Pitt County Schools
302025 Honors Biology
Instructional Guide
DIFFERENTIATION OF BIOLOGY INSTRUCTION:
 Standard Biology will focus on research tasks and class projects, preferably with a small group approach. A formal research paper is not an
expectation within this class, however students are expected to complete formal laboratory write-ups and essays.
 Honors Biology will extend the focus of the Standard Biology concepts to include in-depth independent research, projects, formal
laboratory write-ups, and research papers. Students will also be expected to read, discuss, and critically analyze current scientific research
literature. Honors Biology students will spend research time outside of the classroom in order to adequately meet these expectations.
Goal 1: Learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry.
Goal 1 addresses
scientific investigation. These objectives are an integral part of each of the other goals. Students must be given the opportunity to design and conduct their own
investigations in a safe laboratory. The students should use questions and models to formulate the relationship identified in their investigations and then report and share
those findings with others.
ESSENTIAL TASKS,
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND
RECOMMENDED
SCOS OBJECTIVES
STRATEGIES, PROJECTS,
SKILLS
RESOURCES
CONNECTIONS
1.01 Identify biological problems and
questions that can be answered through
scientific investigations (should be
incorporated in each objective).
1.02-1 H Design and conduct independent
scientific investigations to answer
biological questions
 Perform inquiry activities that extend
over time
 Relate the investigation(s) to recent
research
 Use statistical techniques such as chi
square to analyze data
Essential Questions:
What is the significance of scientific
investigation?
Skills:
 Develop questions for investigation from
a given topic or problem.
Essential Questions:
How does a scientist design and perform a
scientific investigation considering controls,
variables, and data analysis?
Activities for this goal will
be embedded within the
other goals.
Chapter 1.1
Student design of an
experiment
http://www.ncsu.edu/
labwrite (ch 1.2)
Resources for
students and
teachers to assist
with preparing
for lab, analyzing
data, writing lab
reports, rubrics
What is the relationship between independent
and dependent variables?
Qualitative and
quantitative lab
investigations and
experiences
What is a control in a scientific investigation?
Design an Experiment for

Communicate findings in a formal
written laboratory report
 Evaluate possible sources of error and
ways to improve the investigation(s)
Present findings to members of the
community
1.03 Formulate and revise scientific
explanations and models of biological
phenomena using logic and evidence to:
 Explain observations.
 Make inferences and predictions.
 Explain the relationship between
evidence and explanation.
1.04 Apply safety procedures in the
laboratory and in field studies:
 Recognize and avoid potential
hazards.
 Safely manipulate materials and
equipment
1.05 Analyze reports of scientific
investigations from an informed
What types of biological investigations do not
typically have controls? Which do have
controls? When is it important to have a
control?
Skills:
 Distinguish and appropriately graph
dependent and independent variables.

Discuss the best method of
graphing/presenting particular data.

