Chapter 4 Study Guide
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____
1. Igneous rocks that form ____ the surface are intrusive.
a. above
c. on
b. below
d. all of the above
Figure 4-1
____
____
____
____
____
____
2. Figure 4-1 shows that the processes involved in the rock cycle include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. condensation
c. weathering
b. erosion
d. compaction
3. The rock cycle shown in Figure 4-1 indicates that each type of rock can ____.
a. provide materials to make other rocks
b. form other rocks
c. be changed by forces at Earth's surface
d. all of the above
4. The ____ in Figure 4-1 shows how one rock changes into another.
a. rock cycle
c. formation of crystals
b. melting process
d. none of the above
5. Figure 4-1 shows that sedimentary rocks are changed to sediments by ____.
a. compaction
c. cementation
b. weathering and erosion
d. heat and pressure
6. Igneous rocks form from ____ when it cools.
a. magma
c. neither a nor b
b. lava
d. both a and b
7. The molten material deep inside Earth from which igneous rocks form is called ____.
____
8.
____
9.
____ 10.
____ 11.
____ 12.
____ 13.
____ 14.
____ 15.
____ 16.
____ 17.
____ 18.
____ 19.
a. magma
c. neither a nor b
b. lava
d. both a and b
Foliated rocks are distinguished by ____.
a. layers
c. large mineral grains
b. lack of layers
d. air holes
Lava that cools quickly forms ____ rocks.
a. extrusive metamorphic
c. intrusive metamorphic
b. extrusive igneous
d. intrusive igneous
All of the following conditions in Earth can cause metamorphic rocks to form EXCEPT ____.
a. exposure to air
c. heat
b. the presence of hot, watery fluids
d. pressure
Quartz is a mineral; granite is ____.
a. also a mineral
c. a gem
b. a rock
d. an ore
A classification of metamorphic rocks would include whether they are ____.
a. chemical or organic
c. foliated or nonfoliated
b. intrusive or extrusive
d. basaltic or granite
Sedimentary rocks are ____.
a. formed from magma
b. a type of foliated igneous rock
c. formed because of changes in temperature and pressure, or the presence of hot watery
fluids
d. formed when loose materials become pressed or cemented together or when minerals form
from solutions
The pressure and heat that produce magma are caused in part by ____.
a. gravity
c. radioactive elements
b. magnetic fields
d. lava
Metamorphic rocks can undergo all of the following changes EXCEPT ____.
a. an exchange of atoms between minerals
b. melting
c. the formation of new, bigger minerals
d. the flattening of mineral grains
Detrital rocks are ____.
a. made from broken fragments of other rocks
b. formed from magma
c. deposited from solution
d. all of the above
Fine-grained, extrusive rocks include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. granite
c. basalt
b. scoria
d. pumice
A rock is always ____.
a. made of molten material
b. a mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials
c. formed by heat and pressure
d. either igneous or sedimentary
The crystals that form in slowly cooled magma produce ____ mineral grains.
