```Let's see how well you did on this test ...
1.
What is the highest amount a company should spend annually on countermeasures for protecting
an asset valued at 1,000,000\$ from a threat that has an annualized rate of occurrence (ARO) of 5%
and an exposure factor (EF) of 30%?
The cost of the countermeasure should not be greater than the cost of replacing the asset it
protects. In this case, an asset valued at 1,000,000\$ with an exposure factor of 30% gives a single
loss expectancy (SLE) of 300,000\$ (dollar figure assigned to a single event). With an annualized
rate of occurrence (ARO) of 5% (annualized estimated frequency in which a threat is expected to
occur), the annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is: 300,000\$ x .05 = 15,000 \$. Therefore, 15,000\$ is
the annually expected financial loss from the threat, thus the maximum amount that should be
spent on measures to protect an asset from that threat.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 1: Security Management
Practices (page 17).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
2.
Coaxial cables with many workstations or servers attached to the same segment of cable:
Answer: Create a single point of failure if it is broken.
Coaxial cables with many workstations or servers attached to the same segment of cable create a
single point of failure if they are broken.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 72.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
3.
A TCP SYN attack:
- A TCP connection request (SYN) is sent to the target computer. The source IP address in the
packet is "spoofed," or replaced with an address that is not in use on the Internet, or that belongs to
another computer. An attacker will send many of these TCP SYNs to tie up as many resources as
possible on the target computer.
- Upon receiving the connection request, the target computer allocates resources to handle and
track the new connection, then responds with a "SYN-ACK". In this case, the response is sent to
the "spoofed" non- existent IP address.
- No response is received to the SYN-ACK. A Windows NT 3.5x or 4.0 computer with defaults
configured will retransmit the SYN-ACK 5 times, doubling the time-out value after each
retransmission. The initial time-out value is three seconds, so retries are attempted at 3, 6, 12, 24,
and 48 seconds. After the last retransmission, 96 seconds are allowed to pass before the computer
gives up on receiving a response, and deallocates the resources that were set aside earlier for the
connection. The total elapsed time that resources are in use is 189 seconds.
Reference: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 60).
4.
Controls to keep password sniffing attacks from compromising computer systems include which
of the following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
5.
Which ISO/OSI layer establishes the communications link between individual devices over a
The data link layer (layer 2) establishes the communications link between individual devices over
a physical link or channel. It also ensures that messages are delivered to the proper device and
translates the messages from layers above into bits for the physical layer (layer 1) to transmit.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 83).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
6.
The main issue with RAID Level 1 is that the one-for-one ratio is:
Answer: very expensive, resulting in the highest cost per megabyte of data capacity.
The main issue with RAID Level 1 is that the one-for-one ratio is very expensive-resulting in the
highest cost per megabyte of data capacity.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 65.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
7.
Which of the following represents the best programming?
The best programming uses the most cohesive modules possible, but because different modules
need to pass data and communicate, they usually cannot be totally cohesive. Also, the lower the
coupling, the better the software design, because it promotes module independence. The more
independent a component is, the less complex the application is and the easier it is to modify and
troubleshoot.
Source: WALLHOFF, John, CBK#4 Applications & Systems Development Security (CISSP
Study Guide), April 2002 (page 7). Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
8.
What do the ILOVEYOU and Melissa virus attacks have in common?
While a masquerading attack can be considered a type of social engineering, the Melissa and
ILOVEYOU viruses are examples of masquerading attacks, even if it may cause some kind of
denial of service due to the web server being flooded with messages. In this case, the receiver
confidently opens a message coming from a trusted individual, only to find that the message was
sent using the trusted party's identity.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 10: Law, Investigation, and Ethics (page 650).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
9.
Which of the following is not a compensating measure for access violations?
Security awareness is a preventive measure, not a compensating measure for access violations.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control systems
(page 50).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
10. What mechanism does a system use to compare the security labels of a subject and an object?
A reference monitor compares the sensitivity labels of subjects and objects to determine if the
subject has rights to access the object.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 107.
11. What enables users to validate each other's certificate when they are certified under different
certification hierarchies?
Cross-certification is the act or process by which two CAs each certifiy a public key of the other,
issuing a public-key certificate to that other CA, enabling users that are certified under different
certification hierarchies to validate each other's certificate.
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
12. Authentication Headers (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) protocols are the driving
force of IPSec. Authentication Headers (AH) provide following service except:
AH provides integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Security Associations (SAs) can be
combined into bundles to provide authentication, confidentialility and layered communication.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 2, 2001, CRC Press, NY, page 164.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question and to John Palumbo for the extra details.
13. Which of the following ports does not normally need to be open for a mail server to operate?
Port 119 is normally used for the Network News Transfer Protocol. It is thus not need for a mail
server, which would normally listen to ports 25 (SMTP), 110 (POP3) and 143 (IMAP).
Source: STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 1:
Understanding Firewalls.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
14. The Telecommunications Security Domain of information security is also concerned with the
prevention and detection of the misuse or abuse of systems, which poses a threat to the tenets of:
Answer: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (C.I.A.).
The Telecommunications Security Domain of information security is also concerned with the
prevention and detection of the misuse or abuse of systems, which poses a threat to the tenets of
Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (C.I.A.).
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 59.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
15. For which areas of the enterprise are business continuity plans required?
Answer: All areas of the enterprise.
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
16. Which of the following addresses cumbersome situations where users need to log on multiple
times to access different resources?
Single Sign-On (SSO) addresses the cumbersome situation of logging on multiple times to access
different resources.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 39.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
17. All of the following except which are Remote User Management issues?
Remote User Management Issues:
* Justification for and the validation of the use of remote computing systems
* Hardware and software distribution
* User support and remote assistance issues
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 62.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
18. Operations Security seeks to primarily protect against which of the following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
19. In what are Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Capability Tables different?
Answer: Access control lists are object-based whereas capability tables are subject-based.
Access control lists are lists of subjects that are authorized to access a specific object. They define
what level of authorization is to be granted. A capability table specifies the access rights a certain
subject possesses over certain specific objects. An Access Control List is bound to an object
whereas a capability table is bound to a subject.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 4: Access Control (pages 160-162).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question and to Eric Siu for correcting it.
20. What is called a system that is capable of detecting that a fault has occurred and has the ability to
correct the fault or operate around it?
A fault-tolerant system is capable of detecting that a fault has occurred and has the ability to
correct the fault or operate around it. In a fail-safe system, program execution is terminated, and
the system is protected from being compromised when a hardware or software failure occurs and
is detected. In a fail-soft system, when a hardware or software failure occurs and is detected,
selected, non-critical processing is terminated. The term failover refers to switching to a duplicate
"hot" backup component in real-time when a hardware or software failure occurs, enabling
processing to continue.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 5: Security Architecture and
Models (page 196).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
21. Which of the following is an Internet IPsec protocol to negotiate, establish, modify, and delete
security associations, and to exchange key generation and authentication data, independent of the
details of any specific key generation technique, key establishment protocol, encryption algorithm,
or authentication mechanism?
Answer: Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
RFC 2828 (Internet Security Glossary) defines the Internet Security Association and Key
Management Protocol (ISAKMP) as an Internet IPsec protocol to negotiate, establish, modify,
and delete security associations, and to exchange key generation and authentication data,
independent of the details of any specific key generation technique, key establishment protocol,
encryption algorithm, or authentication mechanism. Simple Key-management for Internet
Protocols (SKIP) is a key distribution protocol that uses hybrid encryption to convey session keys
that are used to encrypt data in IP packets. OAKLEY is a key establishment protocol (proposed for
IPsec but superseded by IKE) based on the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and designed to be a
compatible component of ISAKMP. IPsec Key Exchange (IKE) is an Internet, IPsec, keyestablishment protocol [R2409] (partly based on OAKLEY) that is intended for putting in place
authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP and for other security associations, such as in
AH and ESP.
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
22. Which of the following statements regarding trade secrets is false?
Answer: The Trade Secret Law normally protects the expression of the idea of the resource.
The Trade Secret Law does not protect the expression of the idea of the resource, but specific
resources. A copyright protects the expression of ideas rather than the ideas themselves. A trade
secret protects the idea itself.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 10: Law, Investigation, and Ethics (page 665).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
23. What is called the percentage of invalid subjects that are falsely accepted?
Answer: False Acceptance Rate (FAR) or Type II Error
The percentage of invalid subjects that are falsely accepted is called the False Acceptance Rate
(FAR) or Type II Error.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 38.
And: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002,
chapter 4: Access Control (pages 127-128).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for providing an extra
reference.
24. Which of the following cable types is the least expensive to install?
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) is the least expensive cable to install. Other are (from cheapest to
most expensive): 10Base-2, shielded twisted-pair (STP) and 10Base-5. The most expensive cable
type is fiber-optic.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Appendix E: Various Networking Components (page 913).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
25. What can be defined as a data structure that enumerates digital certificates that were issued to
CAs but have been invalidated by their issuer prior to when they were scheduled to expire?
The Internet Security Glossary (RFC2828) defines the Authority Revocation List (ARL) as a data
structure that enumerates digital certificates that were issued to CAs but have been invalidated by
their issuer prior to when they were scheduled to expire. Not to confuse with a Certificate
Revocation List (CRL). A certificate revocation tree is a mechanism for distributing notice of
certificate revocations.
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
26. Which of the following LAN devices only operates at the physical layer of the OSI/ISO model?
Repeaters and hubs are devices that only operate at the physical layer of the OSI model.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 109).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
27. DNS, FTP, TFTP, SNMP are provided at what level of the OSI / ISO model?
Reference: OSI/ISO.
28. Which of the following would be less likely to prevent an employee from reporting an incident?
Answer: The process of reporting incidents is centralized.
The process of reporting incidents must be centralized (not decentralized), easy to accomplish,
otherwise they won't even bother. All others are reasons that would prevent an employee from
reporting an incident.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 10: Law, Investigation, and Ethics (page 675).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
29. Which of the following is a preventive control?
Guard dogs are physical preventive controls, used to restrict access to a facility. Motion detectors,
intrusion detection systems and audit logs are detective controls, used to identify undesirable
events that are occurring or have occurred.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 4: Access Control (page 180).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
30. What is necessary for a subject to have write access to an object in a Multi-Level Security Policy?
Answer: The subject's sensitivity label is dominated by the object's sensitivity label
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 76.
31. Which of the following is an ipaddress that is private (i.e. reserved for internal networks, and not a
valid address to use on the Internet)?
Each class of addresses contains a block that are reserved for private networks and which are not
routable across the public Internet. For class A, the reserved addresses are 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255. For class B networks, the reserved addresses are 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255. For
class C, the reserved addresses are 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255.
Source: The Linux Net-HOWTO.