Report and share investigation results with
others.
Essential Questions:
How do you distinguish between an
observation and an inference?
Skills:
 Use questions and models to determine
the relationships between variables in
investigations
Essential Questions:
What are some potential hazards that can
occur in a lab?
Skills:
 Predict safety concerns for particular
experiments
 Relate biological concepts to safety
applications such as:
o Disease transmission
o Nutrition
o Animal care
Essential Questions:
What is the difference between quantitative
Farmer Cletus
etc.
Basic Lab Write-Up including processes and
components of the
scientific method.
Suggested activity –
Termites and Ink Pens OR
Salt Tolerance of Seeds
(Glencoe, p. 38)
Content rich inference vs.
observation activity (eg:
"Animal Responses to
Environmental Stimuli")
CH 1.2
CH 1.3
Safety activity
CH 1.4
Science Safety
Procedures – safety
contracts/posters/rules and
expectations
Case Studies from recent
literature in both academic
CH 1.4
scientifically literate viewpoint including
considerations of:
 Appropriate sample.
 Adequacy of experimental controls.
 Replication of findings.
 Alternative interpretations of the data.
and qualitative data? When would you use
one over another?
Skills:
 Read a variety of reports of scientific
research.
(Science, Scientific
American) and popular
(Newsweek, USA Today)
publications.
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.
SCOS OBJECTIVES
2.01 Compare and contrast the structure
and functions of the following organic
molecules:
 Carbohydrates.
 Proteins.
 Lipids.
 Nucleic Acids.
.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND
SKILLS
Essential Questions:
How is protein differentiation (different
functions in the context of the cell)
significant?
Skills:
 Examine the role and importance of
organic molecules to organisms.
 Examples to investigate include
starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen,
glucose, enzymes, hemoglobin, fats,
DNA and RNA. (Distinguish among
mono, and polysaccharides – concept
not terminology)
 Interpret results of tests for starch
(iodine), lipids (brown paper),
monosaccharides (Benedict’s
Solution), and protein (Biuret’s).
 Emphasis should be on functions and
subunits of each organic molecule.
For example, enzymes are proteins
composed of long chains of amino
acids that are folded into particular
shapes and that shape determines the
specific reaction that the enzyme will
catalyze. (The terms condensation
reaction, dehydration synthesis and
ESSENTIAL TASKS,
STRATEGIES, PROJECTS,
CONNECTIONS
Testing for bio-molecules:
starch, lipids, sugars, and
proteins
Hydrolysis and
condensation reactions
Structure and function of
cellulose and
phospholipids in organisms
Essential Lab:
Food Lab (PCS Lab #1,
p. 2)
McMush Lab (see
Resource Book)
Potato Enzymes (Glencoe,
p. 168) OR Toothpick-ase
(Biology Resource Guide,
p. 171)
RECOMMENDED
RESOURCES
SAS Web Inquiry:
How do structures of
carbohydrates affect
their functions?
CH 2.3
CH 2.4
hydrolysis have been deliberately
excluded.)
2.02 Investigate and describe the structure
and function of cells including:



Essential Questions:
How do the differing structures of cells relate
to specialized functions?
Creation of cell models
Microscope experience
Cell organelles.
Cell specialization.
Communication among cells
within an organism.
Skills:
 Structure and function of: nucleus,
plasma membrane, cell wall,
mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts,
and ribosomes. Students should be
able to identify these cell organelles.
 Proficient use and understanding of
light microscopic techniques. Students
should determine total power
magnification as well as steps in
proper microscope usage.
 Hierarchy of cell organization: Cells
tissuesorgans organ systems.
 Structure of cells as it relates to their
specific functions.
 Students should view a variety of cells
with particular emphasis on the
differences between plant and animal
cells.
 Chemical signals may be released by
one cell to influence the activity of
another cell. For example, a nerve cell
can send a message to a muscle cell or
to another a nerve cell.
 role of receptor proteins
 hormones
SAS Project:
Organelle Functions
Cell surface area to volume
activity
Making microscopic
measurement
Comparison of light vs.
electron (SEM and TEM)
microscopes
SAS Classroom
Activity: How Big Is
That Cell?
SAS Web Inquiry:
Why are cells so
small?
SAS Classroom
Activity: Where Did
All Those Different
Cells Come From?
Following scientists and
their contribution to
understanding of the cell as CH 7.1
well as the development of
a theory: Leeuvenhoek,
CH 7.2
Brown, Schleiden,
Schwann, Virchow, Hooke, CH 7.4
and Just.
ER, Golgi, lysosomes, and
cytoskeleton
Connect cell
communication with cell
specialization
Essential Labs:
Introduction to
Microscopes (Glencoe,
p. 177)
Plant and Animal Cell
Comparison (PCS Lab
#3, p. 7) and (Text, p.
194)
2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a
living system including:

Maintenance of homeostasis.

Movement of materials into and
out of cells.

