
Name the three major processes in the water cycle.

Describe the properties of ocean water.
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Describe the two types of ocean currents.

Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature.

Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere.

Explain the difference between open and closed
systems.

The hydrosphere includes all of the water on
or near the Earth’s surface.

This includes
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
water in the oceans
lakes
rivers
wetlands
polar ice caps
soil
rock layers beneath the Earth
clouds

The water cycle: is the
◦ continuous movement of water
 from the ocean to atmosphere to land back to ocean.


Evaporation: change of a substance from
liquid to gas.
Water continually evaporates from the Earth’s
oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, but the
majority evaporates from the oceans.

Condensation is the change of state from a
gas to a liquid.
◦ Water vapor forms water droplets
◦ Droplets form clouds
◦ Clouds create heavier drops that fall as Precipitation

Precipitation is any form of water that falls to
the Earth from the clouds including
◦
◦
◦
◦
Rain
Snow
Sleet
Hail

All of the oceans are joined together called:
◦ world ocean.

Oceans regulate the planet’s environment.

The largest ocean is
the Pacific Ocean
◦ surface area of about
165,640,000 km2.
◦ The deepest point is
Challenger Deep.

It is 11,033m (6.85miles)
below sea level
◦ deeper than Mount
Everest is tall.

Largest Ocean: Pacific Ocean
◦ divided into two parts

North Pacific and South Pacific
◦ based on the direction of the surface
currents.


North Pacific: currents move clockwise
South Pacific: currents move counterclockwise

2nd largest ocean: Atlantic Ocean
◦ about 1/2 the size of Pacific Ocean
◦ Covers 81,630,000 km2.

Can be divided into a north and south based
on the directions of surface currents.

3rd largest ocean: The Indian Ocean
◦ covers73,420,000 km2.

The smallest ocean: Artic ocean
◦ covers 14,350,000 km2.
◦ much of its surface is covered by floating ice
Summer in the Arctic

What makes ocean and fresh water different?
◦ SALT

Salinity is a measure of the amount of
dissolved salts in water.
◦ lower in places:
 that get a lot of rain
 where fresh water flows in to the sea.
◦ higher where water evaporates rapidly leaving salts
behind.


Most of the salt in the ocean is sodium
chloride (NaCl a.k.a. table salt)
although many other elements can be found
in the ocean as well.


Surface: warmed by the sun
stirred up by waves and currents so the
◦ warm surface zone may be 350 m deep.

Thermocline: Below the surface zone
◦ about 300 to 700 m
◦ temperature falls rapidly.

depths of the ocean
◦ no sunlight = very cold, just above freezing.

Epipelagic Zone

Mesopelagic Zone

Bathypelagic Zone

Abyssopelagic Zone

Hadalpelagic Zone

Benthic Zone
Epipelagic
Surface
Zone:
– 650 ft
◦Upper ocean zone.
Full
of life
◦enough sunlight to sustain
photosynthesis.
(a.k.a.)
Euphotic Zone.



Mesopelagic Zone:
650 ft – 3300ft
◦ not enough sunlight to sustain
photosynthesis.
(a.k.a.) Disphotic Zone.



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Bathypelagic Zone:
3300 ft- 13000ft
lowest level on the continental shelf.
No sunlight.


Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight
Plants cannot grow.


No primary productivity.
All the food in this zone comes from
dead material sinking from the higher
layers.


Abyssopelagic Zone:
13000ft- ~20000ft
◦ Largest layer of the ocean.
◦ It is completely dark, and the
◦ Low oxygen concentration


Extreme pressure.
No sunlight.


Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight
Plants cannot grow.


No primary productivity.
Does Support life.
◦ Organisms feed off of dead and fecal
materials that sink to the sea floor.


Hadalpelagic Zone:
20000ft and Lower

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
Deep ocean trenches such as the
Mariana Trench and others.
Shares same characteristics as the
Abyssal Zone except even deeper.
No sunlight.


Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight
Plants cannot grow.


Benthic Zone:
This is the ocean floor.
◦ Mudlike sediments form bodies of
dead organisms
◦ Fecal pellets of aquatic organisms
also accumulate here.

Sediment of dead organisms
and fecal matter can be a mile
thick.


Aphotic Zone: No Sunlight
Extreme pressure

Important functions:
◦ Absorb and store energy from sunlight
◦ This regulates temperatures in Earth’s atmosphere.


Because the ocean both absorbs and releases
heat slower than land, the temperature of the
atmosphere changes more slowly.
If oceans did not regulate temperatures,
temperatures would be too extreme for life to
exist on Earth.



Local temperatures are regulated by the
world ocean.
Currents circulate warm water causing land
areas they flow past to have more moderate
climates.
For example, the British Isles are warmed by
the waters of the Gulf Stream.

surface currents: Streamlike movements of
water that occur at or near the surface.
◦ wind driven and result from global wind patterns.

Surface currents:
◦ can be warm or cold
◦ They do not readily
mix with one another.

Deep currents
◦ movements of water that flow very slowly along the
ocean floor.

Deep currents form when the cold, dense
water from the poles sinks below warmer,
less dense ocean water and flows toward the
equator.
◦ The densest and coldest ocean water is located off
the coast of Antarctica producing a deep current
called the Antarctic Bottom Water.

Fresh water:
◦ Most fresh water is locked up in icecaps and glaciers
◦ The rest is found in






lakes
rivers
wetlands
soil and
atmosphere
A river system:
◦ network of streams that drains an area of land
◦ including the main river, smaller streams or rivers that
flow into larger ones.

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

Precipitation sinks into the ground and run
off the land.
Most of this water trickles down through the
ground and collects as groundwater.
Groundwater fulfills the need for fresh
drinking water, and supplies agricultural and
industrial need.
Makes up 1% of all the water on Earth,

A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of
groundwater is called an aquifer.

The biosphere is the part of Earth where life
exists,
◦ 11 km into the ocean
◦ 9 km into the atmosphere.


The materials that organisms require must be
continually recycled.
Biosphere: only area with Suitable conditions
for life due to abundant sunlight.

Plants need sunlight to produce food
◦ almost every other organism gets its food from
plants and algae.

Most of the algae float at the surface, known
as phytoplankton.


When an organism dies, its body is broken
down and the nutrients become available for
use by other organisms.
This flow of energy allows life on Earth to
continue to exist.
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Closed systems are systems that cannot
exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.
Open systems are systems that can exchange
both matter and energy with its surroundings.
Earth is a closed system with respect to matter
Earth is a open system for energy
energy travel
◦ Sun
◦ Plant
◦ animal
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The Hydrosphere - Verona Public Schools