CHAPTER
17
*****DUE MONDAY JANUARY 13 2014*********
Name
Text Pages: 418–505
POINT TO PONDER:
“Time is usually wasted in the same way every day.”—Paul Meyer
WHY STUDY HAIRSTYLING?
1. In your own words, explain why cosmetologists should study and thoroughly
understand hairstyling.
(Answers will vary but may include the idea that hairstyling is an important,
foundational skill that allows professionals to articulate creativity and deliver
specific, client-desired outcomes. Clients rely on cosmetologists to teach
them about their hair and how to style it so they can have varied options.
Clients look to cosmetologists for special styles, so cosmetologists need
vision to determine the right designs for cut and color. Hairstyling skills help
cosmetologists help clients be as contemporary as they would like to be.)
CLIENT CONSULTATION
2. What is the best way for clients to convey their expectations in terms of hairstyle
preference? (Clients should look through magazines or the cosmetologist’s
portfolio to find styles they like.)
3. What factors will help determine the best hairstyle?
(The client’s face shape,
hair type, and lifestyle.)
WET HAIRSTYLING BASICS
4. List commonly used wet hairstyling tools.
a) (Combs.)
b) (Brushes.)
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59
c) (Rollers—plastic.)
d) (Clips—duckbill, sectioning, finger waving, double prong, single prong.)
e) (Pins—bobby pins and hairpins.)
f) (Clamps—sectioning.)
FINGER WAVING
5. Finger waving is the process of (shaping and directing the hair into an S
pattern)
through the use of the fingers, combs, and waving lotion.
6. Why should cosmetologists learn finger waving of the 1920s and 1930s?
(Many women today are influenced by movie stars and celebrities they see
wearing gorgeous, dramatic finger waves. In addition, finger waving teaches
the technique of moving and directing hair and provides valuable training in
molding hair to the head’s curved surface.)
7. ( Waving lotion)
is a type of hair gel that makes the hair pliable enough to
keep it in place during the finger-waving procedure.
8. Waving lotion is traditionally made from
in (Africa) and (India) .
(karaya gum) , taken from trees found
9. How will you know if you have used too much waving lotion on the hair?
(The hair will be too wet, and the waving lotion will drip.)
10. How do vertical finger waves differ from horizontal finger waves?
(In vertical finger waving, ridges and waves run up and down the head, while
horizontal finger waves are sideways and parallel around the head.)
PIN CURLS
11.
(Pin)
curls serve as the basis for patterns, lines, waves, and rolls that are
used in a wide range of hairstyles.
12. Pin curls can be used only on hair that has been permanently waved.
True
(X)
False
13. Pin curls work best when the hair is layered and smoothly wound.
(X)
True
False
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14. Identify the three principal parts of pin curls.
a) (Base.)
b) (Stem.)
c) (Circle.)
15. The (base) is the stationary (nonmoving) foundation of the curl, which is the
area closest to the scalp.
16. The (stem) is the section of the pin curl between the base and first arc (turn)
of the circle that gives the circle its direction and movement.
17. The size of the (circle) , the hair that is wrapped around the roller, determines
the width of the wave and its strength.
18. The
is the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller.
a) Base
(X)
b) Stem
c) Circle
19. Curl mobility is classified as which of the following?
a) No-stem
b) Half-stem
c) Full-stem
(X)
d) All of these answers are correct.
20. The (no-stem) curl is placed directly on the base of the curl; produces a tight,
firm, long-lasting curl; and allows minimum mobility.
21. The (half-stem) curl permits medium movement, is placed half off the base,
and gives good control to the hair.
22. The (full-stem)
curl allows for the greatest mobility because it is placed
completely off the base and gives as much freedom as the length of the stem
will permit.
23. The base of a full-stem curl may be what shape?
(The base of a full-stem curl
can be square, triangular, half moon, or rectangular, depending on the area of
the head in which the curl is used.)
24. A(n) (shaping) is a section of hair that is molded in a circular movement in
preparation for the formation of curls.
25. Shapings are either (open end) or (closed end) .
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61
26.
(Open-center) curls produce even, smooth waves and uniform curls.
27.
(Closed-center)
curls produce waves that get smaller toward the end.
28. What is a clockwise curl? (A clockwise curl is formed in the same direction as
the movement of the hands of a clock.)
29. What is a counterclockwise curl? (A counterclockwise curl is formed in the
opposite direction from the movement of the hands of a clock.)
30. What base shapes are used in pin curls?
a) (Arc, half-moon, or C-shape.)
b) (Rectangular.)
c) ( Triangular.)
d) (Square.)
31. To avoid splits in a finished hairstyle, use care when selecting and forming the
(curl base)
32. Where are rectangular base pin curls recommended?
(Rectangular base pin
curls are usually recommended at the side front hairline for a smooth,
upsweep effect.)
33. Where are triangular base pin curls recommended?
( Triangular base pin curls
are recommended along the front or facial hairline to prevent breaks or splits
in the finished hairstyle.)
34. Where are arc base pin curls used? (Arc base pin curls are carved out of a
shaping and may be used at the hairline or in the nape.)
35. When are square base pin curls used? (Square base pin curls are suitable for
curly hairstyles without much volume or lift.)
36. To avoid splits when combing out a pin curl set, you should
the sectioning.
(stagger)
37. is the technique that involves forcing the hair between the thumb and the
back of the comb to create tension.
a) Threading
(X)
b) Ribboning
c) Slicing
d) Sculpting
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.