Also ensure that you take a look at RFC 1918, which is THE reference for private address space.
32. Computer crime is generally made possible by which of the following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
33. Which issue when selecting a facility site deals with the surrounding terrain, building markings
and signs, and high or low population in the area:
Items critical to selecting a facility site for visibility are: surrounding terrain, building markings
and signs, types of neighbors, and high or low population in the area.
From: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, page 284.
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing this question.
34. What is a limitation of TCP Wrappers?
TCP Wrappers can be used to control when UDP servers start, but it has no other control over the
server. UDP servers may continue to run after they've finished processing a legitimate request, and
UDP's lack of a 3-way handshake makes it simple for attackers to trick UDP servers into
processing illegitimate requests.
Source: ZWICKY, Elizabeth D. et al., Building Internet Firewalls, O'Reilly & Associates, page
118.
35. In addition to the accuracy of the biometric systems, there are other factors that must also be
considered:
Answer: These factors include the enrolment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability.
In addition to the accuracy of the biometric systems, there are other factors that must also be
considered. These factors include the enrolment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability.
Enrolment time is the time it takes to initially "register" with a system by providing samples of the
biometric characteristic to be evaluated. An acceptable enrolment time is around two minutes. For
example, in fingerprint systems, the actual fingerprint is stored and requires approximately 250kb
per finger for a high quality image. This level of information is required for one-to-many searches
in forensics applications on very large databases. In finger-scan technology, a full fingerprint is
not stored-the features extracted from this fingerprint are stored using a small template that
requires approximately 500 to 1000 bytes of storage. The original fingerprint cannot be
reconstructed from this template. Updates of the enrolment information may be required because
some biometric characteristics, such as voice and signature, may change with time.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 37 & 38.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Sasa Vidanovic for helping with the
review.
36. Which integrity model defines a constrained data item, an integrity verification procedure and a
transformation procedure?
Answer: The Clark Wilson integrity model
The Clark Wilson integrity model addresses the three following integrity goals: 1) data is
protected from modification by unauthorized users; 2) data is protected from unauthorized
modification by authorized users; and 3) data is internally and externally consistent. It also defines
a Constrained Data Item (CDI), an Integrity Verification Procedure (IVP), a Transformation
Procedure (TP) and an Unconstrained Data item. The Bell-LaPadula and Take-Grant models are
not integrity models.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 5: Security Architecture and
Models (page 205).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
37. In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non-discretionary access control is
useful because:
Answer: the access controls are based on the individual's role or title within the organization.
In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non-discretionary access control is
useful because the access controls are based on the individual's role or title within the
organization. These access controls do not need to be changed whenever a new person takes over
the role. Another type of non-discretionary access control is lattice-based access control. In this
type of control, a lattice model is applied. To apply this concept to access control, the pair of
elements is the subject and object, and the subject has the greatest lower bound and the least upper
bound of access rights to an object.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 32.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Sasa Vidanovic for helping with the
review.
38. Which TCSEC class specifies discretionary protection?
C1 involves discretionary protection, C2 involves controlled access protection, B1 involves
labeled security protection and B2 involves structured protection.
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
39. Which of the following includes notifying the appropriate parties to take action in order to
determine the extent of the severity of an incident and to remediate the incident's effects?
Answer: Intrusion Detection (ID) and Response
This includes notifying the appropriate parties to take action in order to determine the extent of the
severity of an incident and to remediate the incident's effects.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 62.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
40. Like Kerberos, SESAME is also subject to which of the following?
SESAME is subject to password guessing like Kerberos.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 43.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
41. SESAME incorporates two certificates or tickets. Which of the following statements is correct?
Answer: One certificate provides authentication as in Kerberos and the other certificate defines
the access privileges that are assigned to a client.
To address some of the weaknesses in Kerberos, the Secure European System for Applications in
a Multivendor Environment (SESAME) project uses public key cryptography for the distribution
of secret keys and provides additional access control support. It uses the Needham-Schroeder
protocol and a trusted authentication server at each host to reduce the key management
requirements. In addition, SESAME incorporates two certificates or tickets. One certificate
provides authentication as in Kerberos and the other certificate defines the access privileges that
are assigned to a client. One weakness in SESAME is that it authenticates by using the first block
of a message only and not the complete message.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 42.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Sasa Vidanovic for helping with the
review.
42. If your property Insurance has Actual Cost Valuation (ACV) clause your damaged property will
be compensated
Answer: Based on the value of item on the date of loss
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 1, Property Insurance overview, Page 587.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
43. Why does a digital signature contain a message digest?
Answer: To detect any alteration of the message
The message digest is calculated and included in a digital signature to prove that the message has
not been altered as it should be the same value as a recalculation performed upon receipt.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 4: Protection of Information Assets (page 214).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
44. A momentary power outage is a:
A momentary power outage is a fault.
From: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, page 299.
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing this question.
45. Which of the following tasks is not usually part of a Business Impact Analysis(BIA)?
The Business Impact Analysis is critical for the development of a business continuity plan (BCP).
It identifies risks, critical processes and resources needed in case of recovery and quantifies the
impact a disaster will have upon the organization. The development of a mission statement is
normally performed before the BIA. According to the Disaster Recovery International Institute, a
business continuity plan methodology would include the following phases:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Project initiation phase (objectives and assumptions)
Functional requirements phase (fact gathering, alternatives and decisions)
Design and development phase (designing the plan)
Implementation phase (creating the plan)
Testing and exercising phase (post-implementation plan review)
Maintenance and updating phase (updating the plan)
7.
Execution phase (declare disaster and execute recovery operations)
Systems Control Journal, volume 1, 2002, page 28. For more info: The Disaster Recovery Journal.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
46. In Kerberos, the client decrypts the message containing the session key (Kc, tgs) with its secret
key (Kc), and will now use this session key to communicate with the:
The client decrypts the message containing the session key (Kc, tgs) with its secret key (Kc), and
will now use this session key to communicate with the TGS server.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 41.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
47. What type of attack involves IP spoofing, ICMP ECHO and a bounce site?
A smurf attack occurs when an attacker sends a spoofed (IP spoofing) PING (ICMP ECHO)
packet to the broadcast address of a large network (the bounce site). The modified packet
containing the address of the target system, all devices on its local network respond with a ICMP
REPLY to the target system, which is then saturated with those replies. An IP spoofing attack is
used to convince a system that it is communication with a known entity that gives an intruder
access. It involves modifying the source address of a packet for a trusted source's address. A
teardrop attack consists of modifying the length and fragmentation offset fields in sequential IP
packets so the target system becomes confused and crashes after it receives contradictory
instructions on how the fragments are offset on these packets. A SYN attack is when an attacker
floods a system with connection requests but does not respond when the target system replies to
those requests.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 76).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
48. A Business Continuity Plan should be tested:
Answer: At least once a year.
It is recommended that testing does not exceed established frequency limits. For a plan to be
effective, all components of the BCP should be tested at least once a year. Also, is there is a major
change in the operations of the organization, the plan should be revised and tested not more than
three months after the change becomes operational.
Source: BARNES, James C. & ROTHSTEIN, Philip J., A Guide to Business Continuity Planning,
John Wiley & Sons, 2001 (page 165).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
49. There are parallels between the trust models in Kerberos and in PKI. When we compare them side
by side, Kerberos tickets correspond most closely to which of the following?
A Kerberos ticket is issued by a trusted third party; it is an encrypted data structure that includes
the service encryption key. In that sense it is similar to a public-key certificate. However, the
ticket is not a key. And there is no such thing as a private key certificate.
50. What is the PRIMARY use of a password?
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
51. During Recovery, which of following is most critical?
Source: Veritas eLearning CD - Introducing Disaster Recovery Planning, Chapter 1.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
52. Unrestricted access to production programs should be given to which of the following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
53. Which Orange Book evaluation level is described as "Controlled Access Protection"?
C2 systems are Discretionary Access Control (DAC), and must be able to control access with a
fine granularity; i.e. to allow or disallow by a single user. This is often done with Access Control
Lists (ACLs).
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 156-159.
Also: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book),
DOD 5200.28-STD. December 1985 (also available here).
54. Which of the following is less likely to be included in the request control sub-phase of the
maintenance phase of a software product?
Answer: Recreating and analyzing the problem
Recreating and analyzing the problem is considered a part of the change control sub-phase of the
maintenance phase.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 7: Applications and Systems
Development (page 252).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
55. Attributable data should be:
Answer: always traced to individuals responsible for observing and recording the data
As per FDA data should be attributable, original, accurate, contemporaneous and legible. In an
automated system attributability could be achieved by a computer system designed to identify
individuals responsible for any input.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration,
Guidance for Industry - Computerized Systems Used in Clinical Trials, April 1999, page 1.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
56. Which xDSL flavour can deliver up to 52 MBps downstream over a single copper twisted pair?
Very-high data-rate Digital Subscribe Line (VDSL) can deliver up to 52 MBps downstream over a
single copper twisted pair over a relatively short distance (1000 to 4500 feet). Single-line Digital
Subscriber Line (SDSL) and High-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) deliver 1.544 MBps of
bandwidth each way. ADSL delivers a maximum of 9 MBps downstream.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 115).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
57. Why does fiber optic communication technology have significant security advantage over other
transmission technology?
Answer: Interception of data traffic is more difficult.
It would be correct to select the first answer if the world "security" was not in the question.
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
58. Which type of password token involves time synchronization?
Synchronous dynamic password tokens generate a new unique password value at fixed time
intervals, so the server and token need to be synchronized for the password to be accepted.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control systems
(page 37).
Also check out: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGrawHill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 4: Access Control (page 136).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for providing an extra
reference.
59. Which is not one of the primary goals of BIA
Answer: Deciding on various test to be performed to validate Business Contuity Plan
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Page 276.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
60. The typical computer felons are usually persons with which of the following characteristics?
Answer: They hold a position of trust.
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
61. Which of the following protocols is designed to send individual messages securely?
An early standard for encrypting HTTP documents, Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) is designed to send
individual messages securely. SSL is designed to establish a secure connection between two
computers. SET was originated by VISA and MasterCard as an Internet credit card protocol using
digital signatures. Kerberos is an authentication system.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 89.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
62. Which IPSec operational mode encrypts the entire data packet into an IPSec packet?
In tunnel mode, the entire data packet is encrypted and encased in an IPSec packet. In transport
mode, only the datagram is encrypted, leaving the IP address visible. Authentication mode and
safe mode are not defined IPSec operational modes.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 96).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
63. Which of the following are functions that are compatible in a properly segregated environment?
Answer: System development and systems maintenance.
