Creating Learning Environments
Chapter 11
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Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Overview
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The Need for Organization
Creating a Positive Learning Environment
Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning
The Need for Communication
Learning Environments for All Students
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Concept Map for
Chapter 12
The Need for
Communication
Need for
Organization
Creating Learning
Environments
Maintaining a
Good Environment
for Learning
Learning
Environments for
All Students
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Creating a
Positive Learning
Environment
The Need for Organization
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Characteristics of Classrooms:
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Multidimensional
Simultaneous
Immediate
Unpredictable
Public
Histories
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Basic Management Task
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Gain and maintain cooperation
Motivate and engage
Adjust management to ages of
students
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Age Related Needs
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Early elementary: teach rules and procedures
Middle elementary: monitor and maintain
Late elementary and beginning high school:
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Diplomatically deal with defiance
Motivate those immersed in social life
Senior high school:
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Manage curriculum
Adapt academics to student needs and interests
Teach self-management
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Goals for Classroom Management
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Time for learning
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Allocated time
Engaged time or time on task
Academic learning time
Access to learning
 Participation structures
 Self-management
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Where Does the Time Go?
Academic Learning Time
Engaged Time
Actual Academic Time
Attended Time
Total Time
0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Hours
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Creating a Positive Learning Environment:
Strategies from Research
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Rules and procedures are required
Plan spaces for learning
Plan for effective classroom management
Get off to a good start
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Classroom Procedures
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Administrative routines
Student movement
Housekeeping
Lesson routines
Teacher-student interactions
Student-student interactions
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Rules for Making Rules
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Do’s and don’ts
Often written down and posted
Set the atmosphere
Consistent with school rules
Consistent with principles of learning
Make a few, good rules
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Rules for Elementary School
 Be
polite and helpful
 Respect other’s property
 Listen when others are speaking
 Do not hit, shove, or hurt others
 Obey school rules
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Rules for Secondary School
 Bring
required materials to class
 Seated and ready at the bell
 Respect and be polite to everyone
 Respect other people’s property
 Sit and listen while others speak
 Obey all school rules
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Consequences of Breaking Rules
Plan ahead
 “Bill of Rights”
 Reasons for
appropriate behavior
 Self-management
 Penalties
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Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Categories of Penalties
Express disappointment
Lose privileges
Exclude from group
Write a reflection
Detention
Visit the principal’s office
Contact parents
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Planning Spaces for Learning
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Interest areas
Personal territories
Action zone
Seating
arrangements
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Room Arrangements
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Be aware of the action zone
Horizontal rows: whole group
presentations
Clusters or circle: student interaction
Fishbowl or stack: close up
demonstrations
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Getting Started : Elementary
First day well planned and organized
 Deal with student’s main concerns
 Teach rules and procedures
 Whole group focus
 Appeal to student interests
 Monitor the whole group
 Stop misbehavior quickly
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Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Getting Started : Secondary
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Establish rules, procedures, and standards
Clearly communicate standards for work
Consistently enforce expectations
Monitor students closely
Deal with rule infractions quickly
Shorter work cycles for lower ability students
Monitor student progress carefully
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Maintaining a Good Environment
for Learning
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Busy students are better behaved
Supervise students closely
Include cues for desired behaviors
Clear steps for activities
Provide necessary materials
Engage students in authentic tasks
Employ curiosity, interest
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Prevention Is the Best Medicine
 Withitness
 Overlapping
 Group
focus
 Movement management
 Monitor
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Dealing with
Discipline Problems
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Make eye contact
Verbal hints : name dropping
Ask students if they are aware of the consequences
of their behavior
Remind students of the relative rule or procedure
Ask the student to state the correct rule or procedure
and follow it
Assertively tell the student to stop the misbehavior
Offer a choice
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Special Problems with
Secondary Students
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Work not completed:
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Teach students how to use a daily planner
Keep accurate records
Enforce established consequences
Do not grade on “the benefit of the doubt”
Continue to break rules:
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Seat student away from other students
Catch them before they break the rules
Enforce established consequences
Don’t accept promises
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Special Problems: Hostile Behaviors
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Get out of the situation as soon as possible
Give the student the choice to cooperate
Allow a short cool down period
Talk privately in the hall
Send another student for the assistant principal
Conference with a counselor, parents, other
teachers
Keep a record of the incident
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Special Problems: Violence or
Destruction of Property
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Send for help
Get the names of all participants
Disperse any crowd
Do NOT try to break up a fight without help
Inform the school office of the incident
Follow the school policy
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
The Need for Communication
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Message Sent =
Message Received?
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Hidden messages
Body language
Choice of words
Paraphrase rule
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Who’s Problem Is It?
 Does
this affect my role as
teacher?
 Student owned: actively listen
 Teacher owned: problem solve
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Counseling: The Student’s Problem
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Empathetic listening
– Block out external stimuli
– Listen carefully
– Differentiate between intellectual
and emotional messages
– Make inferences about the
speaker’s feelings
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Confrontation and Assertive
Discipline
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Use of “I” messages
Passive or hostile responses
Care enough to confront
Clearly stated expectations with eye contact
Do not debate “fairness” of the rules
Expect changes, not promises or excuses
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Confrontation and Negotiation
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Teacher imposes a solution
Teacher gives in to student demands
Gordon’s “no-lose method”
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Define the problem
Generate many possible solutions
Evaluate each solution
Make a decision on a solution
Determine how to implement the solution
Evaluate the success of the solution
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
Student Conflicts and
Confrontations
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Peer harassment
Violence
– Prevention is the best cure
– High academic expectations
– Genuine care for students
Mentoring, peer mediation, conflict resolution,
social skills, relevance, community involvement
programs
Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
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Creating Learning Environments Chapter 11

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