38. Pin curls sliced from a shaping and formed without lifting the hair from the head
are called (carved) curls, also known as (sculptured)
curls.
39. How are pin curls used to create ridge curls?
( To create ridge curls, pin curls
are placed immediately behind or below a ridge.)
40. What are skip waves? (Skip waves are two rows of ridge curls, usually on the
side of the head.)
41. (Barrel) curls have large center openings and are fastened to the head in a
standing position on a rectangular base.
42. What effect do barrel curls give? (Barrel curls give the same effect as rollers
but with different tension.)
43. What are cascade curls used for? (Cascade or stand-up curls are used to
create height in a hair design.)
44. How are cascade curls fastened? (Cascade curls are fastened to the head in
a standing position to allow the hair to flow upward and then downward.)
ROLLER CURLS
45. What advantages do rollers have over pin curls?
a) (Rollers are a much faster way to set hair.)
b) (Because hair wraps around rollers with tension, the set is stronger and
longer lasting.)
c) (Rollers broaden the creative possibilities of any style.)
46. Identify the three parts of the roller curl.
a) (Stem.)
b) (Curl.)
c) (Base.)
47. What is the function of the base in a roller curl?
(The base is the panel of hair
on which the roller is placed.)
48. What is the appropriate size of a roller-curl base?
(The base should be the
same length and width as the roller.)
49. In a roller curl, the (stem)
roller.
is the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the
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63
(The stem gives the hair
50. What is the function of the stem in a roller curl?
direction and mobility.)
51. In a roller curl, the (curl)
or circle is the hair that is wrapped around the roller.
52. Why is the size of a roller-curl circle important?
(The circle of a roller curl
determines the size of the wave or curl.)
53. Match the following type of curl with the number of times it is wound around the
roller.
(b)
One complete turn
a) Curls
(c)
One and a half turns
b) C-shaped curl
(a)
Two and a half turns
c) Wave
54. The amount of (volume) that is achieved depends on the size of the roller and
how it sits on its base.
55. An on-base curl will give (full) volume.
56. A half-base curl will give
(medium) volume.
57. A(n) (off-base) curl will give very little volume.
58. For versatility in styling, a(n) (downward) directional wrap gives options to style
in all directions while still maintaining volume.
59. (Indentation) is the point where curls of opposite directions meet, forming a
recessed area.
60. Hot rollers are to be used only on dry hair.
(X)
True
False
61. What type of client is best suited for a Velcro set?
(A client who needs more
body than can be achieved with a round brush and less volume than a
hot-roller or wet set will produce is a good candidate for a Velcro set.)
62. Why do the state boards of some states and provinces disallow Velcro rollers?
(Some states and provinces disallow Velcro rollers because they are difficult to
clean and disinfect properly.)
63. How long do Velcro rollers stay in the hair?
(Velcro rollers need to stay in the
hair for only 5 to 10 minutes, depending on how much set is desired in the
hair.)
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COMB-OUT TECHNIQUES
64. What are the benefits of a well-structured system of combing out hairstyles?
(A well-structured system of combing out hairstyles saves time and delivers
more consistent results.)
65. What is the best way to lift and increase volume, as well as remove the
indentations caused by roller setting? (Backcombing and backbrushing are the
best ways to lift and increase volume, as well as remove the indentations
caused by roller setting.)
66. List the alternative names for backcombing.
a) ( Teasing.)
b) (Ratting.)
c) (Matting.)
d) (Ruffing.)
e) (French lacing.)
67. What action is involved in backcombing?
(Backcombing involves combing
small sections of hair from the ends toward the scalp, causing shorter hair to
mat at the scalp and form a cushion or base.)
68. (Backbrushing) or ruffing is used to build a soft cushion or to mesh two or
more curl patterns for a uniform and smooth comb out.
69. What are the main uses of backcombing and backbrushing?
(The backcombing
and backbrushing techniques are used to style updos or to add a little height
to a hairstyle after hot-roller setting or blowdrying.)
70. List the steps of the procedure for backcombing.
a) (Section hair.)
b) (Insert comb.)
c) (Press comb down.)
d) (Create a cushion.)
e) (Repeat for volume.)
f) (Smooth hair.)
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65
71. Give the procedure for backbrushing.
a) (Hold strand.)
b) (Place brush.)
c) (Roll brush.)
d) ( Turn brush.)
e) (Blend hair.)
f) (Complete styling.)
72. When is a finishing spray applied during backbrushing?
(Lightly spray the hair
with a finishing spray when you have completed your finishing touches and
have checked for structural balance.)
HAIR WRAPPING
73. What is the goal of hair wrapping? (Hair wrapping is a technique used to keep
curly hair smooth and straight while retaining a beautiful shape.)
74. When height is desired with hair wrapping, place large rollers
(directly at the
crown)
.
75. Wrapping can be done on wet hair only.
True
(X)
False
76. When wrapping very curly hair, the first step is to
(press the hair)
BLOWDRY STYLING
77. Blowdry styling is the technique of
operation.
78. A(n) (blowdryer)
(drying)
and (styling)
damp hair in one
is an electrical appliance designed for drying and styling hair.
79. The blowdryer’s nozzle attachment, or (concentrator)
that creates a concentrated stream of air.
, is a directional feature
80. The (diffuser) of a blowdryer is an attachment that causes the air to flow
more softly and helps to accentuate or keep textural definition.
81. What can happen when a blowdryer is unclean?
can cause extreme heat and thus burn the hair.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
(Dirt or hair in a blowdryer
.