The goal is of separation of duties is to ensure that no single individual can compromise an
application system's features and its control functions. It is common for system development and
maintenance to be undertaken by the same person. In both cases the programmer requires access to
the source code in the development environment, but should not be allowed access in the
production environment. A computer operator should not have the possibility of modifying
them to introduce fraudulent changes. Systems programming is incompatible with job control
analysis since a systems programmer could change the job control parameters to run their own
personal jobs. Access authorization is a responsibility of data owners, not database administrators.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 2: Management, Planning and Organisation of IS (page
73).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
64. What is the purpose of Trusted Distribution?
Answer: To ensure that the Trusted Computing Base is not tampered with during shipment or
installation.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 147.
65. Valuable paper insurance coverage does not cover damage to which of the following?
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 1, Property Insurance overview, Page 589.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
66. Which of the following statements pertaining to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is false?
Answer: It carries various sizes of packets
ATM is an example of a fast packet-switching network that can be used for either data, voice or
video, but packets are of fixed size.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 7: Telecommunications and Network Security (page 455).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
67. Frame relay and X.25 networks are part of which of the following?
Reference: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 7: Telecommunications and Network Security (pages 451-461).
Thanks to Don Murdoch for providing a reference to this question.
68. The object-relational and object-oriented models are better suited to managing complex data such
as required for which of the following?
The object-relational and object-oriented models are better suited to managing complex data such
as required for computer-aided design and imaging.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 44.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
69. This is a common security issue that is extremely hard to control in large environments. It occurs
when a user has more computer rights, permissions, and privileges that what is required for the
tasks the user needs to fulfill. What best describes this scenario?
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2001, Page 645.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
70. Which of the following is a primary purpose for conducting parallel testing?
Answer: To ensure the new system meets all user requirements.
The main purpose of parallel testing is to ensure the implementation of a new system will meet all
user requirements. Unit and system testing will be completed before parallel testing. Costeffectiveness is not an issue at this level.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 6: Business Application System Development,
Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 299).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
71. When a biometric system is used, which error type deals with the possibility of granting access to
impostors who should be rejected?
When a biometric system rejects an authorized individual, it is called a Type I error. When a
system accepts impostors who should be rejected (false positive), it is called a Type II error. The
Crossover Error Rate (CER), stated in a percentage, represents the point at which false rejection
(Type I) rate equals the false acceptance (Type II) rate.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 4: Access Control (page 128).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
72. Which of the following ensures that security is not breached when a system crash or other system
failure occurs?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, page 222.
Thanks to Eric Yandell for providing this question.
73. A channel within a computer system or network that is designed for the authorized transfer of
information is identified as a(n)?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 219.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
74. Which of the following best provides e-mail message authenticity and confidentiality?
Answer: Signing the message using the sender's private key and encrypting the message using the
By encrypting the message with the receiver's public key, only the receiver can decrypt the
message using his/her own private key, thus ensuring confidentiality. By signing the message with
the sender's private key, the receiver can verify its authenticity using the sender's public key. The
receiver's private key is confidential, and therefore unknown to the sender. Messages encrypted
using the sender's private key can be read by anyone (with the sender's public key).
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 4: Protection of Information Assets (page 215).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
75. An example of a Commercial firewall that normalizes traffic, even at layer-7 is:
Commercial firewalls that normalize traffic, even at layer-7, are coming. I know of one
(OneSecure IDP), and I know others are on their way. If people are really concerned about
stopping as many types of NIDS evasion techniques as possible, then they may wish to consider
looking at in-line normalizers, or pressure their vendors at adding this functionality. Handley,
Kreibic, and Paxson's USENIX paper on the subject is quite interesting, as they have identified
something like 70 points of "normalizations" for IP, TCP, UDP, and ICMP alone.
Source: HANDLEY, KREIBIC & PAXSON, Network Intrusion Detection: Evasion, Traffic
Normalization, and End-to-End Protocol Semantics. (See Appendix A).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
76. In an on-line transaction processing system, which of the following actions should be taken when
erroneous or invalid transactions are detected?
Answer: The transactions should be written to a report and reviewed.
The monitor mechanism within an OLTP system normally detects errors and rolls back any
transaction that was taking place to ensure that no data is corrupted or that only part of a
transaction happens. Any erroneous or invalid transactions that are detected should be written to a
transaction log and to a report log to be reviewed at a later time.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 11: Application and System Development (page 728).
Thanks to Rick Cahoon for providing a reference to this question.
77. Who designed the InfoSec Assessment Methodology (IAM)?
Answer: The NSA's Information Systems Security Organization (ISSO)
As a result of Presidential Decision Directive #63, forming the National Infrastructure Protection
Center (NIPC), the National Security Agency's Information Systems Security Organization (ISSO)
instituted a program intended to improve the overall level of security protection of America's
computing infrastructure. To help achieve this goal, the ISSO designed the InfoSec Assessment
Methodology (IAM). The IAM process is a high-level (level I) security assessment. It is a nonintrusive, standardized baseline analysis of the InfoSec posture of an automated process. The heart
of the IAM is the creation of the Organizational Criticality Matrix. In this chart, all relevant
automated systems are assigned impact attributes (high, medium of low) based on their estimated
effect on the CIA triad to the Organization.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Appendix E: The NSA InfoSec
Assessment methodology (page 507).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
78. Due care is not related to:
Officers and directors of a company are expected to act carefully in fulfilling their tasks. A
director shall act in good faith, with the care an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would
exercise under similar circumstances and in a manner he reasonably believes is in the best interest
of the enterprise. The notion of profit would tend to go against the due care principle.
Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 10: Law, Investigation,
and Ethics (page 186).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
79. Devices that supply power when the commercial utility power system fails are called which of the
following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
80. Which type of attack is based on the probability of two different messages using the same hash
function producing a common message digest?
A Birthday attack is usually applied to the probability of two different messages using the same
hash function producing a common message digest. The term "birthday" comes from the fact that
in a room with 23 people, the probability of two of more people having the same birthday is
greater than 50%.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 163).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
81. Controls are implemented to:
Answer: mitigate risk and reduce the potential for loss
Controls are implemented to mitigate risk and reduce the potential for loss. Preventive controls are
put in place to inhibit harmful occurrences; detective controls are established to discover harmful
occurrences; corrective controls are used to restore systems that are victims of harmful attacks.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 32.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Sasa Vidanovic for helping with the
review.
82. Related to information security, availability is the opposite of which of the following?
Availability is the opposite of "destruction."
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 59.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
part of:
Before the advent of classless addressing, one could tell the size of a network by the first few bits
of an IP address. If the first bit was set to zero (the first byte being from 0 to 127), the address was
a class A network. Values from 128 to 191 were used for class B networks whereas values
between 192 and 223 were used for class C networks. Class D, with values from 224 to 239 (the
first three bits set to one and the fourth to zero), was reserved for IP multicast.
Source: STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 3:
TCP/IP from a Security Viewpoint.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
84. Who developed one of the first mathematical models of a multilevel-security computer system?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 6: Operations Security (page
241).
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing a reference to this question.
85. In the OSI / ISO model, at what level are TCP and UDP provided?
The Transport layer of the OSI/ISO model supports the TCP and UDP protocol.
86. What is called the standard format that was established to set up and manage Security
Associations (SA) on the Internet in IPSec?
Answer: Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
Key management for IPSec, called the Internet Key Exchange (IKE), is defined with a
combination of three protocols (ISAKMP, SKEME and Oakley). The Internet Security
Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) is the one that defines the phases for
establishing a secure relationship. Secure Key Exchange Mechanism (SKEME) describes a secure
exchange mechanism and Oakley defines the modes of operation needed to establish a secure
connection.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 172).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
87. An electrical device (AC or DC) which can generate coercive magnetic force for the purpose of
reducing magnetic flux density to zero on storage media or other magnetic media is called
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
88. Covert Channel Analysis is required for systems evaluated at what TCSEC level?
Covert channel analysis is required for systems evaluated at levels B2 and above.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 137.
89. In response to Access-request from client (NAS), which of the following is not one of the response
In response to an access-request from a client, a RADIUS server returns one of three
authentication responses: access-accept, access-reject, or access-challenge, the latter being a
request for additional authentication information such as a one-time password from a token or a
callback identifier.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 2, 2001, CRC Press, NY, page 36.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
90. Which of the following is a drawback of fiber optic cables?
Answer: The expertise needed to install it.
Fiber optic is immune to the effects of electromagnetic interference, is very hard to tap and has a
much longer effective usable length than any other cable type. The primary drawbacks of this
cable type are its cost of installation and the high level of expertise needed to have it properly
terminated.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 72).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
91. Which backup method only copies files that have changed since a full backup was last performed?
The Differential Backup Method only copies files that have changed since a full backup was last
performed.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 69.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
92. Which of the following statements pertaining to PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol) is
incorrect?
Answer: PPTP is derived from L2TP.
PPTP is an encapsulation protocol based on PPP that works at OSI layer 2 (Data Link) and that
enables a single point-to-point connection, usually between a client and a server. While PPTP uses
IP to establish its connection ('transmits over'), since its based on PPP, which can speak other
protocols, it is capable of handling other protocols as well. As currently implemented, PPTP
encapsulates PPP packets using a modified version of the generic routing encapsulation (GRE)
protocol, which gives PPTP to the flexibility of handling protocols other than IP, such as IPX and
NETBEUI. PPTP does have some limitations. It does not provide strong encryption for protecting
data, nor does it support any token-based methods for authenticating users. L2TP is derived from
L2F and PPTP, not the opposite.
Source: ANDRESS, Mandy, Exam Cram CISSP, Coriolis, 2001, Chapter 6: Cryptography (page
115).
Also check out: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGrawHill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 7: Telecommunications and Network Security (page 469).
More info on PPP can be found in RFC 1334 - PPP Authentication Protocols. Information on
PPTP can be found in RFC 2637 - Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and PPTP Technical
Specifications document at 3COM.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question. Thanks to Atul Porwal and Shawn Moyer
for helping clearing things out.
93. RADIUS incorporates which of the following?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Pages 43, 44.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
94. Which OSI/ISO layers are TCP and UDP implemented at?
TCP and UDP are implemented at the transport layer (layer 4).
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 82).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
95. A network-based vulnerability assessment is also called:
A network-based vulnerability assessment system either re-enacts system attacks, noting and
recording responses to there attacks, or probes different targets to infer weaknesses from their
responses. Since they are actively attacking or scanning targeted systems, network-based
vulnerability assessment systems are also called active vulnerability systems. Credential-based
and passive are related to host-based vulnerability assessment systems.
Source: DUPUIS, Clément, Access Control Systems and Methodology CISSP Open Study
Guide, version 1.0, march 2002 (page 97). Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
96. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of password syncronization?
It is 1/10 the cost of single sign-on technology.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 1, page 35.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
97. Within which OSI/ISO layer is RPC implemented?
The Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol is implemented at the Session layer, which
establishes, maintains and manages sessions as well as synchronization of the data flow.