Energy use and release in
biochemical reactions.
2.04 Investigate and describe the structure
Essential Questions:
How do organisms maintain homeostasis in
changing conditions?
How does the surface area to volume ratio of
cells affect diffusion rates?
Skills:
 Examples for exploration should
include regulation of temperature, pH,
blood glucose levels and water
balance.
 Discussion should include active vs.
passive transport, diffusion, osmosis,
and the porous nature of the semipermeable plasma membrane.
(Pinocytosis, phagocytosis,
endocytosis, and exocytosis have been
deliberately excluded)
 Given different types of cells, students
should be able to predict any changes
in osmotic pressure that may occur as
the cell is placed in solutions of
differing concentrations. (Emphasis is
on the processes, not terminology such
as hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic,
turgor pressure)
 Examine ATP as the source of energy
for cell activities.
 Students will describe how cells store
and use energy with ATP and ADP
molecules.
Skills:
An osmosis lab / diffusion
lab
Inquiry Support
Activities:
Osmosis and the Egg
How do biological
materials respond to acids
and bases? (Buffer lab)
SAS Model:
Chemiosmosis
CH 7.3
SAS InterActivity:
Membranes
SAS Web Lesson:
Lights…Camera…Ac
tion Potential!
CH 7.3
Activities that demonstrate
when food is burned
energy is given off (such as
burning a peanut or cheese
doodle)
Relate properties of water
(studied in middle school)
to cell membranes and
functions.
Regulation of osmotic
pressure within the human
body
Demonstration Lab—
Osmosis and Diffusion
Smooth Moves: The Jello
Cell Family Story
Inquiry Support Activity:
SAS InterActivity:
and function of enzymes and explain their
importance in biological systems.
2.05 Investigate and analyze the
bioenergetic reactions:


Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration

Photosynthesis
Instruction should include investigation of:
 Enzymes as proteins that speed up
chemical reactions (catalyst).
 Enzymes as re-usable and specific.
 Enzymes as affected by such
factors as pH, and temperature.
Students should understand that enzymes are
necessary for all biochemical reactions and
have
a general understanding of how enzymes
work.
Skills:
The emphasis should be placed on
investigation of:
 Overall equations including reactants
and products and not on memorizing
intermediate steps of these processes.
 Factors which affect rate of
photosynthesis and or cellular
respiration.
 Comparison and contrast of these
processes with regard to efficiency of
ATP formation, the types of
organisms using these processes, and
the organelles involved.
o Anaerobic respiration should
include lactic acid and
alcoholic fermentation.
Instruction should include the comparison of
anaerobic and aerobic organisms.
(Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Electron
Transport Chain have been deliberately
excluded)
(Students are not required to distinguish
between light dependent and light
independent parts of photosynthesis)
Properties of Enzymes
Enzymes
Modern drug design based
on genomics
CH 2.4
Essential Lab:
Plastic Bag Labs (Iodine /
Starch) (Glencoe, p. 204)
OR The Incredible Egg
- plasmolysis Lab (using
red onion skin)
Inquiry Support Activity:
Yeast Fermentation
Inquiry activities which
allow students to
investigate factors
affecting rate of
photosynthesis and/or
cellular respiration
Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle,
and Electron Transport
Chain
Light dependent vs. light
independent reactions
Fermentation Labs Yeast Lab (PCS Lab #5, p.
13) OR Fermentation of
Yeast (Glencoe, p. 560)
OR Fermentation of
Apple Juice (Glencoe, p.
242)
Photosynthesis Labs –
Pigment Chromatography
SAS InterActivity:
Photosynthesis
SAS Classroom
Activity: Floating
Leaves
CH 8.1
CH 8.2
CH 8.3
CH 9.2
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the changes of organisms
over time.
SCOS OBJECTIVES
3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of
heredity including:
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND
SKILLS
Essential Questions:
What are the ramifications to the organism if
these processes (DNA replication, protein
synthesis, and gene regulation) go “wrong?”
How does gene regulation lead to cell
specialization?

DNA Replication
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 Structure of DNA as compared to
RNA
 Complementary base pairing
 Understanding that the sequence of
nucleotides in DNA codes for proteins
– the central key to cell function and
life.

Protein Synthesis
(transcription and translation)





How the process allows daughter cells
to have an exact copy of parental
DNA.
Understanding of the semiconservative nature of the replication
process. (nature of the process, not the
term semi-conservative)
Mutations as a change in the DNA
code.
The position of replication within the
cell cycle.
The importance of relatively weak
ESSENTIAL TASKS,
STRATEGIES, PROJECTS,
CONNECTIONS
RECOMMENDED
RESOURCES
Investigation of replication, SAS Classroom
transcription and
Activity: (CH 12.3)
translation using models.
Cracking the Protein
Code
Inquiry Support Activity:
What are the effects of
SAS InterActivity:
various mutations on
DNA Replication
protein synthesis?
CH 12.2
Chargaff’s ratio
CH 12.3
Semi-conservative vs.
Conservative model
CH 12.4
Contribution of Franklin
and Wilkins in addition to
Watson and Crick
CH 12.5
DNA Model Construction
Transcription/Translation
Game
Paper Plasmids
DNA goes to the Races
NC
Biotechnology
Center Lab