82. Combs and picks are designed to
(distribute)
83. Combs with teeth that are closely spaced
thus creating a smooth surface.
84. Combs with wide spaces between teeth
more textured surface.
85. Combs with picks at one end serve to
an
d
(remove)
(shape)
(part)
the hair.
definition from the curl,
larger sections of hair for a
(lift the hair away from the head)
.
86. Describe a classic styling brush: (A classic styling brush is a half-rounded,
rubber-based brush seven or nine rows of round-tipped nylon bristles.)
87. What are classic styling brushes best used for?
(Classic styling brushes are
perfect for blowdrying precision haircuts where little volume is desired.)
88. Describe a paddle brush and what it is used for:
(A paddle brush, a brush with
a large, flat base, is well suited for mid- to longer-length hair.)
89.
(Grooming)
brushes are generally oval with a mixture of boar and nylon
bristles.
90. In a grooming brush, (boar)
hair shaft, giving it shine, while
blood to the scalp.
bristles help distribute the scalp oils over the
(nylon)
bristles stimulate the circulation of
91. What are grooming brushes particularly useful for?
(Grooming brushes are
particularly useful for adding polish and shine to fine or normal hair and for
combing out updos.)
brushes, with their ventilated design, are used to speed the
92. (Vent)
blowdrying process and are ideal for blowdrying fine hair and adding lift at the
scalp.
93. How are round brushes used? (Smaller round brushes add more curl, while
larger brushes straighten the hair and bevel the ends of the hair. Medium
round brushes can be used to lift the hair at the scalp.)
94. Why do some round brushes have metal cylinder bases?
(Some round brushes
have metal cylinder bases so that the heat from the blowdryer transfers to the
metal base, creating a stronger curl similar to ones produced with an electric
roller.)
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67
95. A(n) (teasing) brush is a nylon styling brush that has a tail for sectioning,
along with a narrow row of bristles.
96. How are teasing brushes used? ( Teasing brushes are perfect for backcombing
hair, and the sides of the bristles are ideal for smoothing the hair into the
desired style.)
97.
(Sectioning)
clips are usually metal or plastic and have long prongs to hold
wet or dry sections of hair in place.
98. Styling lotions can be thought of as
(liquid)
tools.
99. What options must stylists consider before applying styling products?
a) (How long must the style hold?)
b) (Under what environmental conditions will the client be wearing the style?)
c) ( What type of hair does the client have?)
d) (How much support is desired?)
100. Foam builds (moderate)
body and volume into hair.
101. How is mousse used? (Massage mousse into damp hair to highlight textural
movement, or blowdry it straight for styles in which body without texture is
desired.)
102. Foam is good for which type of hair?
(Foam is good for fine hair, because it
does not weigh the hair down.)
103. What is the purpose of gel? (Gel is used for the strongest control for slicked
or molded styles, and it adds distinct texture definition when spread with the
fingers.)
104. How do liquid gels relate to firm-hold gels?
(Liquid gels are similar to
firm-hold gels except that they are lighter and less viscous [more liquid] in
form.)
105. Explain the effect of straightening gels.
(When applied to damp hair that is
blown dry, straightening gel creates a smooth, straight look that provides the
most hold in dry, outdoor conditions.)
106. When sprayed into the base of fine, wet hair that is then blown dry,
(volumizers) add volume, especially at the base.
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
107.
(Pomade) , also known as wax, adds considerable weight to hair by causing
strands to join.
108. Nonoily silicone products are excellent for all hair types.
(X)
True
False
109. Hair spray, also known as
hold a style in position.
(finishing)
spray, is applied in the form of a mist to
110. Graduated haircuts have interiors with layers that are:
a) Long
b) Short
(X)
c) Long and short
d) None of these answers are correct.
THERMAL HAIRSTYLING
111. Thermal waving and curling is also called
112. What are thermal waving and curling?
(Marcel)
waving.
(Thermal waving and curling are
methods of waving and curling straight or pressed dry hair using thermal
irons and special manipulative techniques.)
113. Which stylists favor nonelectrical thermal irons, and why?
(Many stylists who
cater to clients with excessively curly hair favor nonelectrical thermal irons
because of their larger range of barrel size and higher heat capabilities.)
114. Name the four basic parts of a thermal iron.
a) (Rod handle.)
b) (Shell handle.)
c) (Barrel or rod.)
d) (Shell or clamp.)
115. Flat irons with straight edges are used to create (smooth, straight)
even on very curly hair.
116. What is the best way to test an iron’s temperature?
styles,
( Test a thermal iron by
clamping it over a piece of tissue paper or a white cloth and holding it for 5
seconds. If the material scorches or turns brown, the iron is too hot.)
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69
117. Describe how to remove dirt, oils, or product residue from a thermal iron:
(One way to remove dirt, oils, or product residue from an electrical thermal
iron is to dampen a towel or rag and wipe down the iron’s barrel with a
soapy solution containing a few drops of ammonia. When a thermal iron is
nonelectrical, you can immerse the barrel in this solution.)
118. The comb used with a thermal iron should be about
inches (cm) long.
3 (7.5 cm)
5 (12.5 cm)
(X)
7 (17.5 cm)
9 (22.5 cm)
119. Describe how to manipulate a thermal iron:
a) (Hold the iron in a comfortable position that gives complete control.)
b) (Grasp the handles of the iron in the dominant hand, far enough away from
the joint to avoid the heat.)
c) (Place your three middle fingers on the back of the lower handle, your little
finger in front of the lower handle, and your thumb in front of the upper
handle.)