Source: Jason Robinett's CISSP Cram Sheet: domain2.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
98. What works as an E-mail message transfer agent?
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) works as a message transfer agent.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2001, Page 821.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
99. Which of the following best defines add-on security?
Answer: Protection mechanisms implemented after an information system has become
operational.
The Internet Security Glossary (RFC2828) defines add-on security as "The retrofitting of
protection mechanisms, implemented by hardware or software, after the [automatic data
processing] system has become operational."
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
100. Each data packet is assigned the IP address of the sender and the IP address of the:
Each data packet is assigned the IP address of the sender and the IP address of the recipient. The
term network refers to the part of the IP address that identifies each network. The terms host and
node refer to the parts of the IP address that identify a specific machine on a network.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 87.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
101. Which of the following firewall rules is not appropriate to protect an organization's internal
network?
Echo replies outbound should be dropped, not allowed. By allowing inbound echo requests and
outbound echo replies, it makes it easier for attackers to learn about the internal network. The
outbound echo request and inbound echo reply allow internal users to verify connectivity with
external hosts.
Source: STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 10:
The Perfect Firewall.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
102. Making sure that only those who are supposed to access the data can access is:
Confidentiality is defined as making sure that only those who are supposed to access the data can
access it.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 59.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
103. Which of the following is a communication path that is not protected by the system's normal
security mechanisms?
A covert channel is an unintended communication path within a system, therefore it is not
protected by the system's normal security mechanisms. Covert channels are a secret way to convey
information. Covert channels a addressed from TCSEC level B2. A trusted path is the protected
channel that allows a user to access the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) without being
compromised by other processes or users. A protection domain consists of the execution and
memory space assigned to each process. A maintenance hook is a hardware or software
mechanism that was installed to permit system maintenance and to bypass the system's security
protections.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 6: Operations Security (page
219).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
104. What is not the appropriate role of the IS security analyst in the application system development
or acquisition project?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
105. What is called the act of a user professing an identity to a system, usually in the form of a log-on
ID?
Identification is the act of a user professing an identity to a system, usually in the form of a log-on
ID to the system.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 36.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
106. Which of the following is addressed by Kerberos?
Kerberos addresses the confidentiality and integrity of information.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 42.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Robert Mannal and Robert Hunter for
reviewing it.
107. Ensuring that printed reports reach proper users and that receipts are signed before releasing
sensitive documents are examples of:
Output controls are used for two things: for verifying the integrity and protecting the
confidentiality of an output. These are examples of proper output controls.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 6: Operations Security (page
218).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
108. In a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) context, which of the following is a primary concern with
LDAP servers?
The primary security concerns relative to LDAP servers are availability and integrity. For
example, denial of service attacks on an LDAP server could prevent access to the Certificate
Revocation List and, thus, permit the use of a revoked certificate.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (page 165).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
109. What is a "system high" policy?
Answer: A system where all users are cleared to view the most highly classified data on the
system
If a computer or network is designated as "system high", it can hold data of many different
security classifications, but all users must be cleared for the highest level of data before they are
given an account on the box.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 72.
110. A mechanism that enforces the authorized access relationships between subjects and objects is
known as:
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
111. Which layer of the OSI/ISO model handles physical addressing, network topology, line discipline,
error notification, orderly delivery of frames, and optional flow control?
network topology, line discipline, error notification, orderly delivery of frames, and optional flow
control.
Source: ROTHKE, Ben, CISSP CBK Review presentation on domain 2, August 1999.
Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
112. Related to information security, confidentiality is the opposite of which of the following?
Confidentiality is the opposite of disclosure.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 59.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
113. According to the Orange Book, which security level is the first to require a system to support
separate operator and system administrator roles?
B2 security level requires that systems must support separate operator and system administrator
roles. At B3 and A1, systems must clearly identify the functions of the security administrator to
perform the security-related functions.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 6: Operations Security (page
220).
Also: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book),
DOD 5200.28-STD. December 1985 (also available here).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
114. What category of water sprinkler system is currently the most recommended water system for a
computer room?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 336.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
115. Which of the following tasks may be performed by the same person in a well-controlled
information processing facility/computer center?
Answer: System development and systems maintenance
It is common for system development and maintenance to be undertaken by the same person. In
both cases the programmer requires access to the source code in the development environment, but
should not be allowed access in the production environment. Other choices are not correct. The
roles of security administration and change management are incompatible functions. The level of
security administration access rights could allow changes to go undetected. Computer operations
and system development are incompatible since it would be possible for an operator to run a
program that he/she had amended. The system development and change management task are
incompatible because the combination of system development and change control would allow
program modifications to bypass change control approvals.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 2: Management, Planning and Organization of IS (page
77).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
116. What Orange Book security rating is reserved for systems that have been evaluated but fail to meet
the criteria and requirements of the higher divisions
Division D (minimal protection) has only one class and is reserved for systems that have been
evaluated but fail to meet the criteria and requirements of the higher divisions.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 5: Security Models and Architecture (page 252).
Also: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book),
DOD 5200.28-STD. December 1985 (also available here).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
117. Which of the following security-focused protocols operates at a layer different from the others?
All the previous protocols operate at the transport layer except for Secure HTTP (S-HTTP), which
operates at the application layer. S-HTTP is being overtaken by SSL.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 89).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question and to Scot Hartman for rewording it.
118. Which of the following protocols provides non-repudiation in IPSec?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, pages 171-172.
Thanks to Eric Yandell for providing this question.
119. Risk mitigation and risk reduction controls can be of which of the following types?
Controls can be preventive, detective, or corrective.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 32.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
120. Which of the following RAID levels functions as a single virtual disk?
RAID Level 7 is a variation of RAID 5 wherein the array functions as a single virtual disk in the
hardware. This is sometimes simulated by software running over a RAID level 5 hardware
implementation. This enables the drive array to continue to operate if any disk or any path to any
disk fails and also provides parity protection.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 66.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Scot Hartman for correcting it.
121. Which of the following backup method must be made regardless of whether Differential or
Incremental methods are used?
A Full Backup must be made regardless of whether Differential or Incremental methods are used.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 69.
And: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002,
chapter 9: Disaster Recovery and Business continuity (pages 617-619).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for providing an extra
reference.
122. There are more than 20 books in the Rainbow Series. Which of the following covers password
management guidelines?
The Orange Book is an abstract, very concise description of computer security requirements. It
provides a broad framework for building and evaluating a trusted system but raises many
questions about the specifics of what's really needed to satisfy particular requirements. In an
attempt to help system developers, the government has published a number of additional books
interpreting Orange Book requirements in particular, puzzling areas. These are known collectively
as the Rainbow Series, because each has a different cover color. Chief among the documents is the
Trusted Network Interpretation (the Red Book), which covers networks and network components.
Another important book is the Trusted Database Management System Interpretation (the
Lavender Book), interpreting Orange Book requirements for DBMS products. Other books include
the Password Management Guideline (Green Book), a Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted
Systems (Tan Book), Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems (Purple Book), Guide for
Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems (Burgundy Book).
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, July
1992 (page 114).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
123. Which of the following is NOT an administrative control?
All options represent administrative controls except logical access control mechanisms, which are
considered technical controls.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 3: Security Management Practices (page 60).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
124. Application Level Firewalls operate at the:
Answer: OSI protocol Layer seven, the Application Layer.
It operates at the OSI protocol Layer seven, the Application Layer.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 90.
And: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002,
chapter 7: Telecommunications and Network Security (pages 419-420).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for providing an extra
reference.
125. What is the most critical piece to disaster recovery and continuity planning?
All choices are related to DRP/BCP, but the most critical piece is the management support. The
management must be convinced of its necessity and that's why a business case must be made. The
decision of how a company should recover from any disaster is purely a business decision and
should be treated as so.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 9: Disaster recovery and business continuity (page 595).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
126. Which type of control is concerned with restoring controls?
Corrective controls are concerned with remedying circumstances and restoring controls whereas
recovery controls are concerned with restoring resources, capabilities or losses. Compensating
controls are alternative controls, used to compensate weaknesses in other controls and preventive
controls are concerned with avoiding occurrences of risks.
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
127. Why do many organizations require every employee to take a mandatory vacation of a week or
more?
Answer: To reduce the opportunity for an employee to commit an improper or illegal act.
Mandatory vacations in which someone other than the regular employee performs the job function
reduces the opportunity to commit improper or illegal acts, and it allows discovering any
fraudulent activity that could have been taking place. Other choices could be organizational
benefits from a mandatory vacation policy, but not the reason why it is established.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 2: Management, Planning and Organization of IS (page
65).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
128. Sensitivity labels are an example of:
Sensitivity labels are an example of preventive security application controls, as are firewalls, data
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 7: Applications and Systems
Development (page 264).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
129. What is called the probability that a threat to an information system will materialize?
Risk: The potential for harm or loss to an information system or network; the probability that a
threat will materialize.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Pages 16, 32.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
130. The Diffie-Hellman algorithm is used for:
The Diffie-Hellman algorithm is used for key distribution and cannot be used to encrypt and
decrypt messages.
Source: WALLHOFF, John, CBK#5 Cryptography (CISSP Study Guide), April 2002 (page 4).
Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
131. Why is traffic across a packet switched network (e.g. frame relay, X.25) difficult to monitor?
Answer: Packets are transmitted on multiple paths
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
132. Public Key algorithms are:
Answer: 1,000 to 10,000 times slower than secret key algorithms
The CISSP Prep Guide states, "Because there are more calculations associated with public key
cryptography, it is 1,000 to 10,000 times slower than secret key cryptography."
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, page 156.
Thanks to Mark Radulovich for providing this question.
133. Another name for a VPN is a:
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
134. What is the role of IKE within the IPsec protocol?
Answer: peer authentication and key exchange
Reference: RFC 2409: The Internet Key Exchange (IKE); DORASWAMY, Naganand &
HARKINS, Dan, Ipsec: The New Security Standard for the Internet, Intranets, and Virtual Private
Networks, 1999, Prentice Hall PTR; SMITH, Richard E., Internet Cryptography, 1997, AddisonWesley Pub Co.
A very special thanks to Claus Stark and his wife Shubhangi for submitting this question.
135. What can best be defined as high-level statements, beliefs, goals and objectives?
Policies are high-level statements, beliefs, goals and objectives and the general means for their
attainment for a specific subject area. Standards are mandatory activities, action, rules or
regulations designed to provide policies with the support structure and specific direction they
require to be effective. Guidelines are more general statements of how to achieve the policies
objectives by providing a framework within which to implement procedures. Procedures spell out
the specific steps of how the policy and supporting standards and how guidelines will be
implemented.
