can see the cone moving. Turn up the frequency, allowing students to feel the vibrations by gently touching the speaker cone with their fingers. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: frequency. (Possible questions: What is the name for the number of vibrations per second? What is measured in hertz? Which characteristic of a sound determines the pitch?) Differentiation Explaining: Loudspeaker demonstration Go on to demonstrate the link between the amplitude of vibration and volume by putting some rice on the loudspeaker and turn up the volume. Resources Resources from 7La Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate that vibrations produce sound and the link between the amplitude of vibration and volume. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Lb: Moving sounds Learning objectives Developing Recognise that all matter consists of particles. Identify a solid, liquid or gas from the arrangement of particles. Recall that sound travels through different materials by vibrations, and needs a medium. Describe how a sound changes as you get further from the source. Securing Recall that sound does not travel as quickly as light. Draw the arrangement of particles in a solid, liquid and gas. Use a model incorporating the idea of vibrations to explain how sound travels through different materials. Describe how fast sound is transmitted by solids, liquids, gases. Use quantitative data to compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids, gases. Calculate the speed of sound from data about echoes. Use the terms frequency, amplitude, speed to describe waves. Recall that waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Explain why sounds are fainter further from the source in terms of the waves spreading out. Exceeding Evaluate the use of a slinky as a model for sound waves. Explain why the intensity of sound decreases with increasing distance Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Bell jar demonstration Use a bell jar with a sound source (such as an electric bell) to show that sound waves can only travel from one place to another if a medium is present. Exploring: Measuring the speed of sound Students carry out an experiment to measure the speed of sound, using a clapper (or clap hands) to generate an echo from a wall. Explaining: Oscilloscope demonstration Use a signal generator and an oscilloscope to demonstrate how changing the frequency and intensity of a sound can lead to the trace of the sound wave changing on the screen. Ask students to sketch the oscilloscope trace, showing how the trace relates to the motion of the wave. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: water. (Possible questions: Name a substance in which sound can travel faster than it can in air; Name a substance in which sound travels more slowly than in steel; What has sound travelled through when whales hear it?; Name a liquid.) Differentiation Exploring: Measuring the speed of sound Students can discuss where errors may have occurred in their experiment and how they can improve their method. Explaining: Oscilloscope demonstration An optional extension to this activity is to demonstrate that most sounds are made up of more complex series of waves, by singing, whistling or playing various instruments into a microphone. Resources Resources from 7Lb Exploring Science. Maths skills Presenting data graphically. Practical skills Students carry out an experiment to measure the speed of sound, using a clapper (or clap hands) to generate an echo from a wall. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work from a source in terms of the energy dissipating. Apply knowledge of sound to new situations. Working Scientifically Identify line graphs and scatter graphs, and extract simple information from them. Present data in line graphs and scatter graphs. Identify patterns using scatter graphs. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Lc: Detecting sounds Learning objectives Developing Recall that sounds can be detected by sound meters and microphones. Recall that human hearing can be damaged by loud sounds. Name the parts of the ear. Recall that different animals have different hearing ranges. State the meaning of: ultrasound, infrasound. Compare how sounds travel through different materials. Securing Describe the functions of the parts of the ear. Describe how microphones convert sound into electrical signals. Recall the units for loudness. Evaluate different materials used for soundproofing/ sound insulation. Exceeding Explain how human hearing can be damaged by sound. Explain how animals can detect the direction from which a sound is coming. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: What can you hear? Ask students to sit in complete silence for two minutes and just listen. At the end of that time, ask them what sounds they heard, which were the loudest, where they were coming from, etc. Exploring: Soundproof design Students investigate which materials are the best for soundproofing. Students plot a chart to show their results. Explaining: Hearing ranges Ask students to determine their own hearing range by using a signal generator and a loudspeaker connected to a suitable amplifier to produce a tone of medium loudness. Plenary: Thinking skills Plus, Minus, Interesting: We should be able to hear a much greater range of frequencies. (Possible answers: Plus – we could use a wider range of frequencies in music; Minus – some things might make annoying high frequency noises that we cannot hear at the moment; Interesting – would we be able to hear bats? We can feel sounds below our hearing range through our bodies.) Differentiation Explaining: Hearing ranges This activity can be used for comparing hearing ranges. Means can be determined from the data and spreadsheet programs can be used to produce graphs or bar charts to show the hearing ranges of the students in the class. Resources Resources from 7Lc Exploring Science. Maths skills Presenting data graphically. Practical skills Students investigate which materials are the best for soundproofing. Students plot a chart to show their results. Students determine their own hearing range by using a signal generator and a loudspeaker connected to a suitable amplifier to produce a tone of medium loudness. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Ld: Using sounds Learning objectives Developing Describe some uses of ultrasound. State the meaning of: absorb, transmit, reflect. Securing Explain how sonar and echolocation work. Exceeding Calculate depth or distance from time and velocity of ultrasound. Discuss the ethical aspects of animal experiments. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Three uses Ask students to work in pairs to write down three uses of sound. Exploring: Dolphins and sound Ask students to research how dolphins use sound. They could find out about dolphin names (whistles that they use to identify each other) and how long dolphins can remember them. Explaining: Uses of sound Ask students to research the uses of sound, e.g. ultrasonography for medical diagnosis, ultrasonic cleaning and ultrasound used in physiotherapy. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: A bat flies into an obstacle by mistake. (Possible answers: there is something wrong with the bat’s hearing; there are other sources of ultrasound that have confused the bat; the object has not reflected the ultrasound from the bat; it is a bat that does not use echolocation.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Ld Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills n/a Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 7Le: Comparing waves Learning objectives Developing Use a model incorporating the idea of vibrations to explain how sound travels through different materials. State the meaning of: transverse wave, longitudinal wave. Recall what sort of waves sound waves and waves on water are. Recall that waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Securing Model transverse and longitudinal waves. Compare longitudinal and transverse waves. State the meaning of superposition, and give examples. Explain why the intensity of sound waves decreases with increasing distance from a source in terms of the waves spreading out. Exceeding Compare quantitatively how the intensity of sound waves and waves on water decrease with increasing distance from the source. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Two loudspeakers Demonstrate superposition as students enter the room or ask students to file past the set-up before starting other activities. Exploring: Noise and animals Ask students to research the effects that noise can have on various animals. Different groups could be given different topics to research, such as the effects on whales/dolphins of marine noise, the effects of tourist helicopters on elephants and the effects of traffic noise on songbirds. Explaining: Slinky demonstration Use a slinky spring to illustrate the difference between longitudinal waves and transverse waves. Students can draw sketches of both waves, showing direction of wave, compression due to wave passing (not transverse waves), motion of marker etc. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: some waves on water are bigger than others. (Possible answers: some waves are made by bigger stones/disturbances; some waves are further from their source so they are smaller; some waves are a result of two waves in the same place/superposition.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 7Le Exploring Science. Maths skills Presenting data graphically. Practical skills Use a slinky spring to illustrate the difference between longitudinal waves and transverse waves. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ia: The particle model Learning objectives Developing Describe the three states of matter in terms of shape, volume and compressibility. State what is meant by diffusion, contraction and expansion. Use the particle model of matter to explain the properties of solids, liquids and gases, and how their movement changes with temperature. Use the particle model of matter to explain expansion and contraction at different temperatures. State what is meant by density and recall its units and the factors that affect it. Securing Describe how the volumes and densities of substances change at different temperatures. Identify some consequences of changing the temperature of objects or substances, such as structures expanding or contracting. Explain how density depends on mass and volume. Use the particle model of matter/particle theory to explain density changes at different temperatures. Exceeding Use quantitative information on expansion and contraction. Working Scientifically Describe how to measure the volume of regular and irregular objects. Change the subject of a simple mathematical formula. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Expansion Demonstrate one or more effects caused by the expansion of materials on heating. Ask students to predict what will happen in each case, backing these up with an explanation based on behaviour of the particles. After each demonstration, ask them to review their predictions and explanations. Exploring: Expansion and contraction Students research some uses for expansion and contraction, and some problems caused by these (and how the problems are overcome). Explaining: Bimetallic strip Show students a bimetallic strip and explain that it is made from two different metals stuck together. Show what happens when it is heated and ask them to suggest why this happens. Ask them to predict what will happen when it cools and why. Plenary: Thinking about particles and density Consider All Possibilities: The volume of a substance changes. (Possible answers: it is a gas that has been put into a bigger/smaller container; it has been heated and has expanded; it has been cooled and has contracted.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Ia Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate one or more effects caused by the expansion of materials on heating. Demonstrate heating and cooling a bimetallic strip. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ib: Changing state Learning objectives Developing Recall that ice is less dense than water. Describe the ways in which the volume and density changes during the water– ice transition are different from other materials. Explain how chemical changes are different from physical changes and recall some examples of each type. Recall that a change of state of a pure substance takes place at a constant temperature. Securing Describe the effect of physical weathering on rocks and explain it in terms of expansion and contraction. Explain what happens to particles and temperature during changes of state, in terms of energy and forces. Exceeding Compare densities of materials and link them to the mass of the particles and how closely they pack together. Explain why ice is less dense than water. Use the idea of latent heats when discussing changes of state. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Handwarmer Show students the type of handwarmer that uses a state change to produce heat. Flex the handwarmer before setting it off to show that it is liquid, then click the disc and pass it around to allow students to feel the warmth. Ask them to use ideas about particles to explain why it feels warm. Exploring: Ice to steam Students gently heat a beaker of ice and record the temperature at regular intervals until the ice has melted and the water has been boiling for some time. Students plot line graphs to show their results. Explaining: Sublimation Demonstrate sublimation using iodine crystals. Plenary: Thinking about changes of state Odd One Out: evaporating, condensing, freezing. (Possible answers: freezing involves a solid; evaporating involves heating; evaporation is the only one that does not happen at a fixed temperature for a particular material.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Ib Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students gently heat a beaker of ice and record the temperature at regular intervals until the ice has melted and the water has been boiling for some time. Demonstrate sublimation using iodine crystals. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ic: Pressure in fluids Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by gas pressure and recall some of its effects. Recall that pressure in a fluid changes with depth. Describe how pressure in a fluid increases with depth. Use the particle model of matter to describe the causes of pressure in fluids. Securing Explain some effects caused by air or water pressure using ideas about forces. Use the particle model of matter to explain atmospheric pressure in different situations. Explain why pressure in a fluid increases with depth. Use the particle model of matter to explain why gas pressure changes with temperature, number of particles and volume. Exceeding Apply ideas about pressure to barometers and altimeters. Use the equation relating pressure to the depth and density of a liquid. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Air pressure demonstrations Demonstrate a collapsing can (or one of the other practicals). Ask students to write down a prediction with associated explanations using ideas about particles and air pressure, and then to write down observations during or after the demonstration. Exploring: Research altitude sickness Ask students to find out about altitude sickness: when it occurs, what its causes and symptoms are, and how it can be treated. Explaining: Pressure all around Ask students to put on a disposable plastic glove and put their hand in a bowl of water. Use the experience to help students appreciate the idea of pressure acting equally in all directions in terms of particles and their movement. Plenary: Thinking about pressure What Was The Question?: There are more particles in each unit volume of air. (Possible questions: Why is the pressure higher inside a tyre when it has been pumped up? Why is it easier to breathe at sea level than on the top of a high mountain?) Differentiation Exploring: Research altitude sickness Some students can go on to research air pressure inside passenger aircraft or how training at altitude can increase athletic performance. Resources Resources from 8Ic Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate a collapsing can. Ask students to put on a disposable plastic glove and put their hand in a bowl of water. Use the experience to help students appreciate the idea of pressure acting equally in all directions in terms of particles and their movement. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Id: Floating and sinking Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by upthrust. Explain why an object floats. Recall the factors that affect the amount of upthrust on an object. Securing Work out if something will float. Use ideas about density changes to explain how a hot air balloon flies/how the depth of a submarine is controlled. Exceeding Explain that the upthrust depends on the weight of fluid displaced. Use ideas about displacement to explain phenomena connected with floating and sinking. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Dancing raisins Demonstrate ‘dancing raisins’ by putting a few raisins into a beaker or glass of a colourless fizzy drink such as lemonade. Ask students to observe and describe what is happening and then to suggest and discuss reasons for these observations. Exploring: Factors affecting upthrust Students carry out an investigation to find out if the volume or the density of an object affects the amount of upthrust, using a force meter and balance. Explaining: Cartesian diver Combine ideas about pressure in fluids and the relationship between density and floating by demonstrating a Cartesian diver to students and asking them to suggest how it works. Plenary: Thinking about floating Consider All Possibilities: An object floats. (Possible answers: the object is less dense than water; the object is denser than water but is floating in a liquid with an even greater density; the object is shaped so that it has air spaces so its overall density is less than water.) Differentiation Exploring: Factors affecting upthrust Extend the investigation by asking students to investigate materials that float, to find out how the volume of each sample submerged varies with the volume, density or weight of the object. Resources Resources from 8Id Exploring Science. Maths skills Apply mathematical concepts and calculate results. Practical skills Demonstrate ‘dancing raisins’ by putting a few raisins into a beaker or glass of a colourless fizzy drink such as lemonade. Students carry out an investigation to find out if the volume or the density of an object affects the amount of upthrust, using a force meter and balance. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ie: Drag Learning objectives Developing Recall the different types of resistive forces and describe how they affect movement. Describe how drag changes with speed. Explain the effects of balanced forces in simple situations. Securing Describe the ways in which the size of drag forces can be changed. Describe the causes of air and water resistance. Explain why a vehicle needs a force from the engine to keep moving at a constant speed. Exceeding Use and interpret the equation linking drag, density, speed and frontal area. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Speed brainstorm Ask students to list the differences between slow and fast vehicles of the same type (e.g., Boeing 747 and the supersonic Concorde, light aircraft and supersonic fighter aircraft, and a family car and a sports car). Then ask them to suggest reasons for these differences. Exploring: Streamlined shapes Students investigate the effect of shape on drag, using a dilute mixture of wallpaper paste and water in a large measuring cylinder, and modelling clay. Explaining: Humans at the extremes Research into exploring extreme altitudes and depths, and ask students to consider whether it is ethical to experiment on humans and animals to facilitate these explorations. Plenary: Thinking about drag Odd One Out: skier, cyclist, pilot. (Possible answers: skier – the only one not using a machine; pilot – the only one not relying on muscle power to move forwards; pilot – the only one for whom streamlining could save fuel.) Differentiation Exploring: Streamlined shapes Ask students how the model helps them to think about drag. Resources Resources from 8Ie Exploring Science. Maths skills Apply mathematical concepts and calculate results. Practical skills Students investigate the effect of shape on drag, using a dilute mixture of wallpaper paste and water in a large measuring cylinder, and modelling clay. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ja: Light on the move Learning objectives Developing Recall that light travels in straight lines and can pass through empty space. State the meaning of: opaque, translucent, transparent, reflect, scatter, transmit, absorb. Use the ray model of light to explain how we see things that are not sources of light and to explain how shadows are formed. Recall that sound does not travel as quickly as light, and sound needs a medium through which to travel but light does not. State the meaning of transverse wave and recall that light waves are transverse waves. Securing Compare longitudinal and transverse waves. Represent the path of light as straight lines with arrows on diagrams and describe how you can demonstrate that light travels in straight lines. Use a ray diagram to explain how shadows are formed and to explain image formation in pinhole cameras. Exceeding Use ray diagrams to model and explain the effect of hole size on the image formed by a pinhole camera. Use a model to explain the effect of various factors on shadow size. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Light for seeing Reinforce the idea that we see most objects (i.e. non-luminous things) because of reflected light. Get students to make an annotated sketch showing how they ‘see’ an object illuminated by a torch in a dark room and how they see objects in a lighted room. Discuss ways of representing the paths of rays. Exploring: Pinhole cameras Ask students to investigate how the size and number of holes in a pinhole camera affects the image. Explaining: Straight lines 1 Demonstrate that light travels in straight lines. In a darkened room shine a beam of light onto a wall. Puff some talcum powder into the beam. The powder dust should illuminate the beam of light more clearly. Plenary: Thinking about light Consider All Possibilities: You cannot see an object in a room. (Possible answers: there is no light in the room; you are not facing the object; there is an opaque screen between you and the object; there is light in the room but none of it is shining on the object.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Ja Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students investigate how the size and number of holes in a pinhole camera affects the image. Demonstrate that light travels in straight lines. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Jb: Reflection Learning objectives Developing State the meaning of: reflect, scatter, transmit, absorb, reflection, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, normal, plane mirror. Describe some uses of plane mirrors. Describe the difference between even reflection and scattering, and recall the law of reflection. Use the ray model of light to explain how we see things that are not sources of light. Securing State the meaning of: diffuse, specular, incident ray, reflected ray. Use the ray model of light to explain how a periscope works. Use ray diagrams to explain the law of reflection and to describe the differences in light reflected from smooth and rough surfaces. Describe the characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror and use ray diagrams to explain its formation. Exceeding State the meaning of: convex mirror, concave mirror. Use ray diagrams to explain some of the features of images in periscopes. Working Scientifically Explain why internationally agreed symbols and conventions are necessary in science communication. Interpret diagrams that use scientific symbols and conventions. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Using mirrors Ask students to think of as many uses of mirrors as they can. Then ask them to explain why the mirror is useful in each case. Exploring: Make a periscope Ask students if they know what a periscope is, and to suggest some uses for it. Then ask students to design their own periscope using their knowledge of mirrors and reflection. Explaining: Images in plane mirrors Demonstrate the various properties of an image in a plane mirror. The distance of the image behind the mirror can be demonstrated simply by laying a ruler at right angles to the mirror, or use an object such as a pencil stuck in a piece of modelling clay in front and behind the mirror. Plenary: Thinking about reflection Odd One Out: incident ray, reflected ray, normal. (Possible answers: normal is not a light ray; normal is the only one that has a fixed angle.) What Was The Question: specular. (Possible questions: What is the name for the type of reflection that happens in a mirror? Name the type of reflection where all the reflected rays go in the same direction.) Differentiation Exploring: Make a periscope Ask students to draw a ray diagram to explain how their periscope works. Resources Resources from 8Jb Exploring Science. Maths skills Measuring angles. Practical skills Students design their own periscope using their knowledge of mirrors and reflection. Demonstrate the various properties of an image in a plane mirror. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Jc: Refraction Learning objectives Developing Describe some uses of lenses. State the meaning of: refraction, angle of refraction, refracted ray, convex lens, converging lens. Recall that light, sound travels at different speeds in different materials. Draw ray diagrams to describe the refraction of light as it passes into and out of different media. Describe the effects of convex lenses on parallel beams of light. Securing Explain why refraction occurs. State the meaning of focal length, focus, and principal axis. Relate the power of a lens to its shape. Exceeding Describe the effects of concave lenses on parallel beams of light. State the meaning of: total internal reflection, critical angle. Describe some uses of total internal reflection such as in optical fibres and in binoculars. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Refraction demonstrations Show students some examples of refraction. For example, stand a pencil in a beaker of water and ask students to describe the appearance of the pencil (it appears bent). Then ask them to explain the observed effects. Exploring: Investigating lenses Students use ray boxes to shine parallel rays of light through cylindrical converging lenses of different thicknesses and note the results. Explaining: Lens demonstration Use a ray box with triple slits to show students how a convex lens affects light. Then simulate a convex lens using two narrow prisms (available from equipment suppliers) placed base to base and using two ray boxes with single slits. Ask students to predict what a concave lens will do to rays of light. Plenary: Thinking about atoms and properties What Was the Question: bigger. (Possible questions: How does the angle of refraction compare to the angle of incidence when light goes from glass to air? How does the angle of incidence compare to the angle of refraction when light goes from air to water? How does the speed of light in air compare to the speed of light in glass/water?) Differentiation Exploring: Investigating lenses Extended this by using a spherical convex lens to form an image of a window or lamp on a screen to illustrate the effect of making light rays converge to a point. The relationship between the curvature of the lens and the distance between the lens and screen to achieve a focused picture can then be investigated. Resources Resources from 8Jc Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Show students some examples of refraction. Students use ray boxes to shine parallel rays of light through cylindrical converging lenses of different thicknesses and note the results. Use a ray box with triple slits to show students how a convex lens affects light. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Jd: Cameras and eyes Learning objectives Developing Recall the primary colours for light. Identify the parts of the eye (including rods and cones) and state their functions. Identify the parts of a camera and state their functions. Securing Use ray diagrams to explain image formation in pinhole cameras. Identify which parts of the eye cause refraction of light and describe how light is focused on the retina. Describe similarities and differences between cameras and eyes. Describe some examples of the absorption of energy transferred by light leading to chemical or electrical effects (in the retina or in a camera sensor). Describe how secondary colours of white light can be made from primary colours of light. Describe the way our eyes detect different colours. Exceeding Describe the causes and effects of long-sight and short-sight and how different types of lens are used to correct these defects. Explain how different types of lens are used to correct long-sight and shortsight. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Brainstorm cameras and eyes Show students a pinhole camera. Ask them to suggest the differences between the pinhole camera and a real camera. Then ask students to note down any similarities and differences they can think of between cameras and eyes. Exploring: Photograms Students record simple images by arranging various translucent and opaque objects on a piece of photographic paper and then using a table lamp to expose the paper until it turns black. Explaining: Model eye Use a 3D model eye to help students appreciate the structure of the eye. Ask them to identify the different parts of the model and explain their functions. Plenary: Thinking about cameras and eyes Consider All Possibilities: A camera does not take a good picture. (Possible answers: the camera is broken; there is not enough light; something is covering the lens; the settings on the camera are wrong; the person is not holding the camera still.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Jd Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students record simple images by arranging various translucent and opaque objects on a piece of photographic paper and then using a table lamp to expose the paper until it turns black. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Je: Colour Learning objectives Developing Describe how to split light into different colours using a prism and correctly use the terms: spectrum, dispersion. Recall the colours of the visible spectrum, in order. Recall that the appearance of an object depends on the colour of light shining on it. Recall that filters can be used to make coloured light. Securing Explain why coloured objects appear coloured. Explain how filters can be used to make coloured light. Explain why objects look different in light of different colours. Exceeding Explain how paints of different colours can be made by colour subtraction. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Rainbow brainstorm Ask students to describe a rainbow and the conditions in which rainbows occur. Ask them to suggest where the colours come from. Exploring: Exploring filters Students use white light from a ray box and shine it through different filters onto a white screen. Ask them to explore what happens when they use two filters, one after the other, and to suggest explanations for what they see happening. Explaining: Mixing paint Ask students to research how paints of different colours can be made by colour subtraction. Plenary: Thinking about colours What Was The Question: yellow. (Possible questions: What colour do you get if green and red lights are mixed? What colour has a wavelength in the middle of the visible spectrum? What colour does the Sun appear to be in the morning and afternoon? What colour would a white car appear if illuminated in street lights/yellow lights/a mixture of red and green lights?) Differentiation Exploring: Exploring filters Extend this by asking them to use a prism to produce a spectrum, and then to investigate what happens when they shine the spectrum through different filters. Resources Resources from 8Je Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students use white light from a ray box and shine it through different filters onto a white screen. They then explore what happens when they use two filters, one after the other. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ka: Temperature changes Learning objectives Developing Recall some units for measuring temperature. Recall that energy will be transferred by heating between materials at different temperatures. Explain how internal energy and temperature are different. Identify the direction in which energy will be transferred in given circumstances. Recall the effect of evaporation on the temperature of the remaining liquid and recall ways of reducing energy transfers by evaporation. Describe the factors that determine the temperature of an object. Securing Describe the factors that affect the rate of transfer of energy by heating. Use the particle model of matter to explain energy transfer by evaporation from a surface. Exceeding Convert between the Kelvin and Celsius scales. Describe how the average kinetic energy of the particles in a gas relates to its Kelvin temperature. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Living in extremes Ask students to brainstorm the ways in which humans adapt to extreme climates around the world by adapting their housing. Discuss the ideas put forward. Exploring: Sweat and cooling Model a sweaty human body using a plastic drinks bottle filled with warm water and wrapped in a damp paper towel or kitchen roll. Then ask students to use this model to find out if sweat can help you to cool down. Explaining: The cooling effect of evaporation Explain the link between the average speed of particles and temperature, and why evaporation produces a cooling effect. Plenary: Cooling by evaporation Put one drop of surgical spirit on to the back of students’ hands, and one drop of water. Ask students to explain why the surgical spirit feels colder than the water, even though both are at room temperature. Differentiation Exploring: Sweat and cooling Students could consider the validity of their model by researching relevant information about the human body and comparing it with similar information about their model. Resources Resources from 8Ka Exploring Science. Maths skills Choosing and using a suitable level of accuracy for measurements. Plot graphs. Practical skills Model a sweaty human body using a plastic drinks bottle filled with warm water and wrapped in a damp paper towel or kitchen roll. Students then use this model to find out if sweat can help you to cool down. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Kb: Transferring energy Learning objectives Developing Recall that energy can be transferred by heating in conduction, radiation and convection. Recall examples of common thermal conductors and insulators. Identify the process(es) in which energy is transferred by heating in a given situation. Describe how energy is transferred in conduction, convection and radiation. Explain why particular materials are used for given purposes. Use the particle model of matter to explain energy transfers by conduction and convection. Securing Compare conduction in thermal conductors and thermal insulators. Explain the process(es) in which energy is transferred by heating in a given situation. Compare conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation as methods of heat energy transfer. Exceeding Explain the causes and effects of wind chill. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Touching materials Provide students with a range of different materials, including metal objects and insulating materials, such as polystyrene foam. Ask them to touch each material and decide whether it feels warm or cold. Ask them to suggest why the materials feel different to the touch. Exploring: How fast does metal conduct heat? Students measure how fast heat travels along a metal rod, using a clamp and temperature sensors at equal intervals along it. Explaining: Convection in water Demonstrate a convection current in water using a potassium manganate(VII) crystal, a tube, a beaker of water and a Bunsen burner. Ask students to explain why some of the water turns purple and then why the purple water moves in the way it does. Plenary: Energy transfer demonstrations Show students two demonstrations (wood and metal, and a smoke box) and ask them to explain what is happening in each case, using words such as conductor, insulator, density, convection, etc., as appropriate. Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Kb Exploring Science. Maths skills Choosing and using a suitable level of accuracy for measurements. Practical skills Students measure how fast heat travels along a metal rod, using a clamp and temperature sensors at equal intervals along it. Demonstrate a convection current in water using a potassium manganate(VII) crystal, a tube, a beaker of water and a Bunsen burner. Show students two demonstrations (wood and metal, and a smoke box) and ask them to explain what is happening in each case. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Kc: Controlling transfers Learning objectives Developing Recall ways of reducing energy transfer by conduction, convection and evaporation. Apply the idea of different colours being good or poor emitters or absorbers. Explain why particular materials are used for given purposes. Securing Evaluate ways of increasing or decreasing energy transfer by conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. Compare the effects of different rates of conduction in different materials. Exceeding Apply the idea of thermal mass to homes. Working Scientifically State the meaning of: accuracy. State the meaning of: precision. Use information about resolution to choose measuring instruments. Explain how to avoid systematic and random errors. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Water as an insulator Ask students what they think will happen when you heat a borosilicate glass boiling tube of water with an ice cube held at its base with a piece of gauze. Demonstrate the practical and ask students to explain why the ice does not melt. Exploring: Investigating insulation Students plan and carry out an investigation of the factors that affect insulation, such as thickness of material, type of material, shiny/dull material, no air, etc. Explaining: Air as an insulator Demonstrate that most effective insulators consist mainly of air, by asking students to examine a piece of foam rubber or expanded polystyrene using a hand lens, or use a vacuum pump to evacuate the air from a piece of duvet filling. Plenary: Thinking about controlling energy transfer Odd One Out: glass, feathers, bubble wrap. (Possible answers: glass does not contain pockets of air; feathers come from living things.