120. What factor determines the correct temperature for thermal styling?
(The temperature setting for an iron depends on the texture of the hair,
whether it is fine or coarse, or whether it has been lightened or tinted.)
121. As a rule, coarse and gray hair can withstand
(more)
122. Why is thermal curling used on straight hair?
(Thermal curling permits quick
heat than fine hair.
styling because it eliminates the need for rollers and a long hairdrying
process.)
123. Thermal curling cannot be used on human hair wigs and hairpieces.
True
(X)
False
124. What is the key to becoming good at using curling irons?
(The key to
becoming good at using curling irons is to practice manipulating them.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
125. Developing a smooth, (rotating)
movement is important in thermal curling.
126. When practicing with thermal irons, guiding the hair strand into the center of
the curl as you rotate the irons helps ensure that (the end of the strand is
firmly in the center of the curl)
.
127. How can you protect the client’s scalp from burns while removing a curl from a
thermal iron? (Use a comb to protect a client’s scalp from the burns of a
thermal iron.)
128. The (spiral)
rod.
curl is a method of curling hair by winding a strand around the
129. The spiral curl creates hanging curls suitable for hairstyles that are:
a) Short
b) Medium
c) Long
(X)
d) Both medium and long
130. Describe how to create a spiral curl:
(Part the hair into as many sections as
there will be curls, and comb smooth. Holding one section, insert the irons
at an angle, with the bowl [groove] on top near the base of the strand, and
rotate the iron until all the hair is wound. Hold the curl in this position for 4 to
5 seconds, and remove the iron in the usual manner.)
131. What are end curls? (End curls can be used to give a finished appearance to
hair ends.)
132. What factors determine whether end curls turn under or over?
(The position
and direction of the curling iron determine whether end curls will turn under
or over.)
(Volume)
133
333. hairstyle.
thermal iron curls are used to create volume or lift in a finished
134. What determines the type of volume curls to be used?
(The degree of lift
desired determines the type of volume curls to be used.)
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71
135. Match each of the following base curl types with the volume it provides.
(c)
Volume-base
a) Moderate
(d)
Full-base
b) Slight
(a)
Half-base
c) Maximum
(b)
Off-base
d) Full
136. Why do volume-base curls provide maximum lift or volume?
(Volume-base
curls provide maximum lift or volume because the curl is placed very high on
its base.)
137. How is a volume-base curl wound? (Section off the base, and hold the curl
strand at a 135-degree angle. Slide the irons over the strand about ½ inch
[1.25 cm] from the scalp. Wrap the strand over the rod with medium tension,
and hold for approximately 5 seconds. Roll the curl in the usual manner, and
firmly place it forward and high on its base.)
138. Explain how to wind full-base curls.
(Section off the base, and hold the hair
strand at a 125-degree angle. Slide the irons over the hair strand about ½ inch
[1.25 cm] from the scalp. Wrap the strand over the rod with medium tension,
and hold for about 5 seconds. Roll the curl in the usual manner, and place it
firmly in the center of its base.)
139. What kind of a curl can you expect to get with a half-base curl?
(A half-base
curl provides a strong curl with moderate lift or volume.)
140. Outline the procedure for winding a half-base curl.
(Section off the base, and
hold the hair at a 90-degree angle. Slide the iron over the hair strand about
½ inch [1.25 cm] from the scalp, and wrap the strand over the rod with
medium tension. Maintain this position for about 5 seconds. Roll the curl in
the usual manner, and place it half off its base.)
141. A(n) (off-base) curl is placed completely off its base and offers a curl option
with only slight lift or volume.
142. When a hairstyle is to finished with curls, brush the
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(bottom)
curls last.
143.
(Celluloid)
combs cannot be used in thermal curling, because they are
flammable.
144. Allowing hair ends to protrude over a thermal iron causes
that is bent or folded.
(fishhooks)
, hair
THERMAL HAIR STRAIGHTENING (HAIR PRESSING)
145. When done properly, (hair pressing) temporarily straightens extremely curly
or unruly hair by means of a heated iron or comb.
146. How long does a pressing last? (A pressing generally lasts until the hair is
shampooed.)
147. What additional services can hair pressing prepare the hair for?
(Hair pressing
prepares hair for such additional services as thermal curling and croquignole
thermal curling.)
148. A good hair pressing leaves the hair in a(n)
(natural and lustrous) condition.
149. Match each of the following pressing types with the percentage of curl it
removes from hair.
(c)
Soft
a) 60 to 75
(a)
Medium
b) 100
(b)
Hard
c) 50 to 60
150. A(n) (soft) press is accomplished by applying a thermal pressing comb once
on each side of the hair.
151. A hard press, which involves applying a thermal pressing comb
each side of the hair, is also called a(n) (double) press.
152. Before pressing a client’s hair, analyze the condition of the
(scalp) .
(twice) on
(hair)
153. When a client’s hair and scalp are unhealthy, what should you do?
and
(For a
client with unhealthy hair and scalp, the stylist should give appropriate advice
concerning corrective treatments.)
154. Failure to correct (dry and brittle)
pressing.
hair can cause hair breakage during hair
155. What two things must you check before agreeing to give a pressing?
(Before
pressing, a stylist should check a client’s hair for elasticity and porosity.)
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73
156. A careful analysis of a client’s hair should cover what points?
a) ( Wave pattern.)
b) (Length.)
c) ( Texture.)
d) (Feel.)
e) (Elasticity.)
f) (Color.)
g) (Condition of hair.)
h) (Condition of scalp.)