hydrogen bonds.
Gene Regulation
The recognition of protein synthesis as a
process of:
 Transcription that produces an RNA
copy of DNA, which is further
modified into the three types of RNA
 mRNA traveling to the ribosome
(rRNA)
 Translation - tRNA supplies
appropriate amino acids
 Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
to form polypeptides which are folded
into proteins.
 Use of a codon chart to determine the
amino acid sequence produced by a
particular sequence of bases.




3.02 Compare and contrast the
characteristics of asexual and sexual
reproduction.
All (with a few exceptions) of an
organism’s cells have the same DNA
but differ based on the expression of
genes.
differentiation of cells in multicellular
organisms
cells responding to their environment
by producing different types and
amounts of protein.
advantages (injury repair) and
disadvantages (cancer) of the
overproduction, underproduction or
production of proteins at the incorrect
times.
Essential Questions:
How does one single cell with a set number of
chromosomes become thousands of different
types of cells in mature multi-cellular
organism?
Inquiry Support Activity:
Cell Cycle
SAS InterActivity:
Cell Division
Investigation involving
mitosis/ meiosis
CH 10.1
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 Recognizing mitosis as a part of
asexual reproduction and meiosis
as a part of sexual reproduction.
 Similarities and differences
between mitosis and meiosis
including replication and
separation of DNA and cellular
material, changes in chromosome
number, number of cell divisions,
and number of cells produced in
complete cycle.
 Putting mitosis diagrams in order
and describing what is occurring
throughout the process.
Students are not expected to memorize the
names of the steps or the order of the step
names.
 The sources of variation including:
o Crossing over.
o Random assortment of
chromosomes.
o Gene mutation
o Nondisjunction
o Fertilization
3.03 Interpret and predict patterns of
inheritance.

Dominant, recessive and
intermediate traits.
Essential Questions:
How do genes and the environment interact to
produce a phenotype?
simulations
CH 10.2
Mitosis Labs (PCS Lab #6,
p. 16, also in Glencoe, p.
220). Identify, draw, and
label phases of onion root
tip cells
CH 11.4
Inquiry Support Activity:
Genetics of Parenthood
SAS InterActivity:
Mendelian Genetics
Interpretation of pea
experiments that led to
Mendel’s Principles
CH 11.1
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 Identifying and determining genotypes
Using Chi Square with
and phenotypes.
“Genetics of Parenthood”
 Recognition that phenotype is the
result of both genotype and the
CH 10.3
CH 11.2
CH 11.3





Multiple alleles.

Polygenic traits.

environment.
A discussion of Mendel’s experiments
and laws.
Interpreting karyotypes (gender,
chromosomal abnormalities)
Understanding that dominant traits
mask recessive alleles.
There are a variety of intermediate
patterns of inheritance, including
codominance and incomplete
dominance. While teachers should not
necessarily expect students at this
level to distinguish between these
forms of intermediate inheritance on a
biochemical level they should be able
to solve problems involving
apparently intermediate phenotypes.
The following discussion is included
to help teachers with understanding
these frequently confused terms.
o Incomplete dominance (also
called partial dominance)
results in the blending of traits.
(Usually results from an
inactive or less active gene so
the heterozygous phenotype
appears intermediate. E.g. Pink
flowers)
o Co-dominant alleles result in
the expression of both traits.
(two different proteins are
produced and both are detected
e.g. roan cows and AB blood
type.)
Autosomal inheritance patterns and
characteristics of sickle cell anemia,
cystic fibrosis, and Huntington’s
disease
Dihybrid Crosses
Essential Labs:
Face Lab (PCS Lab #7, p.
19)
Making Babies ProjectSee Resource Book
Dog Spot (p. 173
Everyday Genetics)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Genetic Ratios (Glencoe,
p. 282)
Essential Project: Genetic
Disease Research –
literature research of a
selected genetic
disease/condition; create
resource note cards; rough
draft (MLA format); works
cited page; formal
interview of relevant
individual; final paper;
individual


Sex linked traits.