Source: HARE, Chris, Security management Practices CISSP Open Study Guide, version 1.0,
april 1999. Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
136. Which of the following RAID implementations has the highest cost per megabyte?
RAID level 1 (mirroring) has the highest cost per megabyte since every piece of data is written at
two different locations simultaneously for redundancy purposes.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 65).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
137. Which of the following statements pertaining to dealing with the media after a disaster occurred
and disturbed the organization's activities is incorrect?
Answer: The CEO should always be the spokesperson for the company during a disaster.
The disaster recovery plan must include how the media is to be handled during the disaster, in
order to keep things under control. While the CEO is generally the spokesperson of the company,
it is not advisable for the CEO to talk to the press during a disaster. A central point of information
should be established for the media and responses should be conveyed by an informed, trained
spokesperson. Identifying an emergency press conference site ahead helps in demonstrating the
appearance that the situation is under control. Also, while no company wants to publicize bad
news, it is far better to report it to the press and public than to have someone come after the fact
demanding an explanation. The appearance will be that the organization was trying to cover up the
event, and this leads to mistrust from the public.
Source: HARE, Chris, CISSP Study Guide: Business Continuity Planning Domain, available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
138. What is the lowest Orange Book evaluation level requiring Security Domains?
The Orange book defines four levels of assessment: A,B,C,D. Level A is the highest and Level D
is the lowest. B3 systems require a reference monitor to be implemented. The main divisions are
the following:
A: Verified Protection
B: Mandatory Protection
C: Discretionary Protection
D: Minimal Security
Each division can have one or more numbered classes and each have a corresponding set of
requirements that must be met for a system to achieve that particular rating. Classes are as follows:
A1: Verified Design: like B3, but the system documentation must support everything (formal
design).
B3: Security Domains: Protect against covert timing channels; separate SysAdmin and SecAdmin
roles.
B2: Structured Protection: Security policy clearly defined; subjects and devices require labels and
system must not allow covert (storage) channels; Trusted Facility Management which means a
separation of SysAdmin and SysOperator roles.
B1: Labeled Security: each data object has a classification label and each subject has a clearance
label; system checks one against the other.
C2: Controlled Access Protection: Identify individuals, auditing (especially of security related
events which must be protected), object reuse concept, strict logon, decision making capability
when subjects access objects.
C1: Discretionary Security Protection: Users, groups, separation of identity, some access control
necessary.
D: Minimal protection: Reserved for systems that have been evaluated but fail to meet the criteria
and requirements of the higher divisions.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 5: Security Models and Architecture (pages 251-259).
And: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991, pg.
156-159.
The Orange book can be found at www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/library/rainbow/5200.28-STD.html
or at http://www.cerberussystems.com/INFOSEC/stds/d520028.htm.
Thanks to Don Murdoch for providing an explanation and an extra reference to this question and
to Richard Stephens and Jonathan Guymon for correcting it.
139. What will be Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO) of the treat "user input error", in the case that
company employs 100 data entry clerks and every one of them make one input error each month?
If every one of the 100 clerks makes 1 error 12 times per year, it makes a total of 1200 errors. The
annualized rate of occurence (ARO) is a value that represents the estimated frequency in which a
threat is expected to occur. The range can be from 0.0 to a large number. Having an average of
1200 errors per year means an ARO of 1200.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 1: Security Management
Principles (page 17).
Thanks to Karin Brabcova for providing this question and to Kevin Miller for reviewing it.
140. Which type of attack involves impersonating a user or a system?
A spoofing attack is when an attempt is made to gain access to a computer system by posing as an
authorized user or system. Spamming refers to sending out or posting junk advertising and
unsolicited mail. A smurf attack is a type of denial-of-service attack using PING and a spoofed
address. Sniffing refers to observing packets passing on a network.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 77).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
141. What is defined as the manner in which the network devices are organized to facilitate
communications?
A network topology defines the manner in which the network devices are organized to facilitate
communications. Common LAN technologies are bus, ring, star or meshed. LAN transmission
methods refer to the way packets are sent on the network and are either unicast, multicast or
broadcast. LAN transmission protocols are the rules for communicating between computers on a
LAN. Common LAN transmission protocols are CSMA/CD, polling, token-passing. LAN media
access methods control the use of a network (physical and data link layers). They can be Ethernet,
ARCnet, Token ring and FDDI.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 105).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
142. According to ISC2, what should be the fire rating for the walls of an information processing
facility?
Answer: All walls must have a one-hour minimum fire rating, except for walls to adjacent rooms
where records such as paper and media are stored, which should have a two-hour minimum fire
rating.
The walls must be a floor to ceiling slab with a one-hour minimum fire rating. Any adjacent walls
where records such as paper, media, etc. must have a two-hour minimum fire rating.
Source: Chris Hare's CISSP Study Notes on Physical Security, based on ISC2 CBK document.
Available at http://www.ccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
143. Which of the following questions is less likely to help in assessing controls over audit trails?
Answer: Are incidents monitored and tracked until resolved?
Audit trails maintain a record of system activity by system or application processes and by user
activity. In conjunction with appropriate tools and procedures, audit trails can provide individual
accountability, a means to reconstruct events, detect intrusions, and identify problems. Audit trail
controls are considered technical controls. Monitoring and tracking of incidents is more an
operational control related to incident response capability.
Source: SWANSON, Marianne, NIST Special Publication 800-26, Security Self-Assessment
Guide for Information Technology Systems, November 2001 (Pages A-50 to A-51).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
144. Electrical systems are the lifeblood of computer operations. The continued supply of clean, steady
power is required to maintain the proper personnel environment as well as to sustain data
operations. Which of the following is not an element that can threaten power systems?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 332.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
145. What is called a mathematical encryption operations that can not be reversed?
The one-way hash function performs a mathematical encryption operation on the password that
cannot be reversed.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Pages 40-41.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
146. Which of the following is commonly used for retrofitting multilevel security to a database
management system?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
147. Which of the following is an advantage of using a high-level programming language?
Answer: It decreases the total amount of code written
A high level language does not enforce coding standards. The CISSP Prep Guide, Page 191 says:
"Because is a desirable to write software in a higher level, English-like statements, high-level or
high-order languages are employed. In these languages one statement usually requires a number of
machine language instructions for its implementation. Therefore unlike assembly language, there
is a one-to-many relationship between high-level instructions to machine language instructions."
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 5: Security Architecture and
Models (page 191).
Thanks to Sharron Styles for providing a reference for this question.
148. This type of backup management provides a continuous on-line backup by using optical or tape
"jukeboxes," similar to WORMs (Write Once, Read Many):
Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) provides a continuous on-line backup by using optical
or tape "jukeboxes," similar to WORMs.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 71.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
149. A Wide Area Network (WAN) may be privately operated for a specific user community, may
support multiple communication protocols, or may provide network connectivity and services via:
Answer: interconnected network segments (extranets, intranets, and Virtual Private Networks).
A Wide Area Network (WAN) may be privately operated for a specific user community, may
support multiple communication protocols, or may provide network connectivity and services via
interconnected network segments (extranets, intranets, and VPNs).
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 99.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
150. Which of the following is a measure of the size of an information system based on the number and
complexity of a system's inputs, outputs and files the user has to interact with?
Function Point (FP) analysis is a measure of the size of an information system based on the
number and complexity of the inputs, outputs and files that a user sees and interacts with. Function
Points are used in a manner analogous to Lines of Code (LOC) as a measure of software
productivity, quality and other attributes. CPM is used by network management techniques such as
PERT, in computing a critical path. PERT is a network management technique used in both the
planning and control of projects.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 6: Business Application System Development,
Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 314).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
151. Which of the following is best provided by symmetric cryptography?
When using symmetric cryptography, both parties will be using the same key for encryption and
decryption. Symmetric cryptography is generally fast and can be hard to break, but it offers
limited overall security in the fact that it can only provide confidentiality.
Source: WALLHOFF, John, CBK#5 Cryptography (CISSP Study Guide), April 2002 (page 2).
Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
152. What best describes a scenario when an employee has been shaving off pennies from multiple
accounts and depositing the funds into his own bank account?
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2001, Page 644.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question and to Brian Backer for reviewing it.
153. Which of the following Common Data Network Services is used to a shared printer or a print
queue/spooler?
Print services are used to print documents to a shared printer or a print queue/spooler.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 100.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
154. If risk is defined as "the potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or
group of assets to cause loss or damage to the assets" then risk has all of the following elements
EXCEPT?
Threats, impact and probabilities are all elements of risk. Controls are developed to address the
risk and hence are not, of themselves, an element of risk.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 1: The IS Audit Process (page 26).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
155. Which RAID implementation uses interleave parity?
RAID level 5 stripes data and parity at block level across all the drives in the set. As opposed to
RAID level 3 and 4, parity information is written to the next available drive rather than to a
dedicated drive by using an interleave parity, enabling more flexibility and increasing fault
tolerance.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 66).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
156. Network security is a(n):
Security should always be included when designing an enterprise network. With the increasing
need to open your network to partners, customers, and remote users, it's more important than ever
for security to be implemented at all layers of and entries into the network. Unfortunately, there is
no quick fix, for network security is not a product or a protocol – it is an ever-evolving process.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
157. Which of the following questions is less likely to help in assessing physical access controls?
Answer: Is the operating system configured to prevent circumvention of the security software and
application controls?
Physical security and environmental security are part of operational controls, and are measures
taken to protect systems, buildings, and related supporting infrastructures against threats
associated with their physical environment. All the questions above are useful in assessing
physical access controls except for the one regarding operating system configuration, which is a
logical access control.
Source: SWANSON, Marianne, NIST Special Publication 800-26, Security Self-Assessment
Guide for Information Technology Systems, November 2001 (Pages A-21 to A-24).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
158. During the testing of the business continuity plan (BCP), which of the following methods of
results analysis provides the BEST assurance that the plan is workable?
Answer: Quantitatively measuring the results of the test
It is important to have ways to measure the success of the plan and tests against the stated
objectives. Therefore, results must be quantitatively gauged as opposed to an evaluation based
only on observation. Quantitatively measuring the results of the test involves a generic statement
measuring all the activities performed during BCP, which gives the best assurance of an effective
plan. Although choices A and B are also quantitative, they relate to specific areas, or an analysis of
results from one viewpoint, namely the accuracy of the results and the elapsed time.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (page 269).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
159. What is the most correct choice below when talking about the steps to resume normal operation?
Answer: Non critical systems are moved first from alternate site to the primary business location
"It's interesting to note that the steps to resume normal processing operations will be different than
the steps of the recovery plan; that is, the least critical work should be brought back first to the
primary site."
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Page 290.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
Thanks to Jeremy Shelley for detecting that a wrong answer was selected as good.