157. Why is it important for the cosmetologist to be able to recognize individual
differences in hair texture, porosity, elasticity, and scalp flexibility? (Guided by
individual differences in hair texture, porosity, elasticity, and scalp flexibility,
the cosmetologist can determine how much pressure the hair and scalp can
handle without breakage, hair loss, or burning from a pressing comb that is
too hot.)
158. Variations in hair texture have to do with the
(feel) of the hair.
(diameter)
of the hair and the
159. Coarse, extremely curly hair requires less heat and pressure than medium or
fine hair in the pressing process.
True
(X)
False
160. Medium curly hair is the most resistant to hair pressing.
True
(X)
False
161. To avoid breaking fine hair, apply less heat and pressure than for other hair
textures.
(X)
True
False
162. Which hair texture has qualities that make it difficult to press?
qualities that make it difficult to press.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
(Coarse hair has
163. What does wiry, curly hair feel like?
(Wiry, curly hair feels stiff, hard, and
glassy.)
164. What makes wiry hair resist hair pressing?
(The compact construction of the
cuticle cells makes wiry hair resist hair pressing.)
165. Wiry hair requires (more)
heat and pressure than other types of hair.
166. List the three possible conditions of a client’s scalp.
a) (Normal.)
b) ( Tight.)
c) (Flexible.)
167. If the scalp is tight and the hair coarse, how should you press the hair?
(Press the hair in the direction in which it grows to avoid injuring the scalp.)
168. What should the cosmetologist remember with a flexible scalp?
(When the
scalp is flexible, the cosmetologist must remember to use enough tension to
press the hair satisfactorily.)
169. During the client consultation, the cosmetologist should ask the client about
which of the following?
a) Lightener
b) Tint
c) Color restorer
(X)
d) All of these answers are correct.
170. As with all services, the client should sign a(n) (release statement) before hair
pressing to protect the school, the salon, and the stylist from liability due to
accidents or damage.
171. The application of a conditioning treatment usually
172. Explain how to make a tight scalp more flexible.
(enhances) hair pressing.
(A tight scalp can be made
more flexible by the systematic use of scalp massage or hair brushing.)
173. What are the two types of pressing combs?
(The two types of pressing
combs are regular and electric.)
174. What should pressing combs be made of?
(Pressing combs should be made
of good-quality stainless steel or brass.)
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75
175. A pressing comb with little space between its teeth produces a
press.
(smooth)
176. Pressing combs are all the same size.
True
(X)
False
177. Why should you temper a new pressing comb made of brass?
( Tempering
a new brass pressing comb allows the comb to hold heat evenly along its
entire length and provide consistent results.)
178. How should you temper a new pressing comb? (To temper a new pressing
comb, heat it until it is extremely hot. Coat it in petroleum or pressing oil, and
let it cool naturally. Then, rinse it under hot running water to remove the oil.)
179. When a pressing comb is being heated in a gas stove, its teeth should point
(upward) and the handle should be kept (away) from the fire.
180. How will you know when a pressing comb is too hot?
(When a piece of
light paper becomes scorched, the pressing comb is too hot.)
181. Electric pressing combs are available in what two forms?
a) (On/off switch.)
b) ( Thermostat that indicates high or low degrees of heat.)
182. Describe how to clean a pressing comb:
( To clean a pressing comb, wipe it
clean of loose hair, grease, and dust before and after every use.)
183. How can you remove carbon from a pressing comb?
( To remove carbon from
a pressing comb, rub its outside surface and between its teeth with a fine
steel-wool pad or fine sandpaper. Then, place the metal portion of the comb
in a hot baking soda solution for about 1 hour. Rinse and dry thoroughly.)
184. List the benefits of pressing oil or cream.
a) (Makes hair softer.)
b) (Prepares and conditions hair for pressing.)
c) (Helps protect hair from burning or scorching.)
d) (Helps prevent hair breakage.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
e) (Conditions hair after pressing.)
f) (Adds sheen to pressed hair.)
g) (Helps hair stay pressed longer.)
185. When is a hard press recommended?
(A hard press is recommended when
the results of a soft or medium press are unsatisfactory.)
186. A hard press is also known as a(n)
(double comb)
187. What may cause pressed hair to curl again?
press.
(Hair may recurl due to
perspiration, dampness, or other conditions.)
188. The cosmetologist can prevent the smoking or burning of hair during a pressing
treatment by (drying the hair completely after it is shampooed and by
avoiding excessive application of pressing oil)
.
189. In the event of an accidental burn during pressing, what should you do
immediately? (In the event of an accidental burn during pressing, apply 1
percent gentian violet jelly to the burn.)
190. When pressing coarse hair, apply enough pressure so that the hair remains
(straightened)
.
191. When pressing lightened or tinted hair, the client may need
(conditioning
treatments, depending on the extent to which the hair has been damaged)
192. Because gray hair may resist pressing, use a
comb applied with (light)
pressure.
(moderately heated)
.
pressing
STYLING LONG HAIR
193. Describe an updo: (An updo is hairstyle with the hair arranged up and off the
shoulders and secured with such implements as hairpins, bobby pins, and
elastics.)
194. Name three classic updo techniques.
a) (Knot.)
b) ( Twist.)
c) (Pleat.)
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
77
195. Identify the main sections of the pre-service procedure.
a) (Cleaning and disinfecting.)
b) (Basic station setup.)
c) (Stylist preparation.)
d) (Greet client.)