Independent assortment.

Test cross.




Pedigrees.



Punnett squares.

Solving and interpreting co-dominant
crosses involving multiple alleles.
A, B, AB and O blood types (alleles:
IA, IB, and i).
Determining if parentage is possible
based on blood types.
Recognizing that some traits are
controlled by more than one pair of
genes.
This pattern of inheritance is identified
by the presence of a wide range of
phenotypes (consider examples of skin
and hair color).
An understanding of human sex
chromosomes.
Solving crosses involving sex linked
traits (examples: color-blindness and
hemophilia.)
Understand why males are more likely
to express a sex-linked trait.
The importance of the genes being on
separate chromosomes as it relates to
meiosis.
How the process of meiosis leads to
independent assortment and ultimately
to greater genetic diversity.

Given certain phenotypes suggest an
appropriate test cross to determine the
genotype of an organism.

Identify the genotypes of individuals
from a given pedigree. (students
should be able to interpret pedigrees
which show phenotype not genotype)


3.04 Assess the impacts of genomics on
individuals and society.
 Human genome project.

Applications of biotechnology.
Solving and interpreting problems
featuring monohybrid crosses.
(Parental, F1, F2 generations)
Determining parental genotypes based
on offspring ratios.
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 The reasons for establishing the
human genome project.
 Recognition that the project is useful
in determining whether individuals
may carry genes for genetic conditions
and in developing gene therapy.
 Gel electrophoresis as a technique to
separate molecules based on size.
(Students are not expected to know the
steps of gel electrophoresis in order or
great detail. They should be able to
interpret the results and have a general
understanding of what takes place during
the process.)
 Uses of DNA fingerprinting


Applications of transgenic organisms
(plants, animals, & bacteria) in
agriculture and industry including
pharmaceutical applications such as
the production of human insulin.
Ethical issues and implications of
genomics and biotechnology. (stem
cell research and genetically modified
organisms)
Electrophoresis lab or
simulation.
Inquiry Support Activity:
Genetic Detective
Research genetic diversity
in human populations
Analysis of ancestry based
on genetic patterns
Reproductive cloning
Reading and using
restriction maps
DNA recombination:
Paper Plasmids
(Glencoe, p. 362)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Electrophoresis (Biotech)
or worksheet
SAS Classroom
Activity:
DNA Fingerprinting:
A Simulation
CH 11.5
3.05 Examine the development of the
theory of evolution by natural selection
including:
 Development of the theory.




The origin and history of life.
Fossil and biochemical evidence.
Mechanisms of evolution.
Applications (pesticide &
antibiotic resistance)
Essential Questions:
Do allelic frequencies change over time in
response to natural conditions?
Inquiry Support Activity:
Fishy Frequencies
SAS Classroom
Activity:
Natural Selection
Scientific controversy
How does pesticide and antibiotic resistance
support the principle of natural selection?
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 Historical development of the theory
of evolution by natural selection.
 Biogenesis in contrast to abiogenesis
with emphasis on the experiments
used to support both ideas.
 Early atmosphere hypotheses and
experiments.
 How the early conditions affected the
type of organism that developed
(anaerobic and prokaryotic).
 Evolution of eukaryotic and aerobic
organisms.
 Fossils– relative and absolute dating
methods
 A discussion of what can be inferred
from patterns in the fossil record.
 Biochemical similarities.
 Shared anatomical structures.
(Patterns in embryology and homologous and
analogous vocabulary are intentionally
excluded)



How variations provide material for
natural selection.
The role of geographic isolation in
speciation.
The importance of the environment in
Endosymbiotic hypothesis
Gradual vs. punctuated
equilibrium
Reproductive isolation
The rate of evolution
Essential Lab:
Geologic Time - Timelines
(Glencoe, p. 384)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Candy Corn and M&Ms
(Biology Resource Manual,
p. 213)
Bird Beaks (Biology
Resource Manual, p. 215)
Chocolate Bug Lab- See
Resource Book
Camouflage Lab (Glencoe,
p. 406)
Opposable Thumb (PCS
Lab #10, p. 43)
SAS InterActivity:
Microevolution
CH 15.3
CH 16.1
CH 16.2
CH 17.1

selecting adaptations.
Discuss the evolutionary selection of
resistance to antibiotics and pesticides
in various species.
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of life.
SCOS OBJECTIVES
4.01 Analyze the classification of
organisms according to their evolutionary
relationships.