a. tiny
c. fine-grained
b. invisible
d. large
____ 20. A detrital rock is named according to ____.
a. its age
c. the shape and size of the sediments
b. its location
d. the color of the sediments
____ 21. Changes that take place in rocks never create or destroy ____.
a. rocks
c. matter
b. crystals
d. minerals
____ 22. ____ would be considered a rock.
a. Quartz
c. Granite
b. Mica
d. all of the above
____ 23. Magma from deep inside Earth rises toward the surface because ____.
a. it is denser than surrounding solid rock
b. it is less dense than surrounding solid rock
c. it has the same density as surrounding solid rock
d. none of the above
____ 24. When lava cools at Earth's surface, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
a. extrusive
c. intrusive
b. metamorphic
d. coarse-grained
____ 25. When magma cools deep inside Earth, ____ igneous rocks are formed.
a. extrusive
c. detrital
b. fine-grained
d. intrusive
____ 26. Basaltic igneous rocks are ____.
a. light-colored
c. rich in iron and magnesium
b. lower in density than granitic rocks
d. both a and b
____ 27. Granitic igneous rocks are all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. light-colored
c. high in silica content
b. lower in density than basaltic rocks
d. high in iron content
____ 28. An igneous rock can form from ____ magma.
a. basaltic
c. granitic
b. andesitic
d. all of the above
____ 29. Metamorphic rocks that show layers of dark minerals alternating with layers of light minerals are classified as
____.
a. nonfoliated
c. foliated
b. extrusive
d. intrusive
____ 30. Metamorphic rocks with a non-foliated texture show metamorphic change that involves ____.
a. mineral grains arranging into layers
b. growth in the size of the mineral grains
c. mineral grains flattening under pressure
d. mineral grain melting
____ 31. Sedimentary rocks form because of all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. sediments becoming pressed or cemented together
b. crystals solidifying from magma
c. sediments forming from solution
d. water evaporating, leaving crystals behind
____ 32. Sediments in sedimentary rocks are often ____.
a. held together with natural cements
b. formed when atoms of melted minerals rearrange themselves
c. formed when lava erupts from a volcano
d. formed by magma trapped below Earth's surface
____ 33. Sandstone is a(n) ____ sedimentary rock.
a. chemical
c. organic
b. detrital
d. none of the above
____ 34. Sedimentary rocks formed from the remains of once-living things are ____.
a. metamorphic
c. organic
b. detrital
d. none of the above
____ 35. Sedimentary rocks formed from broken fragments of other rocks are ____.
a. chemical
c. organic
b. detrital
d. none of the above
Matching
Match each statement with the correct item below.
a. compaction
e.
b. cementation
f.
c. limestone
g.
d. coal
h.
____
____
____
____
36.
37.
38.
39.
____
____
____
____
40.
41.
42.
43.
weathering
marble
erosion
slate
a kind of organic sedimentary rock
The process in which rock is exposed to air, water, or ice and breaks into pieces.
a kind of chemical sedimentary rock
The process in which pressure from the upper layers of sediment pushes down on the lower layers, causing
the sediments to stick together and form solid rock.
The process in which minerals hold sediment together, like glue, making a detrital sedimentary rock.
the movement of weathered material
a kind of foliated metamorphic rock
a kind of nonfoliated metamorphic rock
Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
44. Sandstone is a(n) ____________________ rock.
45. Granite is a(n) ____________________ rock.
46. Rock salt is a(n) ____________________ rock.
47. Obsidian is a(n) ____________________ rock.
48. Gneiss is a(n) ____________________ rock.
49. Slate is a(n) ____________________ rock.
50. Limestone is a(n) ____________________ rock.
51. Silica-rich, thick magma is ____________________ magma.
52. Dense, heavy, dark-colored igneous rocks form from ____________________ magma.
53. Light-colored rocks with lower density form from ____________________ magma.
54. Rocks that form from ____________________ magma have mineral compositions between those of granitic
and basaltic magma.
55. Large-grained, light-colored rocks that form deep inside Earth are composed of ____________________
magma.
56. Lava flowing from volcanoes in Hawaii is ____________________ magma.
Chapter 4 Study Guide
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
B
A
D
A
B
D
A
A
B
A
B
C
D
C
B
A
A
B
D
C
C
C
B
A
D
C
D
D
C
B
B
A
B
C
B
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
A
B
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
A
B
B
A
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
A
B
A
A
B
B
B
B
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
4/2
2/1
2/1
2/1
8/3
3/2
3/2
7/3
4/2
6/3
1/1
7/3
8/4
3/2
6/3
9/4
9/4
1/1
4/2
9/3
2/1
1/1
3/2
4/2
4/2
5/2
5/2
5/2
7/3
7/3
8/4
8/4
9/4
9/4
9/4
STO:
STO:
STO:
STO:
3.5.7.A.2
3.5.7.A.4
3.5.7.A.4
3.5.7.A.4
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.4
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
MATCHING
36. ANS: D
37. ANS: E
38. ANS: C
DIF: B
DIF: B
DIF: B
OBJ: 9/4
OBJ: 2/1
OBJ: 9/4
STO: 3.5.7.A.4
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
A
B
G
H
F
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
B
B
B
B
B
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
9/4
9/4
2/1
7/3
7/3
STO: 3.5.7.A.4
COMPLETION
44. ANS: sedimentary
45. ANS: igneous
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
46. ANS: sedimentary
47. ANS: igneous
STO: 3.5.7.A.2
48. ANS: metamorphic
STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
49. ANS: metamorphic
STO: 3.5.7.A.2, 3.5.7.A.3
50. ANS: sedimentary
51. ANS: granitic
52. ANS: basaltic
53. ANS: granitic
54. ANS: andesitic
55. ANS: granitic
56. ANS: basaltic
DIF: A
DIF: A
OBJ: 8/4
OBJ: 3/2
DIF: A
DIF: A
OBJ: 8/4
OBJ: 3/2
DIF: A
OBJ: 6/3
DIF: A
OBJ: 6/3
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
8/4
5/2
5/2
5/2
5/2
5/2
5/2