196. Outline the main steps of the post-service procedure.
a) (Advise clients and promote products.)
b) (Schedule next appointment and thank the client.)
c) (Prepare work area and implements for next client.)
197. Explain how to find a client’s natural part when preparing hair for wet styling.
( To find a client’s natural part, comb wet hair straight back from the hairline
and push the hair gently forward with the palm. Use your comb and other
hand to separate the hair where it parts.)
198. List the implements and materials needed for wet hairstyling.
a) (Conditioner.)
b) (Neck strip.)
c) (Plastic cape.)
d) (Shampoo.)
e) ( Towels.)
(The natural part is being made.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
199. Describe the action in the illustrations below:
200. Describe how to create a part:
a) (Lay the wide-tooth end of a styling comb flat at the hairline.)
b) (Draw the comb back to the end of the desired part.)
c) (Hold the hair with the index finger on one side of the part; pull the rest of
the hair down with the comb.)
201. List the implements and materials needed for horizontal finger waving.
a) (Conditioner.)
b) (Finishing products.)
c) (Hairnet.)
d) (Hairpins.)
e) (Neck strip.)
f) (Plastic cape.)
g) (Shampoo.)
h) (Styling comb.)
i) ( Towels.)
j) ( Waving lotion or styling gel.)
202. How should you apply waving lotion during horizontal finger waving?
(Using
an applicator bottle, apply waving lotion to the side of the hair you are working
on while the hair is damp. Then, comb the lotion through the section.)
203. Horizontal finger waving should begin where?
a) Forehead
(X)
b) Hairline
c) Nape
d) Ear
204. To form the first ridge during horizontal finger waving, point the teeth of the
comb (slightly upward) .
205. In horizontal finger waving, the first and second ridges are created using the
same movements.
True
(X)
False
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
79
206. Once an entire head is finger waved, what should you do?
(Place a net over
the hair, secure it with hairpins or clips if necessary, and protect the client’s
forehead and ears with cotton, gauze, or paper protectors while under
the hood dryer. Adjust the dryer to medium heat, and allow the hair to dry
thoroughly.)
207. How do you achieve a retro look upon finishing horizontal finger waving?
(For a retro look, do not comb or brush the hair. Consider adding a hair
ornament, such as a rhinestone clip, in the hollow portion of a wave.)
208. What does the accompanying figure illustrate? (Starting the second ridge of
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
horizontal finger waving left-handed.)
209. List the implements and materials needed for carved or sculpted curls.
a) (Conditioner.)
b) (Double-or single-prong clips.)
c) (Finishing products.)
d)
(Neck strip.)
e) (Plastic cape.)
f) (Setting lotion.)
g) (Shampoo.)
h) (Styling comb.)
i) ( Towels.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
210. Describe how to make carved or sculpted curls after the first shaping:
a) (At the open end of the shaping, slice a strand to create the first curl.)
b) (Ribbon the strand.)
c) ( Wind the curl forward, keeping the hair ends inside the center of the curl.)
d) (Hold the curl in the shaping, and anchor it with a clip.)
211. Describe how to anchor a carved or sculpted curl:
a) (Start at the open end, the side opposite the stem.)
b) (Insert the clip in the circle parallel to the stem.)
c) (Open the clip, and place one prong above and one prong below one side
of the circle.)
d) (Place cotton between the skin and the clip to keep the skin from burning
when the client is placed under the hood dryer.)
212. How can you avoid an indentation or dent in a carved or sculpted curl?
( To avoid an indentation in a carved or sculpted curl, do not pin across the
circle.)
213. What does the accompanying figure illustrate? (Slicing a strand to create the
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
first carved or sculpted curl left-handed.)
214. What implements and materials are needed for a wet set with rollers?
a) (Clips—double or single prong.)
b) (Conditioner.)
c) (Finishing products.)
d) (Neck strip.)
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
81
e) (Plastic cape.)
f) (Plastic rollers of various sizes.)
g) (Setting or styling lotion.)
h) (Shampoo.)
i) ( Tail comb.)
j) ( Towels.)
215. To begin the wet set, you should (comb the hair in the direction of the setting
pattern)
216. Begin setting wet rollers at the
length and width as the roller.
.
(front hairline) , parting off a section the same
217. In a wet set with rollers, what factor determines what type of base to use?
(In a wet set with rollers, the desired volume determines what type of base to
use.)
218. Loose rollers result in weak sets.
(X)
True
False
219. List the implements and materials needed for hair wrapping.
a) (Boar-bristle brush.)
b) (Bobby pins.)
c) (Comb.)
d) (Duckbill clips.)
e) (Gel or silicone shine product.)
f) (Neck strip.)
220. What product is appropriate for wrapping dry hair?
(When wrapping dry hair,
use a silicone shine product instead of a gel. This will provide a glossy comb
out.)
221. During hair wrapping, where should the hand rest to hold the head still?
(If necessary, place one hand on the top of the head to hold it still.)
222. During hair wrapping, use a comb or brush in a(n) (circular) motion to wrap
the hair on the outer perimeter of the head in a(n) (clockwise) direction.
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
223. While wrapping, use (duckbill clips) to keep the hair in place.
224. Once all the hair is wrapped, you should
(stretch a neck strip around the head
so that it overlaps at the ends. Secure the wrapped strip with a bobby pin,
and remove the clips)
.
225. When working on dry hair, leave the hair wrapped for about
(17)
minutes.
