Psychoanalytic Theory
Basic Freudian Propositions
Clinical Experiences
• Anna O. (Breuer)
– Unexpressed emotion -> pathology
– Unaware of emotion (unconscious)
– Emotion expression reduces
pathology
Fundamental Assumptions of
Psychoanalytic Theory
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The Basic Instincts
Unconscious Motivation
Psychic Determinism
Energy Model
Fundamental Assumptions of
Psychoanalytic Theory
The Basic Instincts: Sex and Aggression
Closely follows Darwin’s theory
 Freud believed that everything humans do can
be understood as manifestations of the life
and death instincts
 Later termed libido (life) and thanatos (death)
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Fundamental Assumptions of
Psychoanalytic Theory
Unconscious Motivation
Individuals control their sexual and
aggressive urges by placing them in the
unconscious
 These take on a life of their own and become
the motivated unconscious
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Fundamental Assumptions of
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychic Determinism
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Nothing happens by chance or accident
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Everything we do, think, say, and feel is an
expression of our mind
Fundamental Assumptions of
Psychoanalytic Theory
Energy Model
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Humans are viewed as energy systems
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Hydraulic model. Energy transformed but not
destroyed
Levels of Consciousness
Conscious - current awareness
Preconscious - not aware of material but it’s
retrievable (via ordinary retrieval)
Unconscious - not aware of material but it’s not
retrievable (via ordinary retrieval)
Issues Regarding the
Unconscious
• How can the existence of the unconscious
be demonstrated?
• Why do humans have an unconscious?
Personality and Psychoanalysis
Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious
Free Association
 Dream Analysis
 Projective Techniques
 Recovered Memories
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The Structure of Personality
ID
EGO
SUPEREGO
The Structure of Personality
The Id – Reservoir of Psychic Energy
 Most
primitive part of the mind; what we
are born with
 Source of all drives and urges
 Operates according to the pleasure principle
and primary process thinking
The Structure of Personality
The Ego- Executive of Personality
 The
part of the mind that constrains the id
to reality
 Develops around 2-3 years of age
 Operates according to the reality principle
and secondary process thinking
 Mediates between id, superego, and
environment
The Structure of Personality
The Superego- Upholder of Values and Ideals
 The
part of the mind that internalizes the
values, morals, and ideals of society
 Develops around age 5
 Not bound by reality
Psychodynamics
• Conflict model
– Id vs. superego; Individual vs. society
– Restrain expression of all drives
– Surplus energy results in anxiety
Defense Mechanisms
• Unconscious psychological processes
designed to avoid or reduce the
conscious experience of anxiety
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Repression
Unconscious
 Motivated
 Forgetting
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The process of preventing
unacceptable thoughts,
feelings, or urges from
reaching conscious awareness
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Denial
Unconscious
 Motivated
 Not Perceiving
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Perceptual Defense Research
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Other Defense Mechanisms
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Reaction Formation
 Act
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opposite of impulse
Projection
 Make
impulse external
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Other Defense Mechanisms
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Isolation/Intellectualization
 Isolate
emotional reaction
 Process
abstractly
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Other Defense Mechanisms
Displacement
Channel impulse to non-threatening target
Sublimation
Channel impulse into socially desired
activity
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life
 Useful
in coping with unexpected or
disappointing events
 Can
also make circumstances worse
Personality and Psychoanalysis
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Making the Unconscious Conscious
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Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious
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The Process of Psychoanalysis
Personality and Psychoanalysis
The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the
unconscious conscious
 Identify
unconscious thoughts and feelings
 Enable the person to deal with the
unconscious urges realistically and maturely
 But how to penetrate the unconscious mind?
Personality and Psychoanalysis
The Process of Psychoanalysis
 The
psychoanalyst offers the patient
interpretations of the psychodynamic causes
of the problems
 The interpretations bring insight
 Resistance may occur as a defense
 Transference of feelings
Evaluating Freud’s Contributions
Proponents argue it is the first and perhaps
only comprehensive theory of human nature
 Psychoanalysis has had a major impact on
Western thought
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Critics maintain it is not contemporary
The nature of evidence upon which it was
built can be criticized
 Emphasis on sexual drives is inappropriate
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Summary
 There
are 3 main forces in the psyche that
constantly interact to tame the 2 motives
 Defense mechanisms help keep urges,
thoughts, and memories that cause anxiety
in the unconscious
 Psychoanalysis
is a therapy used for making
the patient's unconscious conscious
Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Types of Anxiety
 Repression
 Other Defense Mechanisms
 Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life
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Anxiety and the
Mechanisms of Defense
Types of Anxiety
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Objective Anxiety
Neurotic Anxiety
Moral Anxiety
Defense Mechanisms
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Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory The Basic