Thanks to James Schweitzer for proposing some clarification to this question
160. Which of the following is not normally a task of a Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT)?
One major concept of Intrusion Detection and Response is the creation of a computer Incident
Response Team (CIRT) for the following:
* Analysis of an event notification
* Response to an incident if the analysis warrants it
* Escalation path procedures
* Resolution, post-incident follow-up, and reporting to the appropriate parties
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 62.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
161. Which of the following is a Wide Area Network that was originally funded by the Department of
Defense, which uses TCP/IP for data interchange?
The Internet is a WAN that was originally funded by the Department of Defense, which uses
TCP/IP for data interchange.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 99.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
162. Which of the following is true of two-factor authentication?
Answer: It relies on two independent proofs of identity.
Two-factor authentication refers to using two independent proofs of identity, such as something
the user has (e.g. a token card) and something the user knows (a password). Measuring hand
geometry twice does not yield two _independent_ proofs. RSA encryption uses integers with
exactly two prime factors, but the term "two-factor authentication" is not used in that context.
Two-factor authentication may be used with single sign-on.
163. When backing up an applications system's data, which of the following is a key question to be
For a proper backup procedure, first consider
- WHAT to backup, then
- HOW to store the backups, then
- WHERE to store the backups, and finally
- WHEN to make backups.
Thanks to Peter Mosmans for providing explanations to this question.
164. Which of the following binds a subject name to a public key value?
A public-key certificate binds a subject name to a public key value.
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
165. When conducting a business continuity audit, which of the following would be the MOST
important to review?
Answer: Media backups are performed on a timely basis and stored off-site
Without data to process, all other components of the recovery effort are in vain. Even in the
absence of a plan, recovery efforts of any type would not be practical without data to process.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (page 265).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
166. Which of the following represents a relation, which is the basis of a relational database?
A relation is the basis of a relational database and is represented by a two dimensional table.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 45.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
167. Which of the following best ensures accountability of users for the actions taken within a system
or domain?
The only way to ensure accountability is if the subject is uniquely identified and authenticated.
Identification alone does not provide proof the user is who they claim to be. After showing proper
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 4: Access Control (page 126).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
168. Write-once, read-many (WORM) optical disk "jukeboxes" are used for which of the following?
Answer: archiving data that does not change.
Write-once, read-many (WORM) optical disk "jukeboxes" are used for archiving data that does
not change.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 70.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
169. Which of the following is true about Kerberos?
Answer: It depends upon symmetric ciphers.
Kerberos is a third party authentication system that uses private key (a.k.a symmetric cipher)
cryptography.
Source: Internet and TCP/IP Network Security, pg. 328.
170. Which of the following choices describe a Challenge-response tokens generation?
Answer: A workstation or system that generates a random challenge string that the user enters
into the token when prompted along with the proper PIN.
Challenge-response tokens are:
- A workstation or system generates a random challenge string and the owner enters the string into
the token along with the proper PIN.
- The token generates a response that is then entered into the workstation or system.
- The authentication mechanism in the workstation or system then determines if the owner should
be authenticated.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 37.
Also: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002,
chapter 4: Access Control (pages 136-137).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question, to Scot Hartman for reviewing it, and to Don
Murdoch for providing the extra reference.
171. The primary purpose for using one-way encryption of user passwords within a system is which of
the following?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
172. RAID Level 1 mirrors the data from one disk or set of disks using which of the following
techniques?
Answer: copying the data onto another disk or set of disks.
RAID Level 1 mirrors the data from one disk or set of disks by duplicating the data onto another
disk or set of disks.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 65.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for reviewing it.
173. What enables a workstation to boot without requiring a hard or floppy disk drive?
Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) is an Internet Layer protocol that enables a workstation to boot
without requiring a hard or floppy disk drive. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a
TCP/IP protocol that permits a physical address, such as an Ethernet address, to be translated into
to be translated into a physical address. Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a new IP
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 88.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
174. In a known plaintext attack, the cryptanalyst has knowledge of which of the following?
Answer: both the plaintext and the associated ciphertext of several messages
In a known plaintext attack, the attacker has the plaintext and ciphertext of one or more messages.
The goal is to discover the key used to encrypt the messages so that other messages can be
Source: Handbook of Applied Cryptography 4th Edition by Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van
Oorschot and Scott A. Vanstone.
Also check out: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGrawHill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 8: Cryptography (page 578).
Thanks to Mike Yeatman for providing this question.
175. Network cabling comes in three flavors, they are:
Answer: twisted pair, coaxial, and fiber optic.
Network cabling comes in three flavors-twisted pair, coaxial, and fiber optic.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 101.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
176. What is called the number of columns in a table?
The number of columns in a relation (a table) is the degree whereas the cardinality is the number
of rows. The schema is the description of the database.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control systems
(page 45).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
177. What is used to help IP match an IP address to the appropriate hardware address of the packet's
destination so it can be sent?
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to match an IP address to an Ethernet address so
the packet can be sent to the appropriate node. RARP is used to match an Ethernet address to an IP
address. ICMP is a management protocol whose function is to send message between network
devices. Routing tables are used by routers to choose the appropriate interface to route packets.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 87).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
178. What type of cable is used with 100Base-TX Fast Ethernet?
Answer: Two pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or Category 1 shielded twistedpair (STP) wires.
100Base-TX Fast Ethernet runs over two pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or
Category 1 shielded twisted-pair (STP) wires. Fiber-optic is used for 100Base-FX Fast Ethernet
and Gigabit Ethernet. Four pairs of Category 3, 4 or 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) wires are
used with 100Base-T4 Fast Ethernet. RG-58 is a thin coaxial cable and is used with 10Base-2
Ethernet.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Appendix E: Various Networking Components (page 912).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
179. The ideal operating humidity range is defined as 40 percent to 60 percent. Low humidity (less than
40 percent) can produce what type of problem on computer parts?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 333.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
180. The high availability of multiple all-inclusive, easy-to-use hacking tools that do not require much
technical knowledge has brought a growth in the number of which type of attackers?
Script kiddies are low- to moderately-skilled hackers using available scripts and tools to easily
launch attacks against victims. Black hats are skilled hackers. White hats are security
professionals. Phreakers are telephone system hackers.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 12: Operations security (Page 827).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
181. Which of the following algorithms is used today for encryption in PGP?
The Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) email encryption system was developed by Phil Zimmerman. For
encrypting messages, it actually uses AES with up to 256-bit keys, CAST, TripleDES, IDEA and
Twofish. RSA is also used in PGP, but only for symmetric key exchange and for digital
signatures, but not for encryption.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 4: Cryptography (pages 154,
169).
More info on PGP can be found on their site at http://www.pgp.com/display.php?pageID=29.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question. Thanks to John Palumbo for helping
clearing out the explanation. Thanks to Anu Lanka for correcting the question and providing the
extra reference.
182. Rewritable and erasable (CDR/W) optical disks are sometimes used for backups that require short
time storage for changeable data, but require:
Answer: faster file access than tape.
Rewritable and erasable (CDR/W) optical disks are sometimes used for backups that require short
time storage for changeable data, but require faster file access than tape.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 70.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
183. Which of the following is a peer entity authentication method for PPP that uses a randomlygenerated challenge and requiring a matching response that depends on a cryptographic hash of
the challenge and a secret key?
The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a peer entity authentication method
for PPP that uses a randomly-generated challenge and requiring a matching response that depends
on a cryptographic hash of the challenge and a secret key. The Challenge-Response Authentication
Mechanism (CRAM) is an authentication mechanism for IMAP4 where a client uses a keyed hash
to authenticate itself to an IMAP4 server. The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a simple
authentication mechanism used in PPP and where a user identifier and password are transmitted in
cleartext. The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a framework that supports multiple,
optional authentication mechanisms for PPP, and is intended for use primarily by a host or router
that connects to a PPP network server via switched circuits or dial-up lines.
Source: SHIREY, Robert W., RFC2828: Internet Security Glossary, may 2000.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
184. Which of the following should NOT be addressed by employee termination practices?
Answer: Employee bonding to protect against losses due to theft.
Employee bonding to protect against losses due to theft is an important hiring, not termination
practice. It ensures that the most effective and efficient staff is chosen and that the company is in
compliance with legal recruitment requirements. Other choices are all adequate termination
practices.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 2: Management, Planning and Organization of IS (page
65).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
185. Which of the following Common Data Network Services is used to send and receive email
internally or externally through an email gateway device?
Mail services send and receive email internally or externally through an email gateway device.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 99.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
186. Which of the following would MOST likely ensure that a system development project meets
Answer: User involvement in system specification and acceptance
Effective user involvement is the most critical factor in ensuring that the application meets
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 6: Business Application System Development,
Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 296).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
187. Which of the following is the most secure form of triple-DES encryption?
Triple DES with three distinct keys is the most secure form of triple-DES encryption. It can either
be DES-EEE3 (encrypt-encrypt-encrypt) or DES-EDE3 (encrypt-decrypt-encrypt). DES-EDE1 is
not defined and would mean using a single key to encrypt, decrypt and encrypt again, equivalent
to single DES. DES-EEE4 is not defined and DES-EDE2 uses only 2 keys (encrypt with first key,
decrypt with second key, encrypt with first key again).
Source: DUPUIS, Clément, CISSP Open Study Guide on domain 5, cryptography, April 1999.
Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
188. The two most common implementations of Intrusion Detection are which of the following?
Answer: They commonly reside on a discrete network segment and monitor the traffic on that
network segment.
Network-based ID systems:
* Commonly reside on a discrete network segment and monitor the traffic on that network
segment
* Usually consist of a network appliance with a Network Interface Card (NIC) that is operating in
promiscuous mode and is intercepting and analyzing the network packets in real time
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 62.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
189. Which backup method is additive because the time and tape space required for each night's backup
grows during the week as it copies the day's changed files and the previous days' changed files up
to the last full backup?
The Differential Backup Method is additive because the time and tape space required for each
night's backup grows during the week as it copies the day's changed files and the previous days'
changed files up to the last full backup.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 69.
And: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002,
chapter 9: Disaster Recovery and Business continuity (pages 617-619).
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Don Murdoch for providing an extra
reference.
190. Which of the following exceptions is less likely to make hearsay evidence admissible in court?
Answer: Records are collected by senior or executive management.
Hearsay evidence is not normally admissible in court unless it has firsthand evidence that can be
used to prove the evidence's accuracy, trustworthiness, and reliability like a businessperson who
generated the computer logs and collected them. It is important that this person generates and
collects logs as a normal part of his business and not just this one time for court. The value of
evidence depends upon the genuineness and competence of the source; therefore, records collected
by senior or executive management are not likely to be admissible in court.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 10: Law, Investigation, and Ethics (page 676).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
191. How long did it take the EFF and Distributed Net to break a DES encrypted message in January
1999?