The historical development and
changing nature of classification
systems.

Similarities and differences
between eukaryotic and
prokaryotic organisms.

Similarities and differences among
the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists,
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND
SKILLS
Essential Questions:
How has modern technology allowed
scientists to develop more sophisticated
schemes for classification?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
simplicity vs. complexity in cellular/organism
structure and function?
ESSENTIAL TASKS,
STRATEGIES, PROJECTS,
CONNECTIONS
RECOMMENDED
RESOURCES
Use dichotomous keys to
identify organisms.
SAS InterActivity:
Modern Taxonomy
Activities might include
student-created keys based
on observable
characteristics (e.g.
symmetry)
CH 18.1
Skills:
Students should learn about the changing
nature of classification based new knowledge
generated by research on evolutionary
relationships.
Explore the phylocode
controversy (new system
vs. Linnaeus)
History of classification system
 Originally two kingdoms (plants and
animals). More kingdoms added as
knowledge of the diversity of
organisms increased.
 Development of the seven level
classification system (KPCOFGS) and
binomial nomenclature
(The intention is that students understand that
classification systems are changed as new
knowledge is gathered. Currently, the
thinking is 3 Domains with 6-7 kingdoms)
Dichotomous Keys Identifying Sharks
(Glencoe, p. 474)
Creation of a dichotomous
key
CH 18.2
CH 18.3
Fungi, Plants, and Animals.

Classify organisms using keys.
Basis of classification system
 Evolutionary phylogeny, DNA and
biochemical analysis, embryology,
morphology
 Interpret phylogenetic trees.
Only basic differences and similarities should
be detailed.
 Membrane bound organelles – none
in prokaryotes.
 Ribosomes in both.
 Contrasts in chromosome structure.
 Contrasts in size.
Compare:
 Cellular structures.
 Unicellular vs. Multicellular.
 Methods of making/getting food and
breaking down food to get energy.
 Reproduction.
4.02 Analyze the processes by which
organisms representative of the following
groups accomplish essential life functions
including:
 Unicellular protists, annelid
worms, insects, amphibians,
mammals, non-vascular plants,
gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Transport, excretion, respiration,
regulation, nutrition, synthesis,
reproduction, and growth and
development.
Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.
Essential Questions:
How do various organisms accomplish
essential life functions?
Skills:
Teachers should help students compare and
contrast how the organisms listed accomplish
the essential life functions specified below.
The focus is on physiology rather than on the
names of parts.
 Transport – how organisms get what
they need to cells; how they move
waste from cells to organs of
excretion.
Observe representative
organisms from the
specified groups.
Inquiry Support Activity:
Organism Newspaper
Project
Plant tropisms
Plant WebQuest
Stomata Lab (Glencoe, p.
640)
CH 20.1
CH 25.1
CH 25.2
CH 25.3
CH 27.1
CH 27.2
CH 27.3
CH 28.1
CH 28.2
CH 28.3
CH 30.3
CH 32.1
CH 32.2
CH 32.3
 Excretion – how organisms get rid of
their waste and balance their fluids
(pH, salt concentration, water).
 Regulation – how organisms control
body processes – hormones, nervous
system.
 Respiration – how organisms get
oxygen from the environment and
release carbon dioxide back to the
environment and how plants
exchange gases.
 Nutrition – how organisms break
down and absorb foods.
 Synthesis – how organisms build
necessary molecules.
 Reproduction – sexual versus asexual,
eggs, seeds, spores, placental, types
of fertilization.
 Growth and development –
metamorphosis, development in egg
or in uterus, growth from seed or
spore.
4.03 Assess, describe and explain
adaptations affecting survival and
reproductive success.
 Structural adaptations in plants
and animals (form to function).