226. When wrapping wet hair, place the client under a hooded dryer until the hair is
completely dry, usually (45) minutes, depending on (hair length) .
227. List the implements and materials needed for blowdry styling.
a) (Blowdryer with attachments.)
b) (Finishing products.)
c) (Neck strip.)
d) (Round brush.)
e) (Sectioning clips.)
f) (Styling cape.)
g) (Styling product.)
h) ( Wide-tooth comb.)
228. List the steps to blowdry short, layered, curly hair to produce a smooth and full
finish once a clean neck strip is in place.
a) (Distribute styling product through the hair with your fingers, and comb
through with a wide-tooth comb.)
b) (Using the comb, mold the hair into the desired shape while still wet.)
c) (For volume and lift like that provided by a roller set, use a small round
brush. Apply a mousse or spray volumizer at the base. Section and part
the hair according to the amount of volume desired.)
d) (Dry each section either full base or half base.)
e) ( When the section is completely dry, press the cooling button and cool the
section to strengthen the curl formation.)
f) (Release the curl by unwinding the section from the brush.)
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
83
229. When blowdrying hair, the hot air should flow
(in the direction in which the
hair is wound)
230. List the steps to blowdry short, curly hair in its natural wave pattern once liquid
gel is applied.
a) (Attach the diffuser to the blowdryer.)
b) ( With a wide-tooth comb or your fingers, encourage the hair into the
desired shape.)
c) (Diffuse the hair gently, pressing the diffuser on and off the hair without
overmanipulating it, until each area of the head is dry.)
d) ( To relax or soften the curl, slowly and gently run your fingers through the
curl when the hair is almost dry.)
e) (For a tighter curl, scrunch the hair by placing your hand over a section of
hair while it is being diffused, forming a fist with the hair in your hand,
using a pulsing motion. Release. Repeat the process until the section is
dry.)
f) (For more shine, finish with a silicone spray product.)
231. List the steps to diffuse long, curly, or extremely curly hair in its natural wave
pattern once a clean neck strip is in place.
a) (Distribute styling product through the hair with your fingers, and comb
through with a wide-tooth comb.)
b) (Section the hair and work one section at a time.)
c) (Attach the diffuser to the blowdryer and diffuse the hair by letting the hair
sit on top of the diffuser and pulsing the dryer toward the scalp and then
away. Repeat until the section is dry.)
232. List the steps to blowdry straight or wavy hair with maximum volume once a
clean neck strip is in place.
a) (Apply a mousse, volumizing spray, or lightweight gel.)
b) (Using a vent brush or classic styling brush, distribute the hair into the
desired shape.)
c) (Build your shape from the bottom up, working from the nape up toward
the crown.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
.
d) ( While turning the brush downward and away from the scalp, allow the
brush to pick up a section of hair and begin drying. Direct the airflow
toward the top of the brush, moving in the desired direction.)
e) ( Work in sections, lifting and drying the sections and then brushing them
in the design direction when they are completely dry.)
f) (Repeat over the entire head, directing the hair at the sides either away
or forward.)
233. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
(Blowdrying sections of
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
straight or wavy hair with maximum volume left-handed.)
234. List the steps to blowdry blunt or long-layered, straight to wavy hair into a
smooth straight style once gel is applied.
a) (Attach the nozzle or concentrator attachment to the blowdryer. Part and
section the hair so that only the section you are drying is not in clips.)
b) (Using 1-inch [2.5 cm] subsections, start your first section at the nape of the
neck and use a classic styling brush to dry the hair straight and smooth.
Place the brush under the first section and hold the hair low.)
c) (Follow the brush with the nozzle of the dryer while bending the ends of
the hair in the desired direction, either under or flipped outward.
Continue using the same technique, working up the to occipital area in 1inch [2.5 cm] sections. To keep the shape flat and straight, use low
elevation. For more lift and volume, hold the section straight out from the
head or overdirect upward.)
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
85
d) ( Work up to the crown, continuing to take 1-inch [2.5 cm] sections. On the
longer sections toward the top of the crown, you can switch to a paddle
brush, using the curve of the brush to add bend to the ends of the hair.)
e) (After each section is blown dry, follow by using the cooling button on the
blowdryer to help set each section and keep it smooth. For a fuller look,
switch to a round brush.)
f) (Continue by subdividing the hair on the side, and start with the section
above the ear. Continue working in 1-inch [2.5 cm] sections. Hold at a low
elevation and follow with the nozzle of the dryer facing toward the ends.
Bend the ends by turning the brush under for a rounded edge or outward
for a flipped edge.)
g) ( Work in the same manner across the top of the head. If there is a bang,
dry it in the desired direction. To dry the bang straight and onto the
forehead, point the nozzle of the dryer down over the bang and dry it
straight, using your fingers or a classic styling brush to direct the hair.)
h) ( To direct the bang away from the face, brush the bang back and push
the hair slightly forward with the brush, creating a curved shaping. Place
the dryer on a slow setting and point the nozzle toward the brush. When
dry, the bang will fall away from the face and slightly to the side, for a soft
look.)
235. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
(Side section turned under
when blowdrying blunt or long-layered, straight to wavy hair into a straight
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
style left-handed.)
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
236. List the implements and materials needed for thermal waving.
a) (Conventional [Marcel] or electric irons.)
b) (Hard rubber [fine-toothed] comb.)
c) (Shampoo.)
d) (Styling cape and neck strip.)