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Kc Exploring Science. Maths skills Choosing and using a suitable level of accuracy for measurements. Practical skills Demonstrate what happens when you heat a borosilicate glas s boiling tube of water with an ice cube held at its base with a piece of gauze. Students plan and carry out an investigation of the factors that affect insulation, such as thickness of material, type of material, shiny/dull material, etc. Demonstrate that most effective insulators consist mainly of air. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Kd: Power and efficiency Learning objectives Developing Match Sankey diagrams to simple situations. State the meaning of efficiency and recall some advantages of efficient appliances. Identify useful and wasted energies. Describe whether one machine is more efficient than another. Describe what power means, and the relationship between watts and joules/second. Securing Use Sankey diagrams to compare appliances or processes. Calculate energy efficiencies. Explain why the efficiency can never be greater than 100%. Exceeding Use the formula relating power, energy and time (in W, J and s). Evaluate energy-saving appliances or modifications. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Appliances brainstorm Ask students to work in groups to list all the devices they can that use electricity (either from cells or from the mains). Ask them to agree categories for the main way in which each device transfers energy, then to divide their lists into these categories. Exploring: Power ratings Students examine various items of domestic electrical equipment to find their power ratings. Ask students to find a connection between the type of energy transfer that the device carries out and its power rating. Explaining: Drawing Sankey diagrams Guide students through the process of converting data about energy transfers into a Sankey diagram. Plenary: Thinking about power and efficiency Odd One Out: electricity, heating, chemical. (Possible answers: chemical is the only one that is used as a name for an energy store; heating is the only one that is both a useful and a wasteful way of transferring energy.) Differentiation Exploring: Power ratings Use a joule meter to demonstrate the amount of energy used in a fixed time by different pieces of equipment. The results should be linked to the power ratings of the equipment. Resources Resources from 8Kd Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students examine various items of domestic electri cal equipment to find their power ratings. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ke: Paying for energy Learning objectives Developing Recall that electricity and mains gas are charged for on the basis of the energy transferred. Explain why power companies use the kWh as a measure of energy. Recall some advantages of low-energy appliances. Securing Use data to consider cost efficiency by calculating payback times. Evaluate different ways of keeping something warm. Exceeding Use data to evaluate methods of reducing carbon emissions. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Domestic fuel bills Ask students to work in pairs to come up with as many different explanations for this statement as they can: ‘One household spends twice as much as another on gas and electricity each year.’ Exploring: Energy survey Ask students to carry out an energy survey, by writing down an estimate of how long each type of electrical equipment is used for in their home each day and its power rating (in watts). Ask students to analyse their results (provide guidance). Explaining: Keeping warm Discuss (or ask students to research) some of the consequences of climate change and why we should try to reduce our use of fossil fuels. Plenary: Thinking about temperature Consider All Possibilities: A household’s energy bills go down. (Possible answers: the cost of electricity or gas has gone down; they are not using as many appliances; they have bought some more efficient appliances; they have insulated their home.) Differentiation Exploring: Energy survey Follow up the energy survey by asking students to produce a leaflet explaining the best ways to save energy at home. Resources Resources from 8Ke Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students complete an energy survey. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8La: Gathering the evidence Learning objectives Developing Explain how we see the Moon. Describe how the Earth, Moon and planets move. Describe the positions of the Earth and planets in the Solar System. Describe some ways of investigating the planets. Compare the geocentric and heliocentric models of the Solar System. Securing Use a model to explain why we see phases of the Moon. Explain how technological developments have increased our knowledge of the Solar System. Explain why the heliocentric model is our current model of the Solar System. Exceeding Compare different theories for the origin of the Moon. Use a model to explain why we have partial and total solar eclipses. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Spherical Earth? Ask students to jot down as many reasons as they can why we reject the theory that the Earth is flat and know that it is roughly spherical. Students should then write a short passage explaining the evidence that the Earth is not flat. Exploring: Exploring the Solar System Students work in groups to research one space mission and produce a brief presentation on what the spacecraft looked like, where it went and something that it found out. Explaining: Eclipses Demonstrate what happens during an eclipse using a globe to represent the Earth and a smaller ball to represent the Moon. Ask: Why does an eclipse not happen every month? Plenary: Thinking about the Earth in space Odd One Out: Sun, Earth, Moon. (Possible answers: the Sun is the only one that makes its own heat and light; the Earth is the only one we can live on; the Earth is the only one that we cannot see the shape of; the Moon is the only one we could do without and still survive.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8La Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate what happens during an eclipse using a globe to represent the Earth and a smaller ball to represent the Moon. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Lb: Seasons Learning objectives Developing Describe differences in the seasons in terms of day length and the height of the Sun. Explain the changes in day length and height of the Sun in terms of the tilt of the Earth’s axis. Securing Use a model to explain the changes in the seasons. Use a model to explain why the height of the Sun at noon and hours of daylight vary with latitude. Use a model to explain the pattern of light and dark at the poles. Explain the effect of the tilt of the Earth’s axis on the energy received from the Sun. Exceeding Obtain information from secondary sources to investigate the relationships in astronomical data. Analyse the rotations and axes of other planets to predict annual changes. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Differences between summer and winter Carry out a free-writing exercise, asking students to jot down all the differences they can think of between summer and winter. Exploring: Hours of daylight 2 Ask students to investigate if everywhere in the world has more hours of daylight in their summer months than in their winter months and how the latitude affects daylight hours. Explaining: Seasons demonstration 1 Use a globe and a strong light source to demonstrate the seasons. Plenary: Thinking about the seasons Consider All Possibilities: The North Pole is not tilted towards the Sun. (Possible answers: it is winter/spring/autumn in the northern hemisphere; we are not on Earth, but on another planet with a North Pole.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Lb Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Use a globe and a strong light source to demonstrate the seasons. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Lc: Magnetic Earth Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by a magnetic field and recall the shape of the field of a bar magnet. Describe the effect of the Earth’s magnetic field on compass needles. Explain how to arrange two magnets so that they attract or repel each other. Securing Recall the direction of a magnet’s magnetic field. Explain how a compass can be used together with maps for navigation. Explain how a plotting compass can be used to show the shape and direction of a magnetic field. Describe the Earth’s magnetic field and explain why a magnetic compass needle points north. Exceeding Describe the shape of the magnetic field between two bar magnets in different arrangements. Use ideas about the Earth’s magnetic field to explain variation, dip and deviation. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Floating paper clip Have the ‘floating paper clip’ practical set up at the front of the class as students enter. This should provide some instant discussion as to why the paper clip stays up and this can lead onto a discussion of magnetic materials. Exploring: Field patterns using iron filings Students find the shape of a magnetic field by placing a sheet of paper over a bar magnet and sprinkling iron filings onto the paper. Explaining: Direction of a magnetic field Magnetise a pin or needle and stick it vertically through a cork so that it floats in a bowl of water with its north pole uppermost. Ask students to predict what will happen if a magnet is held near the top of the pin. Plenary: Thinking about magnetic fields Plus, Minus, Interesting: Magnets should always repel each other. (Possible answers: Plus – it would be easier to tell the difference between a magnet and a magnetic material; Minus – magnets would not be as useful to us if they only repelled each other; Interesting – can a magnet exist with only one pole? You can only tell if you have two magnets by seeing if they will repel each other.) Differentiation Starter: Floating paper clip Extend the demonstration by using a bar magnet to pick up another bar magnet and show students that this only works if the two magnets are held with unlike poles together. Exploring: Field patterns using iron filings Extend this activity by asking students to find the shape of the field of a horseshoe magnet. Resources Resources from 8Lc Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Have the ‘floating paper clip’ practical set up at the front of the class as students enter. Students find the shape of a magnetic field by placing a sheet of paper over a bar magnet and sprinkling iron filings onto the paper. Magnetise a pin or needle and stick it vertically throug h a cork so that it floats in a bowl of water with its north pole uppermost. Ask students to predict what will happen if a magnet is held near the top of the pin. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Ld: Gravity in space Learning objectives Developing Recall the direction in which gravity acts. Recall the factors that affect the strength of gravity. State the meaning of gravitational field strength. Explain why the weight of an object changes if taken to the Moon, but not its mass. Recall that planets and natural satellites are kept in orbit by gravity. Securing Describe how mass and distance affect the strength of gravity. Describe how gravity affects bodies in space. Use gravitational field strength to calculate weights. Exceeding Explain why the speed of a planet changes as it moves around its orbit. Working Scientifically Use ratio notation to compare things. Convert fractions to decimals and percentages. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Gravity brainstorm Ask students to write down what they know about gravity and how it affects bodies in the Solar System. Exploring: ROKIT investigation Demonstrate the safe use of a model rocket kit. Groups of students could use the kit to investigate how the volume of the bottle or the volume of water used affects the maximum height reached by the ROKIT, how the angle of launch or the wind speed affect the range, or how the ROKIT can be streamlined. Explaining: Gravity and orbits Demonstrate the role of gravity by swinging a small object around your head on a length of string. Demonstrate what would happen if gravity did not exist by letting go of the string. Plenary: Thinking about gravity and the Solar System Consider All Possibilities: A rocket can’t get into orbit around the Earth. (Possible answers: the mass is too great; the engines do not produce enough force; there is not enough fuel to run the engines for long enough.) Differentiation Exploring: ROKIT investigation Challenge students to work out how to make accurate measure ments of altitude; and how to measure the trajectory (if they choose to investigate this). Resources Resources from 8Ld Exploring Science. Maths skills Drawing line graphs and scatter graphs, and using these to draw conclusions. Practical skills Students can use a ROKIT kit to investigate how various factors affect the height it can reach. Demonstrate the role of gravity by swinging a small object around your head on a length of string. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 8Le: Beyond the Solar System Learning objectives Developing State the meaning of: Sun, star, galaxy, Universe, constellation. Describe the Milky Way. State the meaning of: light year. Securing Explain that stars in a constellation only appear to be close to each other. Compare the relative sizes and distances of objects in space. Exceeding Describe the different shapes of galaxies and relate the view of the sky to a planet’s position in a galaxy. Describe some ways in which astronomers can detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Solar System concept maps Ask students to make concept maps to show what they have learned about the Solar System so far. Exploring: Research spending debate Ask students to research the approximate cost of a project (e.g. a new space telescope, a crewed mission to Mars) and the kinds of things the project might find out. They should also evaluate its benefits and drawbacks compared with other ways of finding out about space. Explaining: Orion model Make a model of the main stars in the constellation Orion by mounting small polystyrene spheres (representing stars) on sticks mounted on a board. Bamboo kebab skewers can be used for mounting. Students move around the model to see how the stars appear when viewed from different angles. Plenary: Thinking about the stars What Was The Question: Polaris. (Possible questions: Which star is above the North Pole? Name a star in the Little Bear constellation. Name the star that the two end stars in the Plough point to. Which star do you use to find north?) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 8Le Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills n/a Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ia: Forces and movements Learning objectives Developing Name different forces, such as weight, friction, upthrust, drag. Identify the forces acting on moving and stationary objects, and the directions in which they act. Explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces in a range of situations. Describe how drag changes with speed. Securing Calculate the resultant of forces acting along the same line. Explain why vehicles or other moving objects have a top speed. Exceeding Use scale drawings to find the resultant of forces in two dimensions. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: True or false Students work in pairs or threes to write out five statements about forces: three correct and two deliberately incorrect. Ask each group to read out one of their statements. The rest of the class should show a ‘thumbs up’ for true statements, and a ‘thumbs down’ for false ones. Exploring: Safer roads Ask students to make a road safety poster or computer presentation. The presentation should describe the forces on a moving car, how these forces can be changed and how the balance of these forces affects its movement. Explaining: Air track demonstration Demonstrate the effects of friction on movement using a linear air track. Plenary: Thinking about forces Consider All Possibilities: Car A has a higher top speed than car B. (Possible answers: car A has a more powerful engine/can produce a bigger force from its engine; car A has less friction in its wheels, etc.; car A has a more streamlined shape so its air resistance is less.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 9Ia Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate the effects of friction on movement usin g a linear air track. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ib: Energy for movement Learning objectives Developing Recall the different ways in which energy can be transferred and stored. Identify situations in which energy is stored or in which an energy transfer is taking place. Recall examples of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. Identify useful and wasted energies. Recall the law of conservation of energy. Securing State the meaning of efficiency. Describe the factors that affect an object’s kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. Exceeding Apply ideas about energy stores and transfers to complex situations. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Alphabet words Ask students to write out the alphabet vertically on a sheet of scrap paper and then to work in small groups to write one or more words for each letter that are connected with energy stores, transfers and resources. Exploring: Investigating pendulums Students investigate the factors that affect the swing of a pendulum, such as the length, mass or initial amplitude of swing on the period (time per swing). Explaining: Energy transfers and stores Set up two experiments to demonstrate energy transfers and stores: an electric motor connected to a cell, driving a pulley that can be used to lift a weight and a linear air track with elastic bands at the ends and set a glider moving gently. Plenary: Thinking about energy Odd One Out: solar energy, coal, tidal power. (Possible answers: coal is the only non-renewable resource; coal is the only resource that can easily be stored; tidal power is the only one that can be used only to generate electricity (solar can provide heating or electricity, as can coal).) Differentiation Explaining: Energy transfers and stores Set a pendulum swinging and ask students to explain why the pendulum will eventually stop swinging. Resources Resources from 9Ib Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students investigate the factors that affect the swing of a pendulum, such as the length, mass or initial amplitude of swing on the period (time per swing). Demonstrate energy transfers and stores using an electric motor connected to a cell, driving a pulley that can be used to lift a weight, and a linear air track with elastic bands at the ends and set a glider moving gently. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ic: Speed Learning objectives Developing Describe the meaning of speed and mean speed. Explain how the distance travelled and the time taken affects the speed. Use the formula relating speed, distance and time. Represent simple journeys on a distance– time graph. Describe changes of speed shown on a distance–time graph. Explain what relative speed means. Securing Explain why the maximum speed on a journey is usually greater than the mean speed. Calculate speeds from the gradient of a distance–time graph. Calculate the relative speed between two objects moving along the same line. Exceeding Work out the direction of relative motion for objects not moving along the same line. Working Scientifically Change the subject of a simple mathematical formula. Calculate the gradient of a line on a graph. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Brainstorm speed Ask students to jot down their ideas about speed, what it means, its units of measurement and some examples of fast- and slow-moving objects. Exploring: Investigating speed Students investigate the variables that affect the speed of toy cars running down a ramp. Factors that could be investigated: steepness of the slope, mass of the cars/trolleys, type of car, different surfaces for the ramp. Use light gates to measure the mean speed of the cars. Explaining: Measuring speed demonstration Demonstrate how a light gate can be used to measure the speed of a toy car or trolley down a ramp. Plenary: Thinking about speed Consider All Possibilities: One car completes its journey in a shorter time than another. (Possible answers: it travels faster; it does not stop and the other does; it does not have as far to go.) Differentiation Explaining: Measuring speed demonstration Use this demonstration to reinforce the meaning of accuracy and reliability. Resources Resources from 9Ic Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students investigate the variables that affect the speed of toy cars running down a ramp. Demonstrate how a light gate can be used to measure the speed of a toy car or trolley down a ramp. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Id: Turning forces Learning objectives Developing Describe how a simple lever can magnify force or distance. Identify the pivot, load and effort in Class 1 levers. Explain how levers are used in common devices. State what is meant by a moment of a force and recall its units. Recall that an object will balance if the moments are equal and opposite. Describe the factors that affect the size of a moment. Securing Identify the pivot, load and effort in Class 2 and Class 3 levers. Use the formula relating moment, force and perpendicular distance. Exceeding Describe how gears affect the force needed to move an object and the speed of movement. Explain how gears work using ideas about moments. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Examples of levers Show students examples of the same type of machine, such as a pair of embroidery scissors and a pair of kitchen scissors, or a small and large spanner. Ask students why the things are made in different sizes and ask them to suggest situations in which they would use the large or the small example. Exploring: Using levers Set up a circus and allow students to try different levers. Ask students to identify the pivot and the position of the effort. Explaining: Perpendicular distances Use a long object with a weighted end to demonstrate that, when working out a moment, the distance used must be perpendicular to the force. Calculate what the moment of the weight. Plenary: Thinking about levers Consider All Possibilities: You cannot lift a heavy mass using a lever. (Possible answers: the mass is too far away from the fulcrum; the lever is not long enough; you cannot provide enough force.) Differentiation Starter: Examples of levers Give students a scenario: they have a tin of paint and five different screwdrivers of different lengths (5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm). Ask them to write down which screwdriver they would choose and why, using as much physics as they can in their answers, including the words ‘pivot’, ‘load’ and ‘effort’. Resources Resources from 9Id Exploring Science. Maths skills Substitute into formulae. Practical skills Students try different levers. Use a long object with a weighted end to demonstrate that, when working out a moment, the distance used must be perpendicular to the force. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ie: More machines Learning objectives Developing Describe how a ramp or a simple pulley system can reduce the force needed to lift an object. Recall that if the force needed is decreased the distance it moves is increased. Describe the relationship between work done and energy transferred. Describe the factors that affect the total work done. Securing Use the formula relating work, force and distance moved. Use ideas about conservation of energy when explaining how simple machines work. Exceeding Work out the mechanical advantage of simple machines. Explain why the actual mechanical advantage may not be the same as the theoretical value. Use the idea that a force can be represented by two orthogonal forces. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Sure or unsure? Ask students to write down one thing about levers and moments that they are sure about, and one thing they are unsure about. Revise the things that students are having difficulty with. Exploring: Investigating pulleys Students investigate the force needed to lift a given mass with different numbers of pulleys in the system and also how far the mass and the pulling force move. Remind students how to convert a mass to a force. Explaining: Pulley and ramp demonstrations Demonstrate how pulleys and ramps reduce the force needed to move an object upwards. Plenary: Thinking about machines Odd One Out: ramp, lever, pulley. (Possible answers: ramp is the only one that does not move itself when the load is moved; pulley can be used to change the direction of a force as well as changing the size; lever is the only one that can be used to increase the size of the force needed/increase the distance moved.) Differentiation Exploring: Investigating pulleys Ask students to calculate the work done in each case. Resources Resources from 9Ie Exploring Science. Maths skills Substitute into formulae. Practical skills Students investigate the force needed to lift a given mass with different numbers of pulleys in the system and also how far the mass and the pulling force move. Demonstrate how pulleys and ramps reduce the force needed to move an object upwards. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ja: Force fields Learning objectives Developing Recall the shape and direction of a magnet’s magnetic field, and its effect on magnetic materials and other magnets. Describe the Earth’s magnetic field and its effect on compass needles. Recall the variables that affect the strength of gravity. State the meaning of gravitational field strength. Use gravitational field strength to calculate weights. Securing Describe how mass and distance affect the strength of gravity. Describe the variables that affect an object’s gravitational potential energy. Exceeding Describe how gravitational effects were used to estimate the mass of the Earth. Describe the domain model and use it to explain various phenomena connected with magnets. Use data to derive the formula relating the force of gravity to masses and the distance between them. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Revisit the floating paperclip Set up a floating paperclip at the front of the class. Ask students to explain why the paperclip stays up, what will happen if you move the magnet a little further from the paperclip and to suggest a ‘rule’ about the strength of the magnetic field. Exploring: Attraction and repulsion – magnets Students determine the rules for attraction and repulsion between the poles of bar magnets by suspending one magnet in a stirrup and bringing another close to it. Explaining: Modelling force fields Look at how gravitational and magnetic fields can be represented by lines showing the direction a mass/north pole will move. Plenary: Thinking about force fields Consider All Possibilities: An object is not attracted to a magnet. (Possible answers: the object is not made from a magnetic material; the object is too far away from the magnet; the magnetic field of the magnet is too weak; the object is another magnet and like poles are facing.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 9Ja Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students determine the rules for attraction and repulsion between the poles of bar magnets by suspending one magnet in a stirrup and bringing another close to it. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Jb: Static electricity Learning objectives Developing Recall how objects can be given a charge of static electricity, and describe some of its effects. Describe the kinds of materials that can and cannot be given a charge of static electricity. Recall the two types of charges and their effects on each other. Use ideas about attraction and repulsion to explain electrostatic phenomena involving repulsion between like charges. Securing Explain why a conducting object cannot be given a charge of static electricity. State what is meant by electric field, and recall the shape and direction of the electric field around a charged object. Describe the effect of an electric field on electrically charged objects. Explain how the transfer of electrons results in the two materials gaining equal and opposite charges. Exceeding Recall and explain how a charge can be induced in an uncharged object and use this idea to explain familiar electrostatic phenomena. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Tricks with static Rub a polythene or acetate rod with a duster until it has sufficient charge to pick up small pieces of tissue paper. Ask students to name the force that is lifting the paper. Ask students to suggest similarities and differences between this demonstration and using a magnet to pick up paperclips. Exploring: Attraction and repulsion – charges Students investigate the forces of attraction and repulsion between like and unlike charges, using acetate and polythene rods. Explaining: Van de Graaff generator demonstrations 2 Carry out a demonstration to show induced charges using a Van de Graaff generator: head of hair, spraying cereal, pie dishes or soap bubbles. Plenary: Thinking about static electricity Odd One Out: copper, glass, polythene. (Possible answers: copper is the only one that conducts electricity; copper is the only one that cannot be given a charge of static electricity by rubbing; glass is the only transparent one.) Differentiation Explaining: Van de Graaff generator demonstrations 2 Ask students to explain the demonstratio ns as they happen and then choose one demonstration to describe and explain on an A4 poster. Resources Resources from 9Jb Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate rubbing a polythene or acetate rod with a duster until it has sufficient charge to pick up small pieces of tissue paper. Students investigate the forces of attraction and repulsion between like and unlike charges, using acetate and polythene rods. Carry out a demonstration to show induced charges using a Van de Graaff generator. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Jc: Current electricity Learning objectives Developing Identify common symbols for components. Recall how the current changes when the voltage of the supply changes. Explain how switches can be used to control different parts of a parallel circuit. Describe how changing the number or type of components in a circuit affects the current. Describe how current and voltage behave in series and parallel circuits. Securing Describe how voltage and energy are linked. Describe a current as a flow of electrons. Exceeding Describe the relationship between watts and joules/second. Use the formula relating power, current and voltage. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Electricity true or false? Students work in pairs to write out five statements about circuits and electricity, of which two should be deliberately false. They read out one statement to the class, who decide if it is true or false. Exploring: Models of circuits Provide a model to explain how electrical circuits work (e.g. lorries collecting, transporting and depositing material; repeat). Ask students which part of the model represents parts of a circuit. Explaining: Switches Show students examples of different types of switch. Demonstrate the switches, and elicit ideas about how they work and what they can be used for. Plenary: Thinking about current electricity Odd One Out: atom, electron, nucleus. (Possible answers: atom, as the other two are parts of an atom; atom, as it normally has no charge whereas electrons and nuclei have charges; electron – the only particle that can move through a material.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 9Jc Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Show students examples of different types of switch. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Jd: Resistance Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by resistance and name its units. Describe the relationship between resistance and current. Describe how the resistance of a wire varies with length and thickness. Use the formula relating voltage, current and resistance. Securing Plan an investigation into how the resistance of a wire changes with length or thickness. Interpret a voltage–current graph for resistors of different values. Exceeding Describe how the resistance of a filament lamp changes with voltage. Explain why the resistance of a filament lamp increases with increasing voltage. Working Scientifically Round numbers to a given number of decimal places or significant figures. Decide on an appropriate level of accuracy before rounding numbers. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Variable resistors Show students a rheostat connected in series in a circuit with a bulb. Show the effect on brightness of moving the slider and ask them to suggest how the rheostat works, revising ideas about resistance. Exploring: Resistance and temperature Students investigate the effect of temperature on resistance using a filament bulb. Use the voltage across the bulb as a proxy for temperature. Explaining: A model for resistance Show students one or more models for electrical resistance. A simple physical model can be made using a ping-pong ball rolling down a shallow ramp. Plenary: Thinking about resistance Consider All Possibilities: A circuit is changed so that the current through a bulb decreases. (Possible answers: the voltage of the cell/power supply is reduced; more bulbs are added to the circuit; a resistor is added to the circuit; the bulb is changed for one with a higher resistance.) Differentiation Explaining: A model for resistance Students can discuss how the model could be changed to represent a wire at different temperatures and how this would model the results they obtained in their investigation. Resources Resources from 9Jd Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Show students a rheostat connected in series in a circuit with a bulb. Students investigate the effect of temperature on resistance using a filament bulb. Use the voltage across the bulb as a proxy for temperature. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Je: Electromagnets Learning objectives Developing Describe the shape of the magnetic field around a wire carrying a current. Describe an electromagnet and the shape of its magnetic field. Describe how the strength of an electromagnet can be changed. Explain how electromagnets are used in simple applications. Securing Explain how changing the size or direction of the current affects the magnetic field. Explain how electromagnets are used in relays. Describe how a wire carrying a current must be oriented in a magnetic field to produce a force. Describe how the motor effect is used in a simple electric motor and how the force it produces can be changed. Exceeding Use Fleming’s left-hand rule and the right-hand grip rule. Explain how the motor effect is used in unfamiliar devices. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Homopolar motor Make a simple homopolar motor (from a cell, a small magnet and some wire) and show it to students. Encourage them to come up with a list of questions, such as: ‘What is the wire for?’, ‘What shape is the magnetic field of the magnet?’, ‘Is there a current in the wire?’. Exploring: Make a motor Give students motor kits (available from equipment suppliers) and ask them to build a simple electric motor of the ‘Westminster pattern’. Explaining: Motor effect demonstration Demonstrate the motor effect (sometimes called the ‘catapult effect’). Ask students to suggest what will happen if you reverse the direction of the magnetic field or reverse the direction of the current. Plenary: Thinking about electromagnets Consider All Possibilities: An electromagnet will not pick up a can of food. (Possible answers: the can is made of a non-magnetic material; there is no current flowing through the electromagnet; the electromagnet is not strong enough to pick up the can of food.) Differentiation Explaining: Motor effect demonstration Introduce students to Fleming’s lefthand rule (they are not expected to remember this). Resources Resources from 9Je Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Students build a simple electric motor of the ‘Westminster pattern’, using a motor kit. Demonstrate the motor effect. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ka: Working Scientifically Material for revision National Curriculum statements 7Ba, 7Cb, 7Gb, 8Hd WS2: understand that scientific methods and Scientific method theories develop as earlier explanations are 7Da, 8Cb, 8Dc, 9Jd modified to take account of new evidence and Presenting information ideas, together with the importance of 8Ld Reasoned explanations publishing results and peer review 8Ba, 8Fc, 8Gd, 8Kc Evaluating data WS11: present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs Exemplar teaching activities WS2: Provide a set of statements and ask students to decide whether each one is a hypothesis, a prediction or data from an experiment. WS11: Tell students about a series of investigations that could be done about air and ask them to sketch the type of chart or graph that they would draw for each. Ask them to add labels to the axes to show which variable goes where. WS13: present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses WS13: Card sort with assorted hypotheses and conclusions. Ask students to match the conclusion to the relevant hypothesis in each case. WS14: evaluate data, showing awareness of potential sources of random and systematic error WS14: Provide students with a description of an experiment and some sets of results (one to include an error). Ask them to identify and suggest a reason for the anomalous result. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ka: Models in science Material for revision National Curriculum statements 8I Physical changes, particle P23: atmospheric pressure, decreases with model, pressure in fluids increase of height as weight of air above 8K Energy in matter decreases with height 8L Space physics P24: pressure in liquids, increasing with depth... Exemplar teaching activities P23: There is less pressure on you from the air if you go up a high mountain. Ask students to explain this statement using ideas about particles. P24: A diver will experience twice atmospheric pressure by descending 10 m below the surface, but you need to climb over 5000 m above sea level before air pressure is halved. Ask students to explain this statement in as much detail as they can. P50: conservation of material and of mass, and reversibility, in melting, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation, dissolving P50: Ask students to create a table with two columns: Physical changes and Chemical changes. Ask them to complete the first column to identify the characteristics of physical changes. P51: similarities and differences, including density differences, between solids, liquids and gases P51: Ask students to write down one similarity and one difference between the properties of a) solids and liquids and b) liquids and gases. P52: Brownian motion in gases P52: What can students recall about Brownian motion? Challenge them to explain Brownian motion using the particle model of matter. P53: diffusion in liquids and gases driven by differences in concentration P53: Using everyday examples, challenge students to explain diffusion in liquids and gases. P54: the difference between chemical and physical changes P54: Ask students to complete the second column of their table (P50) to identify the characteristics of chemical changes. P55: the differences in arrangements, in motion and in closeness of particles explaining changes of state, shape and density, the anomaly of ice– water transition P55: A substance cools down when energy is transferred away from it. Ask students to explain how this affects: a) the movement of the particles and b) the size of the object. P56: atoms and molecules as particles P56: Challenge students to explain a) why it is difficult to compress solids and liquids and b) why gases are easily compressed. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work P57: changes with temperature in motion and spacing of particles P57: Ask students to explain why the volume of a substance increases as it gets warmer. P60: our Sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies P60: Ask students to explain what the Milky Way is and why we cannot see its shape directly. P61: the seasons and the Earth’s tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres P61: Use a globe, light sensor and datalogging equipment to show students how the orientation of the Earth’s axis to the ‘Sun’ relates to the lengths of the days measured. P62: the light year as a unit of astronomical distance P62: Ask students: Does a light year measure distance or time? Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Kb: Energy Material for revision 7I Calculation of fuel uses and costs, energy changes and transfers, changes in systems 8K Calculation of fuel uses and costs 9I Energy changes and transfers) National Curriculum statements P1: comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ) Exemplar teaching activities P1: Provide a selection of food labels and ask students to sort them into high-, medium- and low-energy foods. P2: comparing power ratings of appliances in watts (W, kW) P2: Ask students to suggest why a kettle has a lower power rating than an electric shower. P3: comparing amounts of energy transferred (J, kJ, kW hour) P3: Provide the power ratings for some domestic appliances. At a cost of 12 pence per kWh, ask students to calculate the cost of running each appliance. P4: domestic fuel bills, fuel use and costs P4: Mrs Holman is choosing a fridge. Fridge A costs £120 and costs £27 per year to run. Fridge B costs £150 and costs £22 per year to run. Which one should she buy? Ask students to explain their answers. P5: fuels and energy resources P5: Card sort with assorted renewable energy resources, and their advantages and disadvantages. Ask the students match the advantages/disadvantages to the correct resource. P7: heating and thermal equilibrium: temperature difference between two objects leading to energy transfer from the hotter to the cooler one, through contact (conduction) or radiation; such transfers tending to reduce the temperature difference; use of insulators P7: Ask students to produce a set of cards to describe what happens in conduction and convection that could be used to help a different class learn about these processes. P8: other processes that involve energy transfer: changing motion, dropping an object, completing an electrical circuit, stretching a spring, metabolism of food, burning fuels P8: Show students images of different types of transport (e.g. motorbike, horse and carriage, car, steam engine, sailing ship, tram) and ask them to identify the energy transfers and state which ones are useful and which are not. P9: energy as a quantity that can be quantified and calculated; the total energy has the same value before and after a change P9: For some of the same images from P8, ask students to draw a Sankey diagram to show the energy transfers taking place. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work P10: comparing the starting with the final conditions of a system and describing increases and decreases in the amounts of energy associated with movements, temperatures, changes in positions in a field, elastic distortions and chemical compositions P10: Ask students to describe the energy changes taking place when a basketball is thrown upwards, falls through the hoop onto the ground, and bounces before coming to rest. P11: using physical processes and mechanisms, rather than energy, to explain the intermediate steps that bring about such changes P11: Ask students to describe the physical processes (e.g. forces) taking place for the scenario described in P10. P58: internal energy stored in materials P58: In a room in an ice hotel, the temperature of the air in the room is −5 °C; the temperature of the drinks is 70 °C. Ask students: a) Will energy flow from the drinks to the room or from the room to the drinks? Ask them to explain their answer. b) One of the drinks is left for 10 hours. Ask them to explain what its final temperature will be. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Kc: Forces Material for revision 7K Describing motion, forces, balanced forces, forces and motion 8I Pressure in fluids 9I Describing motion, forces National Curriculum statements P12: speed and the quantitative relationship between average speed, distance and time (speed = distance ÷ time) Exemplar teaching activities P12: Give students some data to calculate speed/distance/time and relative speeds. P13: the representation of a journey on a distance–time graph P13: Describe a journey and ask students to describe what the corresponding distance–time graph should look like. Ask them to sketch the graph. P14: relative motion: trains and cars passing one another P14: Provide some speed data for trains and cars passing each other and ask students to calculate the relative speeds. P15: forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between two objects P15: Ask students to write down three ways in which a force can affect a football. P16: using force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in one dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces P16: Card sort with assorted labels to show what happens when you use a force meter to weigh an object. Ask students to work in pairs to sort the cards. P18: forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing – springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water P18: The tread on bicycle and car tyres is designed to allow water to escape from under the tyre on wet roads. Ask students to explain why this is important. P19: forces measured in newtons, measurements of stretch or compression as force is changed P19: A spring stretches 2 cm when a 10 N weight hangs on it. Ask students how far it will stretch with a weight of 20 N. P20: force–extension linear relation; Hooke’s Law as a special case P20: Provide copies of an extension–force graph and ask students to label it to explain how extension varies with force. P22: non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on Earth and in space; forces between magnets and forces due to static electricity P22: Ask students to explain why they would weigh less on the Moon than they do on Earth. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work P24: ... upthrust effects, floating and sinking P24: Steel is denser than water, so how can a steel ship float? Ask students to discuss this with a partner and then present their ideas to another pair for review. P25: pressure measured by ratio of force over area – acting normal to any surface P25: Ask students to design an experiment to find out the pressure under their shoes when they are standing up? They should list the apparatus they will need and explain how they will use it. P26: opposing forces and equilibrium: weight held by stretched spring or supported on a compressed surface P26: Card sort with assorted labels to show what happens when someone does a bungee jump (only show what happens as far as the bottom of the first fall). Ask students to work in pairs to sort the cards. P27: forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (qualitative only) P27: Ask students to explain why a sailing boat will slow down if the wind speed gets less. P28: change depending on direction of force and its size P28: Ask students to name the forces acting on a skydiver, and to describe their speed, before and after they open their parachute. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Kd: Waves and fields Material for revision National Curriculum statements 7L Observed waves, sound P29: waves on water as undulations that travel waves, energy and waves through water with transverse motion; these 8J Light waves waves can be reflected, and add or cancel – 8L Magnetism, space superposition physics 9J Static electricity, P30: frequencies of sound waves, measured in magnetism, space physics hertz (Hz); echoes, reflection and absorption of sound Exemplar teaching activities P29: People in small boats need to be careful if they are sailing near cliffs, because the waves can be bigger than in the open sea, and may be coming from more than one direction. Ask students to explain why this is. P30: Each bat can produce different frequencies of ultrasound. Ask students to explain why this is useful if there are many bats hunting together. P31: sound needs a medium to travel, the speed of sound in air, in water, in solids P31: You can make your voice carry further by cupping your hands around your mouth or by shouting through a paper cone. Ask students to explain why this works. P32: sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loud speakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum; sound waves are longitudinal P32: Show students a 3D model of the human ear. Ask for volunteers to describe how it works and what the individual parts do. P33: auditory range of humans and animals P33: Provide a set of auditory ranges for different animals and ask students to analyse them, based on questions, e.g. dogs can hear the sound made by dog whistles but humans cannot. Suggest a frequency that a dog whistle might produce. P34: pressure waves transferring energy: for cleaning and physiotherapy by ultra-sound; waves transferring information for conversion to electrical signals by microphone P34: Energy transferred by ultrasound is used to clean a watch. Ask students: What does the energy do? P35: the similarities and differences between light waves and waves in matter P35: Someone is singing in another room with the door closed. Ask students to explain why you can hear them but not see them. P36: light waves travelling through a vacuum; speed of light P36: Ask students to explain why they see the flash from a ‘flash pot’ before they hear the bang. P37: the transmission of light through materials: absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface P37: Ask students to explain why they can see their reflection better in a piece of metal if they polish the surface. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work P38: use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors... P38: ... the pinhole camera... P38: ... the refraction of light and action of convex lens in focusing (qualitative); the human eye P38: Ask students to draw and label a ray diagram, with a ray of light hitting a plane mirror at point X. P38: Ask students to investigate the effects of changing variables using a pinhole camera, for example the length of the camera, the size of the hole, the number of holes, the distance from the candle. P38: Ask students to label a diagram of the human eye. P39: light transferring energy from source to absorber leading to chemical and electrical effects; photo-sensitive material in the retina and in cameras P39: Ask students to name the two types of cell in the retina and to describe what each type of cell does. P40: colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only); differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection P40: Ask students which colours in white light does a blue object a) reflect and b) absorb. P44: separation of positive or negative charges when objects are rubbed together: transfer of electrons, forces between charged objects P44: Ask students to explain why only negative charges are transferred when you rub an insulating material. P45: the idea of electric field, forces acting across the space between objects not in contact P46: magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion P47: magnetic fields by plotting with compass, representation by field lines P48: Earth’s magnetism, compass and navigation P45: Ask students to investigate what happens when two charged rods are suspended close to each other when a) they are both acetate rods and b) one is acetate and one is polythene. P46: Ask students to explain what happens when you put two bar magnets near each other. P47: Ask students to plot the shape of the magnetic field around bar magnet using plotting compasses. P48: In pairs, ask students to draw a diagram to model the Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work P59: gravity force, weight = mass × gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g = 10 N/kg, different on other planets and stars; gravity forces between Earth and Moon, and between Earth and Sun (qualitative only) Earth’s magnetic field. Ask them to explain their diagrams. P59: Read out statements about gravity, making some deliberately wrong. Ask students to state whether each statement is true or false, and to correct the wrong statements. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ke: Machines Material for revision 7J Current electricity 9I Forces 9J Current electricity, magnetism National Curriculum statements P6: simple machines give bigger force but at the expense of smaller movement (and vice versa): product of force and displacement unchanged Exemplar teaching activities P6: Demonstrate different classes of lever (or use images) and ask students to identify the position of the load, effort and pivot in each one. P17: moment as the turning effect of a force P17: A spanner is 0.2 m long and the force is 20 N. Ask students to calculate the moment of the force. P21: work done and energy changes on deformation P21: A heavy box is pulled along the floor. The work done is 200 J. Ask students to explain the final form of this energy store. P41: electric current, measured in amperes, in circuits, series and parallel circuits, currents add where branches meet and current as flow of charge P41: Show students a series circuit with two bulbs in it. Ask what will happen to a) the current in the circuit and b) the brightness of the remaining bulb if one bulb is removed and the gap in the circuit is joined up. Show them the result. P42: potential difference, measured in volts, battery and bulb ratings; resistance, measured in ohms, as the ratio of potential difference (p.d.) to current P42: Ask students to calculate the resistance of a component that has a current of 3 A through it when the voltage is 18 V. P43: differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components (quantitative) P43: Ask students to describe how they could demonstrate the resistance in different materials. P49: the magnetic effect of a current, electromagnets, D.C. motors (principles only) P49: Provide students with a diagram of an electric bell. Ask them to label it and to explain how the electromagnet works in the circuit. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9La: Differences Learning objectives Developing Describe how potential difference and energy are linked. Identify the direction in which energy will be transferred in given circumstances. Describe how energy is transferred in convection. Describe convection in terms of density and pressure differences. Use ideas about energy and bonds to explain why there is no change in temperature of a solid, liquid or gas at its melting point or boiling point. Securing Describe the effect of a substance’s specific heat capacity on its ability to store thermal energy. Use ideas about latent heat to explain phenomena related to changes of state. Exceeding Explain some of the links between convection currents and climate. Use the formulae for latent heat and specific heat capacity in calculations. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: The scientific method Ask students to sketch a flow chart outlining the scientific method, then ask for contributions from the class in order to draw one on the board. Allocate an area of science to small groups of students and ask them to discuss whether scientists in all these areas follow the scientific method in the same way. Exploring: Specific heat capacity Students investigate whether the same masses of different metals all show the same temperature increase when supplied with the same amount of energy. Explaining: Latent heat of vaporisation of water Demonstrate a rough measurement of the latent heat of vaporisation of water, using a beaker of water on a hotplate. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: The temperature of a substance is not changing. (Possible answers: the substance is melting/evaporating/ freezing/condensing; the substance is at the same temperature as its surroundings; the substance is well insulated.) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 9La Exploring Science. Maths skills Plotting graphs or charts. Calculate specific heat capacity and specific latent heat. Practical skills Students investigate whether the same masses of different metals all show the same temperature increase when supplied with the same amount of energy. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Lb: Fields Learning objectives Developing State what is meant by a magnetic field, gravitational field and electric field. Represent force fields using diagrams. Describe the factors that affect the amount of gravitational potential energy stored in an object. Securing Evaluate the models used to represent different types of force field. Use the formula for gravitational potential energy. Exceeding Describe how two electric fields or two gravitational fields affect each other. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Five facts Ask students to work in pairs to write down five facts they recall about force fields. Create a class list and review. Exploring: Falling lead Students demonstrate how gravitational potential energy can be transferred to a store of thermal energy, by placing lead shot in a sealed tube and repeatedly inverting the tube. Explaining: Fields Revise the idea of a force field with students, and introduce the formula for calculating gravitational potential energy. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: Object A is storing more gravitational potential energy than object B. (Possible answers: A has a greater mass than B; A is higher than B; A is on a planet with a stronger gravitational field than B.) Differentiation Exploring: Falling lead Ask students to calculate the efficiency of the transfer from gravitational potential energy to thermal energy, reminding them of the formula if necessary. They can also be asked to suggest ways in which the efficiency could be improved (e.g., by insulating the tube). Resources Resources from 9Lb Exploring Science. Maths skills Calculate thermal energy stores. Practical skills Students demonstrate how gravitational potential energy can be transferred to a store of thermal energy, by placing lead shot in a sealed tube and repeatedly inverting the tube. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Lc: Cause and effect Learning objectives Developing Explain what forces are needed to cause certain changes in motion. Recall that gravity is a force that acts between any two objects with mass. Securing Identify action–reaction pairs in simple situations (the term action–reaction is not required). State that correlation is not an indicator of causation. Exceeding Outline the basic idea behind the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics, and explain why one theory superseded the other. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Brainstorm cause and effect Give students an everyday example of an activity, e.g. running for the bus. Ask them to suggest what effects this could cause and then to suggest what could have caused the need to run for the bus. Ask them to think up two more cause–effect sequences based on everyday activities. Exploring: Weather fronts Introduce the idea of weather fronts and how they affect weather in the UK. Ask students to explain how weather fronts cause cloud and rain. Explaining: Cause and effect Look at cause and effect, both in terms of whether correlation always implies causation and as a basic introduction to action–reaction force pairs. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: Forces in opposite directions are equal. (Possible questions: describe the forces between an apple and the Earth; describe the vertical forces on a spring with a mass on the end; describe the forces on a car moving at a constant speed.) Differentiation Exploring: Weather fronts Challenge students to find out and explain why winds are strongest in places where weather maps show isobars closest together. Resources Resources from 9Lc Exploring Science. Maths skills Correlations using line graphs of two variables on the same axes. Practical skills n/a Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Ld: Links between variables Learning objectives Developing Identify relationships shown on scatter graphs. Describe relationships shown on graphs as linear. Securing Identify direct and inverse proportionality using graphs. Exceeding Use data to investigate the idea of absolute zero. Use formulae and graphs to work out how to relate the extension of a spring to the energy stored. Working Scientifically Use the general formula for a straight line to extract information from graphs showing linear or proportional relationships. Use a speed–time graph to find distance travelled. Calculate speeds from the gradient of a distance–time graph. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Which graph? Give students a list of different things that could be presented using charts or graphs (the constituents of air, cooling curve for solidifying wax, specific heat capacities of different materials, current and voltage in a circuit) and ask them to jot down how they think each should be presented and to explain their suggestions. Exploring: Gas pressure and temperature Students measure the pressure of a fixed volume of gas at different temperatures. The aim of this practical is to obtain a set of results that show a linear relationship, not to look into detail at the gas laws. Explaining: Links between variables Look at how some relationships can be expressed numerically. Plenary: Thinking skills Consider All Possibilities: The pressure of the gas in a container gets less. (Possible answers: the volume of the container has been increased; the temperature of the gas has decreased; some of the gas has been taken out of the container; the container is open and has been taken higher in the atmosphere.) Differentiation Exploring: Gas pressure and temperature Introduce students to the idea of extrapolation, and ask them to plot another graph to find where the line on their graph would meet the horizontal axis. Ask them what kind of relationship their results would show if the temperature scale started at this point. Resources Resources from 9Ld Exploring Science. Maths skills Presenting data graphically. Expressing relationships numerically. Practical skills n/a Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Lesson 9Le: Models Learning objectives Developing Describe longitudinal waves in terms of particle movements. Compare longitudinal and transverse waves. Identify when abstract and physical models are being used, and explain why they are used. Securing Evaluate an abstract model. Exceeding Use ideas about work and energy to explain phenomena connected with compressing gases. Explain weather phenomena using ideas about temperature, pressure and humidity. Exemplar teaching activities Starter: Bottle garden Show students a sealed bottle garden. Tell them that this kind of garden can survive and thrive for many years without any substances being added. Elicit ideas about what the bottle garden can be used to model, and a brief evaluation for each suggestion. Exploring: Wave models 1 Remind students of the differences between longitudinal and transverse waves using a ‘slinky’ spring as a model. Then show students a ripple tank; use it to demonstrate aspects of waves: reflection, refraction and superposition. Ask students to compare and evaluate the models. Explaining: Wave models 2 Use a signal generator, loudspeaker and oscilloscope to show sound waves and the links between pitch and frequency, and between loudness and amplitude. Elicit the idea that the wave image on the oscilloscope screen is a model for the sound waves. Ask students to compare and evaluate the model. Plenary: Thinking skills What Was The Question: abstract model. (Possible questions: What kind of model is a chemical formula/ chemical equation/mathematical formula/graph/computer model? What is the name for the kind of model you cannot touch?) Differentiation n/a Resources Resources from 9Le Exploring Science. Maths skills n/a Practical skills Demonstrate longitudinal, transverse and sound waves. Exploring Science Working Scientifically – KS3 Physics, 3-year scheme of work Written by Penny Johnson.

Download
# KS3 Physics 3-year scheme of work