Disease-causing viruses and
microorganisms.
Essential Questions:
How is society affected by disease?
What characteristics of viruses and
microorganisms result in epidemic/pandemic
outbreaks of diseases such as SARS and bird
flu?
Why do different populations respond
differently to the same disease (e.g. cold virus
in Europeans vs. South American tribes)?
How does the flu co-evolve with humans and
other organisms (e.g. ducks)?
Human Body Systems
Notebook – research
human body systems
noting interrelationship of
structure and function;
create and design a
notebook; for each system:
descriptive essay; neatly
drawn and labeled
diagrams; current literature
article critique; individual
CH 35
CH 37
CH 38
CH 39
Dissections - Frog or
Virtual / CD-Rom (see
Glencoe: Chapter 30)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Dissection of Crayfish/
Earthworm/ Starfish/
Grasshopper/ Fetal Pig
Investigation that includes
the observation of
structural adaptations
Disease transmission
Epidemiology
Types of viruses (how the
type influences mutation
rate and production of
vaccines)
Plague of 1918
SAS InterActivity:
Disease Dynamics
CH 40.1
CH 40.2
CH 40.3

Co-evolution.
Skills:
Focus should be on structural adaptations
from organisms that are listed in 4.02,
particularly:
 Feeding adaptations.
 Adaptations to ensure successful
reproduction.
 Adaptations to life on land.
Instruction should include:
 Structure of viruses.
 Mutation of viruses and other
microorganisms.
 Variety of disease causing
(pathogenic) agents (viruses, bacteria)
including:
 HIV
 Influenza
 Smallpox
 Streptococcus (strep throat)
Essential Labs:
Flower Parts - Dissection
/ Beans and Seeds (WriteUp) (Station Labs)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Slides-Monocots vs Dicot
(focus on roots, stems,
leaves, and flowers)
Celery Lab (Glencoe, p.
629)
Seed Germination
(monocot vs. dicot seeds)
May be used to show
geotropism
Emphasis should be on the relationship
between angiosperms and their pollinators.
4.04 Analyze and explain the interactive
role of internal and external factors in
health and disease:
 Genetics.

Immune response.
Essential Questions:
The body is able to recognize self vs. nonself. What are the consequences of mistakes
in recognition?
Skills:
Focus should be on the interactive role of
genetics and the environment in
determining a specific response including:
 Sickle cell anemia and malaria
 Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use
 Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and
sun exposure
 Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic
Use of case studies to
analyze the role of genetics
and environment in human
health.
Optional Project:
Research project on
bacteria or viral disease
including presentation.
Suggest making models,
posters or other visual aids.
SAS InterActivity:
Disease
Dynamics
CH 20.2
CH 40.1
CH 40.2
CH 40.3


Nutrition.

Parasites.

Toxins.
interaction).
PKU and diet
Instruction should include basic
understanding of:
 Function and relationship of T-cells,
B-cells, antibodies/antigens.
(Overview only of different types and
roles of T and B cells: role of memory
cells, B cells make antibodies, some T
cells help B cells make antibodies,
other T cells kill infected cells.)
 Passive and active immunity.
 Vaccines.
Teachers should emphasize aspects of
nutrition that contribute to:
 Optimal health.
 Poor nutrition (obesity, malnutrition
and specific deficiencies.)
Teachers should focus on the general life
cycle (not specific details), vector, symptoms,
and treatments for: Malarial parasite
(Plasmodium)
4.05 Analyze the broad patterns of animal
behavior as adaptations to the
environment.
 Innate behavior.
Understand effects of environmental toxins
 Lead
 Mercury
Essential Questions:
How do pheromones allow for the social
behaviors of colonial organisms to adapt to
their environment?
Inquiry Support Activity:
Animal Responses to
Environmental Stimuli
Termite Behavior

Learned behavior.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
using pheromones adaptations?
Suggested Labs:
CH 34
Skills:
Taxes and instincts, including:
 suckling (instinct)
 insects moving away from or toward
light (taxis)
 migration, estivation, hibernation