Our combined worldwide team searched more than 240 billion keys every second for nearly 23
hours before we found the right 56-bit key to decrypt the answer to the RSA Challenge [III], which
was 'See you in Rome (second AES Conference, March 22-23, 1999),' said Gilmore. Source: EFF
press release
192. In which phase of IKE protocol (IPsec) is peer authentication performed?
Reference: RFC 2409: The Internet Key Exchange (IKE); DORASWAMY, Naganand &
HARKINS, Dan, Ipsec: The New Security Standard for the Internet, Intranets, and Virtual Private
Networks, 1999, Prentice Hall PTR; SMITH, Richard E., Internet Cryptography, 1997, AddisonWesley Pub Co.
A very special thanks to Claus Stark and his wife Shubhangi for submitting this question.
193. While referring to Physical Security, what does Positive pressurization means?
Answer: The air goes out of a room when a door is opened and outside air does not go into the
room
Positive pressurization means that when an employee opens a door, the air goes out and outside air
does not come in.
From: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, page 305.
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing this question.
194. Which of the following are two primary approaches to analyzing events to detect attacks?
Answer: misuse detection and anomaly detection
There are two primary approaches to analyzing events to detect attacks: misuse detection and
anomaly detection. Misuse detection, in which the analysis targets something known to be "bad",
is the technique used by most commercial systems. Anomaly detection, in which the analysis
looks for abnormal patterns of activity, has been, and continues to be, the subject of a great deal of
research. Anomaly detection is used in limited form by a number of IDSs. There are strengths and
weaknesses associated with each approach, and it appears that the most effective IDSs use mostly
misuse detection methods with a smattering of anomaly detection components.
Source: BACE, Rebecca & MELL, Peter, NIST Special Publication 800-31 on Intrusion Detection
Systems, Page 16.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
195. Most of unplanned downtime of information systems is attributed to which of the following?
Source: Veritas eLearning CD - Introducing Disaster Recovery Planning, Chapter 1, Ref: As
reported by Gartner/Dataquest.
Thanks to Jamil Siddique for providing this question.
196. Which of the following tools is less likely to be used by a hacker?
Tripwire is an integrity checking product, triggering alarms when important files (e.g. system or
configuration files) are modified. This is a tool that is not likely to be used by hackers, other than
for studying its workings in order to circumvent it. Info available at http://www.tripwire.com/.
Other programs are password-cracking programs and are likely to be used by security
administrators as well as by hackers.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
197. What can be defined as a momentary low voltage?
A sag is a momentary low voltage. A spike is a momentary high voltage. A fault is a momentary
power out and a brownout is a prolonged power supply that is below normal voltage.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 6: Physical security (page 299).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
198. Which of the following statements pertaining to disk mirroring is incorrect?
Answer: Mirroring is a hardware-based solution.
With mirroring, the system writes the data simultaneously to separate drives or arrays. The
advantage of mirroring are minimal downtime, simple data recovery, and increased performance
in reading from the disk. The disadvantage of mirroring is that both drives or disk arrays are
processing in the writing to disks function, which can hinder system performance. Mirroring has a
high fault tolerance and can be implemented either through a hardware RAID controller or through
the operating system. Since it requires twice the disk space than actual data, mirroring is the less
cost-efficient data redundancy strategy.
Source: SWANSON, Marianne, & al., National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
NIST Special Publication 800-34, Contingency Planning Guide for Information Technology
Systems, December 2001 (page 45).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
199. Which of the following is the most reliable authentication device?
Authentication provides assurance that someone or something is who or what he/it is supposed to
be. Callback systems authenticate a person, but anyone can pretend to be that person. They are tied
to a specific place and phone number. Although variable callback systems are more flexible than
fixed callback systems, the phone numbers can be unencrypted by hackers. A smart card system
uses cryptography tokens to protect against forgery and masquerading. The token requires the user
to know something (e.g. a PIN or a password). The codes used with smart cards change frequently
and are safer than callback systems.
200. It is a violation of the "separation of duties" principle when which of the following individuals
access the security systems software?
Details and reference for this question are not yet available. This question is a new question that
was submitted by one of the member of the site and I have to find a reference for it. If you do have
a reference to this question, please send it to Christian at [email protected] with the question
above. Thanks. Clement.
201. In Mandatory Access Control, sensitivity labels contain what information?
Answer: the item's classification and category set
Categories and Compartments are synonyms. The sensitivity label must contain at least one
Classification and at least one Categories/Compartment, but it is common in some environments
for a single item to belong to multiple categories. The list of all the categories to which an item
belongs is called a compartment set.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 74.
202. Which of the following should never be allowed through a firewall?
NetBIOS traffic should definitely not be allowed to pass through the organization's firewall in
either direction. It is easily hacked and many exploits exist on hacker Web sites.
Source: STREBE, Matthew and PERKINS, Charles, Firewalls 24seven, Sybex 2000, Chapter 4:
Sockets and Services from a Security Viewpoint.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
203. In The OSI / ISO model, at what layer are some of the SLIP, CSLIP, PPP control functions are
provided?
The Data Link layer of the OSI/ISO model provides SLIP, CSLIP and PPP protocol.
RFC 1661 - The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) specifies that the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links.
PPP is comprised of three main components:
1 A method for encapsulating multi-protocol datagrams.
2 A Link Control Protocol (LCP) for establishing, configuring, and testing the data-link
connection.
3 A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing and configuring different
network-layer protocols.
204. Which of the following is an important part of database design that ensures that attributes in a
table depend only on the primary key?
Normalization is an important part of database design that ensures that attributes in a table depend
only on the primary key.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 47.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
205. The RSA algorithm is an example of what type of cryptography?
The RSA algorithm is a public key (a.k.a. "asymmetric key") encryption algorithm. Public key
algorithms share one key with the public, and use a different one to decrypt messages. This differs
from Private key (a.k.a. "symmetric key", "secret key", "private key" or "single key") algorithms
like DES that require the sender and the recipient to have a shared secret.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 176.
206. Which of the following is not a method to protect subjects, objects and the data within the objects?
Layering, abstraction and data hiding are all methods to protect subjects and objects and are a
foundational piece to a security model. Data mining is the process of extracting and processing the
information held in a data warehouse into something useful.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, Chapter 5: Security Models and Architecture (page 239).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
207. Once an intrusion into your organization's information system has been detected, which of the
following actions should be performed first?
Answer: Determine to what extent systems and data are compromised.
Once an intrusion into your organization's information system has been detected, the first action
that needs to be performed is determining to what extend systems and data are compromised, and
then take action. Information, as collected and interpreted through analysis, is key to your
decisions and actions while executing response procedures. This first analysis will provide
information such as what attacks were used, was systems and data were accessed by the intruder,
what the intruder did after obtaining access and what the intruder is currently doing (if the
intrusion has not been contained). The next step is to communicate with relevant parties who need
to be made aware of the intrusion in a timely manner so they can fulfil their responsibilities. Step
three is concerned with collecting and protecting all information about the compromised systems
and causes of the intrusion. It must be carefully collected, labelled, catalogued, and securely
stored. Containing the intrusion, where tactical actions are performed to stop the intruder's access,
limit the extent of the intrusion, and prevent the intruder from causing further damage, comes next.
Since it is more a long-term goal, eliminating all means of intruder access can only be achieved
last, by implementing an ongoing security improvement process.
Source: ALLEN, Julia H., The CERT Guide to System and Network Security Practices, AddisonWesley, 2001, Chapter 7: Responding to Intrusions (pages 271-289).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
208. The two most common implementations of Intrusion Detection are:
The two most common implementations of Intrusion Detection are Network-based and Hostbased.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 62.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
209. Which of the following would best describe secondary evidence?
Answer: A copy of a piece of evidence
Secondary evidence is defined as a copy of evidence or oral description of its contents. It is
considered not as reliable as best evidence. Evidence that proves or disproves a specific act
through oral testimony based on information gathered through he witness's five senses is
considered direct evidence. The fact that testimony is given by an expert only affects the witness's
ability to offer an opinion instead of only testifying of the facts.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 9: Law, Investigation, and
Ethics (page 310).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
210. Which of the following does not address Database Management Systems (DBMS) Security?
Padded cells complement Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) and are not related to DBMS
security. Padded cells are simulated environments to which IDSs seamlessly transfer detected
attackers and are designed to convince an attacker that the attack is going according to the plan.
Cell suppression is a technique used against inference attacks by not revealing information in the
case where a statistical query produces a very small result set. Perturbation also addresses
inference attacks but involves making minor modifications to the results to a query. Partitioning
involves splitting a database into two or more physical or logical parts; especially relevant for
multilevel secure databases.
Source: LaROSA, Jeanette (domain leader), Application and System Development Security
CISSP Open Study Guide, version 3.0, January 2002. Available at http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
211. What level of assurance for a digital certificate verifies a user's name, address, social security
number, and other information against a credit bureau database?
Users can obtain certificates with various levels of assurance. For example, level 1 certificates
verify electronic mail addresses. This is done through the use of a personal information number
that a user would supply when asked to register. This level of certificate may also provide a name
as well as an electronic mail address; however, it may or may not be a genuine name (i.e., it could
be an alias). Level 2 certificates verify a user's name, address, social security number, and other
information against a credit bureau database. Level 3 certificates are available to companies. This
level of certificate provides photo identification to accompany the other items of information
provided by a level 2 certificate. A level 4 certificate is not defined yet.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 3, Secured Connections to External Networks
(page 54).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
212. Which of the following is NOT a transaction redundancy implementation?
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, page 286.
Thanks to Eric Yandell for providing this question.
213. Risk analysis is MOST useful when applied during which phase of the system development
process?
In most projects the conditions for failure are established at the beginning of the project. Thus risk
management should be established at the commencement of the project with a risk assessment
during project initiation. Risks should be monitored during the life of the project and reassessed
when appropriate. The most useful time is to undertake it at project initiation, although it is often
valuable to update the current risk analysis at later stages.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 6: Business Application System Development,
Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 291).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
214. What is the main responsibility of information owner?
Answer: making the determination to decide what level of classification the information requires
"running regular backups" is the responsibility of custodian.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 1: Security Management
Practices.
Thanks to Karin Brabcova for providing this question.
215. In the days before CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing), networks were commonly
organized by classes. Which of the following would have been true of a Class C network?
Answer: The first two bits of the ip address would be set to one, and the third bit set to zero.
Each class of addresses contains a block that are reserved for private networks and which are not
routable across the public Internet. For class A, the reserved addresses are 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255. For class B networks, the reserved addresses are 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255. For
class C, the reserved addresses are 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255.
Source: SEMERIA, Chuck, Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To
Know, 3Com Corporation.
216. A Business Impact Analysis (BIA) does not:
Answer: Recommend the appropriate recovery solution.