237. In thermal waving, what factor determines whether the first wave is left-moving
or right-moving? ( The natural growth of the hair will determine whether the
first wave is left-moving or right-moving.)
238. During thermal waving, how much hair should you insert into the iron at once?
(During thermal waving, insert in the iron a strand of hair about 2-inches
[5 cm] wide.)
239. Where should the groove of the iron be when you insert it into the hair?
(Insert the iron in the hair with the groove facing upward.)
240. Once an iron is in hair, what should you do? (Close the iron and give it a ¼-inch
[0.6 cm] turn forward. At the same time, draw the hair with the iron about ¼ inch
[0.6 cm] to the left, and direct the hair ¼ inch [0.6 cm] to the right with the comb.)
241. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
(Forming hair into a half circle
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
left handed.)
242. When curling short hair, the first section should be about (2½ [6.25 cm])
-inches (cm) wide and extend from the center of the (forehead) to the
(nape of the neck) .
243. When curling short hair, the curl base is usually about 1½- to 2-inches (3.75 to
5 cm) wide.
(X)
True
False
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
87
244. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
(Completing the revolution of
the iron when curling medium length hair.)
245. To curl medium length hair, you insert the hair into the open iron at the
(scalp)
.
246. Once the iron is in position to curl medium length hair, hold for about
(5 seconds) to heat the hair, and then slide it upward to (1 [2.5 cm])
inch(es) (cm) from the scalp.
247. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
(Forming two loops around a
closed iron while curling hair.)
248. When curling hair using two loops or Figure 8, insert the hair into the open iron
about
inch(es) from the scalp.
a) ¼
b) ½
(X)
c) 1
249. When curling hair using two loops or Figure 8, you pull the hair over the rod in
which direction? ( When curling hair using two loops or Figure 8, you pull
the hair over the rod in the direction in which the curl is to move.)
250. Use (medium) tension when holding a strand of hair while curling using two
loops or Figure 8.
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning.
d) 2
251. In what direction should you roll the iron when curling hair using two loops or
Figure 8?
a) Over
(X)
b) Under
c) Left
d) Right
252. Describe how to even the distribution of hair when using two loops or Figure 8:
( To even the distribution of hair when using two loops or Figure 8, rotate the
iron several times.)
253. List the implements and materials needed to soft press normal curly hair.
a) (Clips.)
b) (Hairbrush and comb.)
c) (Neck strip.)
d) (Pomade.)
e) (Pressing comb.)
f) (Pressing oil and cream.)
g) (Shampoo.)
h) (Shampoo and styling capes.)
i) (Spatula.)
j) ( Thermal iron.)
k) ( Towels.)
254. When soft pressing for normal curly hair, blowdrying leaves hair more
manageable than hood drying.
(X)
True
False
255. When soft pressing for normal curly hair, divide the hair into
sections.
(four)
main
256. For coarse hair with greater density, use (smaller) sections when soft pressing
to ensure (complete heat penetration and effectiveness)
.
257. Before applying a heated pressing comb to hair, you should
temperature on a white cloth or white paper)
(test its
.
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
89
258. When soft pressing for normal curly hair, what part of the comb actually does
the pressing? ( The back rod of the comb actually does the pressing when
soft pressing normal curly hair.)
259. Once you have soft pressed all normal curly hair, what do you apply?
(Once
you have soft pressed all normal curly hair, apply a little pomade to the hair
near the scalp and brush it through the hair.)
260. List the implements and materials needed to style a knot or chignon.
a) (Bobby pins, hairpins.)
b) (Bristle brush.)
c) (Curling iron.)
d) (Elastics.)
e) (Electric or Velcro rollers.)
f) (Finishing spray.)
g) (Grooming or teasing brush.)
h) (Hair spray.)
i) (Neck strip.)
j) (Styling cape.)
k) ( Tail comb.)
261. How should you secure the ponytail of a knot or chignon?
(Secure the
ponytail of a knot or chignon with an elastic rubber band, keeping the hair
as smooth as possible.)
262. Explain how to conceal the elastic band of a knot or chignon.
(Part a small
section of hair from the underside of the ponytail, wrap it around the ponytail
to cover the elastic, and secure with a bobby pin underneath.)
263. How should you secure the underside of the roll?
(With bobby pins.)
264. List the steps to create a twist after the hair is blowdried.
a) (Brush all the hair smoothly into a ponytail at the occipital bone.)
b) ( With your free hand, reach in front of the hand holding the ponytail, with
the thumb pointing down toward the client’s nape.)
c) (Grab the ponytail with your thumb still pointing down and twist the hair
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Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
in the direction in which your palm is facing, moving the hair inward and
upward.)
d) (As you move toward the crown, twist the hair into a funnel shape and
secure the twist with hairpins by pinning into the seam, making sure to
avoid exposing the pins.)
e) (Tuck the ends into the top of the funnel of the twist near the crown.)
f) (For a less formal or younger look, let the hair ends fan out and loosely fall
over the sides of the twist, instead of tucking them into the top of the
twist. Another option is to form curls, loops, or knots with the hair at the
top of the twist.)
265. For a pleat, you begin pinning the hair
(at the center of the nape)
266. What does the accompanying figure illustrate?
.
(Styling the bangs section of
© Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. Photography by Yanik Chauvin.
a pleat.)
267. How should you finish a pleat? ( To finish a pleat, spray the finished style with
a firm-hold hair spray, and check to make sure there are no exposed pins.
Use a tail comb to balance the shape of the pleat.)
Chapter 17 H a ir stylin g
91

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