Social behavior.
Focus should be on various types of learned
behavior including:
 Habituation
 Imprinting
 Classical conditioning (eg Pavlov’s
dog –stimulus association)
 Trial and error (focus on concept of
trial and error learning not term
operant conditioning).
Behavioral Responses Do one of following:
Earthworm Lab (Glencoe,
p. 754) and (IBC, p. 65)
OR Pillbug Lab (Text, p.
890 and BioLab book, p. 7
and IBC, p. 66)
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Termites and Ink Pens
Focus should be on communication, territorial
defense, and courtship, including:
 Communication within social structure
using pheromones (ex: bees and ants).
 Courtship dances.
Territorial defense (ex: Fighting Fish).
Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships among organisms.
SCOS OBJECTIVES
5.01 Investigate and analyze the
interrelationships among organisms,
populations, communities and ecosystems
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND
SKILLS
Essential Questions:
What tools do scientists use to study
biodiversity?
What factors influence biodiversity?

Techniques of field ecology
How is carrying capacity different for two
organisms living in the same environment?
ESSENTIAL TASKS,
STRATEGIES, PROJECTS,
CONNECTIONS
RECOMMENDED
RESOURCES
Inquiry Support Activity: SAS Interactivity:
Campus Field Study
Stream Ecology
CH 3
Biome Research – create a
newspaper/ travel
CH 4
brochure/ website/ power
point presentation;
CH 5
individual

Abiotic and biotic factors

Carrying capacity
Skills:
Students should be able to identify and
describe symbiotic relationships
 Mutualism
 Commensalism
 Parasitism
Biogeochemical Cycles –
posters; peer presentations;
work in pairs with
emphasis on carbon cycle.
Supplemental
Labs/Suggested
Activities:
Students should be able to identify and predict Duckweed / Aquatic Fern
(PCS Lab #13, p. 56)
patterns in Predator /prey relationships.
Determining Population
Size (Glencoe, p. 108)
Use field ecology techniques such as
Fruit Fly Population Lab
sampling and quadrant studies to determine
(Glencoe, Chp 5)
species diversity and changes over time.
Explain how abiotic and biotic factors are
related to one another and their importance in
ecosystems.
Analyze how limiting factors influence
carrying capacity (e.g. food availability,
competition, harsh winter).
Interpret population growth graphs.
5.02 Analyze the flow of energy and the
cycling of matter in the ecosystem.


Relationship of the carbon cycle to
photosynthesis and respiration
Trophic levels- direction and
efficiency of energy transfer
Essential Questions:
What roles do cellular respiration and
photosynthesis play in the carbon cycle?
How do trophic levels determine how energy
is transferred through ecosystems?
How are trophic levels related to food webs?
What are the effects of biomagnification with
respects to the food chain?
Skills:
Nitrogen cycle, Phosphorus CH 3
cycle
Food Chains and
Biological Magnification
Owl Pellets Study (may be
done with anatomy at a
later time)
Energy Flow in
Ecosystems (Food
Webs/Chains) design and
Investigate the carbon cycle as it relates to
photosynthesis and respiration.
Analyze food chains, food webs, and energy
pyramids for direction and efficiency of
energy transfer.
5.03 Assess human population and its
impact on local ecosystems and global
environments:
 Historic and potential changes in
population

Factors associated with those
changes.

Climate Change.

Resource use

Sustainable practices/ stewardship.
Essential Questions:
What factors influence the J and S-shaped
population curves? How are they significant?
construct a computer
generated food web;
presentation to class;
individual
Inquiry Support Activity:
Environmental Factors that
Affect the Hatching of
Brine Shrimp
CH 6
How do human activities affect ecosystems?
Skills:
Instruction should include:
 Analyze human population growth graphs
(historical and potential changes) .(See
5.01)
 Factors influencing birth rates and death
rates.
 Effects of population size, density and
resource use on the environment.
 Discussion of human impact on local
ecosystems:
 Acid rain
 Habitat destruction
 Introduced non-native species.
 How changes in human population affects
populations of other organisms.
Discussion of factors that influence climate:

greenhouse effect (relate to
carbon cycle and human
impact on atmospheric CO2)

natural environmental
processes (e.g. volcanos)
Human Population
Growth Models – research
a given country; analyze
CH 6
demographics; develop a
histogram; present findings
on poster; individual
Sustainable
practice/stewardship field
study
Investigation of the direct and indirect impact
of humans on natural resources (e.g.
deforestation, pesticide use and
bioaccumulation research )
Examples of sustainable practices and
stewardship.