Although it helps in building a business case for strategy selection, a Business Impact Analysis
does not recommend recovery solutions. It concerns itself with the identification of critical
business functions and impact in case of disruption.
Source: BARNES, James C. & ROTHSTEIN, Philip J., A Guide to Business Continuity Planning,
John Wiley & Sons, 2001 (page 68).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
217. A momentary low voltage is a:
A momentary low voltage is a sag.
From: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, page 299.
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing this question.
218. Which of the following ISO/OSI layers performs transformations on data to provide a
standardized application interface and to provide common communication services such as
encryption?
The presentation layer (ISO/OSI layer 6) performs transformations on data to provide a
standardized application interface and to provide common communication services such as
encryption, text compression and reformatting. The function of the presentation layer is to ensure
that the format of the data submitted by the application layer conforms to the applicable network
standard.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 3: Technical Infrastructure and Operational Practices
(page 119).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
219. The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) employs which of the
following?
For networked applications, the Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS)
employs a user ID and a static password for network access.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 44.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
220. What does it mean if a system uses "Trusted Recovery"?
Answer: A failure or crash of the system cannot be used to breach security.
Systems with Trusted Recovery must fail gracefully and not leave the information in an
unprotected state when they do so (i.e. a box that functions as a firewall, and which routes packets
after the firewall process has crashed is not using Trusted Recovery.)
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991,
pg. 140.
221. Under what conditions would the use of a Class C fire extinguisher be preferable to a Class A
extinguisher?
Answer: When the fire involves electrical equipment
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 10: Physical security (page
335).
Thanks to Donnie Saunders for providing a reference to this question.
222. Which of the following devices enables more than one signal to be sent out simultaneously over
one physical circuit?
Multiplexors are devices that enable enables more than one signal to be sent out simultaneously
over one physical circuit.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 118).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
223. Which of the following tapes is only 4mm in size, yet the compression techniques and head
scanning process make it a large capacity and fast tape?
The Digital Linear Tape (DLT) is 4mm in size, yet the compression techniques and head scanning
process make it a large capacity and fast tape.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 70.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
224. Which of the following is true related to network sniffing?
Answer: Sniffers allow an attacker to monitor data passing across a network.
Sniffers allow an attacker to monitor data passing across a network ... Sniffers exploit
characteristics of several data-link technologies, including Token Ring and especially Ethernet. IP
Spoofing is a network-based attack, which involves altering the source address of a computer to
disguise the attacker and exploit weak authentication methods. Session Hijacking tools allow an
attacker to take over network connections, kicking off the legitimate user or sharing a login.
Malformed Packer attacks are a type of DoS attack that involves one or two packets that are
formatted in an unexpected way. Many vendor product implementations do not take into account
all variations of user entries or packet types. If software handles such errors poorly, the system
may crash when it receives such packets. A classic example of this type of attack involves sending
IP fragments to a system that overlap with each other (the fragment offset values are incorrectly
set. Some unpatched Windows and Linux systems will crash when the encounter such packets.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, MICKI, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th Edition, Volume 2, Auerbach, NY, NY 2001, Chapter 22, Hacker Tools and Techniques by Ed
Skoudis.
225. An exception to the search warrant requirement for officers is called? Under this doctrine, if
probable cause is present and destruction of the evidence is deemed imminent, the search can
conducted without the delay of having the warrant in-hand.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 313.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
226. Which communication method is characterized by very high speed transmission rates that are
governed by electronic clock timing signals?
Synchronous Communication is characterized by very high speed transmission rates that are
governed by electronic clock timing signals.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 100
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
227. Often RAID levels 0, 1, and 10 run faster on software RAID because of the need for the:
Often RAID levels 0, 1, and 10 run faster on software RAID because of the need for the server's
software resources.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 67.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
228. Which of the following is used to create and delete views and relations within tables?
The SQL Data Definition Language is used to create and delete views and relations (tables).
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 47.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
229. Which data classification should apply to commercial trade secrets?
The disclosure of trade secrets could seriously affect a company; therefore the information would
be classified as confidential, for use within the company only. Sensitive refers to information that
require higher than normal assurance of accuracy and completeness. Private is for personal
information and secret is used in military organizations.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 3: Security Management Practices (page 101).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
230. Which of the following statements is most accurate of digital signature?
Answer: It allows the recipient of data to prove the source and integrity of data.
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
231. What is called the verification that the user's claimed identity is valid and is usually implemented
through a user password at log-on time?
Authentication is verification that the user's claimed identity is valid and is usually implemented
through a user password at log-on time.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 36.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
232. Which of the following choices is NOT part of a security policy?
Answer: description of specific technologies used in the field of information security
Source: BS 7799:1999 Part 2: Specification for information security management systems.
Thanks to Karin Brabcova for providing this question.
233. A Packet Filtering Firewall system is considered a:
This type of firewall system is considered a first generation firewall, and can operate at either the
Network or Transport Layer of the OSI model.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 90.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
234. Which of the following is a problem evidenced with Raid Level 0?
Answer: It lessens the fault tolerance of the disk system.
One problem with RAID Level 0 is that it actually lessens the fault tolerance of the disk system
rather than increasing it-the entire data volume is unusable if one drive in the set fails.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 65.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
235. Which of the following questions is less likely to help in assessing an organization's contingency
planning controls?
Answer: Is damaged media stored and/or destroyed?
Contingency planning involves more than planning for a move offsite after a disaster destroys a
facility. It also addresses how to keep an organization's critical functions operating in the event of
disruptions, large and small. Handling of damaged media is an operational task related to regular
production and is not specific to contingency planning.
Source: SWANSON, Marianne, NIST Special Publication 800-26, Security Self-Assessment
Guide for Information Technology Systems, November 2001 (Pages A-27 to A-28).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
236. The deliberate planting of apparent flaws in a system for the purpose of detecting attempted
penetrations or confusing an intruder about which flaws to exploit is called:
Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation. Available at
http://www.cccure.org.
Thanks to Hal Tipton for contributing this question.
237. Frame relay uses a public switched network to provide:
Answer: Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity.
Frame relay uses a public switched network to provide Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 73.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
238. Which conceptual approach to intrusion detection is characterized with a high rate of false
positives?
Statistical analysis-based (also called behaviour-based) intrusion detection is characterized with a
higher rate of false positives, as opposed to knowledge-based intrusion detection. Host-based and
network-based intrusion detection are common implementations, not conceptual approaches.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, Chapter 3: Telecommunications and
Network Security (page 63).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
239. An offsite backup facility intended to operate an information processing facility, having no
computer or communications equipment, but having flooring, electrical writing, air conditioning,
etc. is better known as a:
A cold site is ready to be used but does not have any of the needed equipment in advance on site.
A hot site is a fully functional site with all necessary equipment to be ready to operate within
hours. A warm site is an offsite backup facility that is partially configured with network
connections and selected peripheral equipment to operate an information processing facility. A
duplicate information processing facility is a dedicated, self-developed recovery site that can back
up critical applications.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (page 262).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
240. The main risks that physical security components combat are all of the following EXCEPT:
The main risks that physical security components combat are theft, interruptions to services,
physical damage, compromised system integrity, and unauthorized disclosure of information.
From: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, page 291.
Thanks to Jane E. Murley for providing this question.
241. Which of the following computer aided software engineering (CASE) products is used for
developing detailed designs, such as screen and report layouts?
Middle CASE products are used for developing detail designs, such as screen and report layouts.
Upper CASE is used to describe and document business and application requirements and lower
CASE deals with the generation of program code and database definitions. I-CASE stands for
Integrated CASE and covers the complete life-cycle process of a product.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 6: Business Application System Development,
Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 319) and HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP
Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002, chapter 11: Application and System
Development (page 768).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
242. Which of the following is not EPA-approved replacements for Halon?
The following are EPA-approved replacements for Halon: FM-200, NAF-S-III, CEA-410, FE-13,
Water, Inergen, Argon and Argonite.
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/Osborne,
2002, chapter 6: Physical Security (page 313).
Thanks to Johnson Yim for providing this question.
243. This type of control is used to ensure that transactions are properly entered into the system once.
Elements of this type of control may include counting data and time stamping it with the date it
was entered or edited?
Input Controls are used to ensure that transactions are properly entered into the system once.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 218.
Thanks to Nick Mackovski for providing this question.
244. Which of the following is NOT a major element of Business Continuity Planning?
Answer: Creation of a BCP committee
Creating a BCP committee is part of the scope and plan initiation.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, pages 274-275.
Thanks to Eric Yandell for providing this question.
245. Which of the following represents the columns of the table in a relational database?
The rows of the table represent records or tuples and the columns of the table represent the
attributes.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 45.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Christian Vezina for improving it.
246. Which of the following statements pertaining to business continuity planning is correct?
Answer: Recovery of telecommunications should be part of the recovery of IT facilities.
Sometimes IT facilities can be of very limited use if not supported by a telecommunications
infrastructure; therefore recovery of telecommunications should be part of the recovery of IT
facilities. A business impact analysis is the first step that is performed prior to developing a
business plan. It is not normally part of the plan itself. Because the underlying purpose of business
continuity planning is the resumption of business operations, it is essential to consider the entire
organization, not just information systems processing services, when developing the plan. Not
necessarily each IT platform needs a recovery strategy. Generally, only the ones supporting
critical business functions will need a recovery strategy.
Source: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems
Auditor 2002 review manual, Chapter 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (page 253).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
247. What is the most critical characteristic of a biometric identifying system?
Accuracy is the most critical characteristic of a biometric identifying verification system.
Accuracy is measured in terms of false rejection rate (FRR, or type I errors) and false acceptance
rate (FAR or type II errors). The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point at which the FRR equals
the FAR and has become the most important measure of biometric system accuracy.
Source: TIPTON, Harold F. & KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook,
4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 1, Biometric Identification (page 9).
Thanks to Christian Vezina for providing this question.
248. The main issue with RAID 3 and RAID 4 is that the constant writes to the parity drive can create
which of the following?
RAID Levels 3 and 4 :- The main issue with this level of RAID is that the constant writes to the
parity drive can create a performance hit.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 66.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
249. Attributes that characterize an attack are stored for reference using which of the following?
In a signature-based ID, signatures or attributes, which characterize an attack, are stored for
reference.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 49.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question.
250. Logical or technical controls involve the restriction of access to systems and the protection of
information. Which of the following statements pertaining to these types of controls is correct?
Answer: Examples of these types of controls are encryption, smart cards, access lists, and
transmission protocols.
Logical or technical controls involve the restriction of access to systems and the protection of
information. Examples of these types of controls are encryption, smart cards, access lists, and
transmission protocols.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 33.
Thanks to Rakesh Sud for providing this question and to Sasa Vidanovic and Christian Vezina for
helping with the review.
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