Pitt County Schools 302025 Honors Biology Instructional Guide DIFFERENTIATION OF BIOLOGY INSTRUCTION: Standard Biology will focus on research tasks and class projects, preferably with a small group approach. A formal research paper is not an expectation within this class, however students are expected to complete formal laboratory write-ups and essays. Honors Biology will extend the focus of the Standard Biology concepts to include in-depth independent research, projects, formal laboratory write-ups, and research papers. Students will also be expected to read, discuss, and critically analyze current scientific research literature. Honors Biology students will spend research time outside of the classroom in order to adequately meet these expectations. Goal 1: Learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry. Goal 1 addresses scientific investigation. These objectives are an integral part of each of the other goals. Students must be given the opportunity to design and conduct their own investigations in a safe laboratory. The students should use questions and models to formulate the relationship identified in their investigations and then report and share those findings with others. ESSENTIAL TASKS, ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND RECOMMENDED SCOS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES, PROJECTS, SKILLS RESOURCES CONNECTIONS 1.01 Identify biological problems and questions that can be answered through scientific investigations (should be incorporated in each objective). 1.02-1 H Design and conduct independent scientific investigations to answer biological questions Perform inquiry activities that extend over time Relate the investigation(s) to recent research Use statistical techniques such as chi square to analyze data Essential Questions: What is the significance of scientific investigation? Skills: Develop questions for investigation from a given topic or problem. Essential Questions: How does a scientist design and perform a scientific investigation considering controls, variables, and data analysis? Activities for this goal will be embedded within the other goals. Chapter 1.1 Student design of an experiment http://www.ncsu.edu/ labwrite (ch 1.2) Resources for students and teachers to assist with preparing for lab, analyzing data, writing lab reports, rubrics What is the relationship between independent and dependent variables? Qualitative and quantitative lab investigations and experiences What is a control in a scientific investigation? Design an Experiment for Communicate findings in a formal written laboratory report Evaluate possible sources of error and ways to improve the investigation(s) Present findings to members of the community 1.03 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models of biological phenomena using logic and evidence to: Explain observations. Make inferences and predictions. Explain the relationship between evidence and explanation. 1.04 Apply safety procedures in the laboratory and in field studies: Recognize and avoid potential hazards. Safely manipulate materials and equipment 1.05 Analyze reports of scientific investigations from an informed What types of biological investigations do not typically have controls? Which do have controls? When is it important to have a control? Skills: Distinguish and appropriately graph dependent and independent variables. Discuss the best method of graphing/presenting particular data. Report and share investigation results with others. Essential Questions: How do you distinguish between an observation and an inference? Skills: Use questions and models to determine the relationships between variables in investigations Essential Questions: What are some potential hazards that can occur in a lab? Skills: Predict safety concerns for particular experiments Relate biological concepts to safety applications such as: o Disease transmission o Nutrition o Animal care Essential Questions: What is the difference between quantitative Farmer Cletus etc. Basic Lab Write-Up including processes and components of the scientific method. Suggested activity – Termites and Ink Pens OR Salt Tolerance of Seeds (Glencoe, p. 38) Content rich inference vs. observation activity (eg: "Animal Responses to Environmental Stimuli") CH 1.2 CH 1.3 Safety activity CH 1.4 Science Safety Procedures – safety contracts/posters/rules and expectations Case Studies from recent literature in both academic CH 1.4 scientifically literate viewpoint including considerations of: Appropriate sample. Adequacy of experimental controls. Replication of findings. Alternative interpretations of the data. and qualitative data? When would you use one over another? Skills: Read a variety of reports of scientific research. (Science, Scientific American) and popular (Newsweek, USA Today) publications. Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life. SCOS OBJECTIVES 2.01 Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic molecules: Carbohydrates. Proteins. Lipids. Nucleic Acids. . ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND SKILLS Essential Questions: How is protein differentiation (different functions in the context of the cell) significant? Skills: Examine the role and importance of organic molecules to organisms. Examples to investigate include starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, glucose, enzymes, hemoglobin, fats, DNA and RNA. (Distinguish among mono, and polysaccharides – concept not terminology) Interpret results of tests for starch (iodine), lipids (brown paper), monosaccharides (Benedict’s Solution), and protein (Biuret’s). Emphasis should be on functions and subunits of each organic molecule. For example, enzymes are proteins composed of long chains of amino acids that are folded into particular shapes and that shape determines the specific reaction that the enzyme will catalyze. (The terms condensation reaction, dehydration synthesis and ESSENTIAL TASKS, STRATEGIES, PROJECTS, CONNECTIONS Testing for bio-molecules: starch, lipids, sugars, and proteins Hydrolysis and condensation reactions Structure and function of cellulose and phospholipids in organisms Essential Lab: Food Lab (PCS Lab #1, p. 2) McMush Lab (see Resource Book) Potato Enzymes (Glencoe, p. 168) OR Toothpick-ase (Biology Resource Guide, p. 171) RECOMMENDED RESOURCES SAS Web Inquiry: How do structures of carbohydrates affect their functions? CH 2.3 CH 2.4 hydrolysis have been deliberately excluded.) 2.02 Investigate and describe the structure and function of cells including: Essential Questions: How do the differing structures of cells relate to specialized functions? Creation of cell models Microscope experience Cell organelles. Cell specialization. Communication among cells within an organism. Skills: Structure and function of: nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes. Students should be able to identify these cell organelles. Proficient use and understanding of light microscopic techniques. Students should determine total power magnification as well as steps in proper microscope usage. Hierarchy of cell organization: Cells tissuesorgans organ systems. Structure of cells as it relates to their specific functions. Students should view a variety of cells with particular emphasis on the differences between plant and animal cells. Chemical signals may be released by one cell to influence the activity of another cell. For example, a nerve cell can send a message to a muscle cell or to another a nerve cell. role of receptor proteins hormones SAS Project: Organelle Functions Cell surface area to volume activity Making microscopic measurement Comparison of light vs. electron (SEM and TEM) microscopes SAS Classroom Activity: How Big Is That Cell? SAS Web Inquiry: Why are cells so small? SAS Classroom Activity: Where Did All Those Different Cells Come From? Following scientists and their contribution to understanding of the cell as CH 7.1 well as the development of a theory: Leeuvenhoek, CH 7.2 Brown, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, Hooke, CH 7.4 and Just. ER, Golgi, lysosomes, and cytoskeleton Connect cell communication with cell specialization Essential Labs: Introduction to Microscopes (Glencoe, p. 177) Plant and Animal Cell Comparison (PCS Lab #3, p. 7) and (Text, p. 194) 2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including: Maintenance of homeostasis. Movement of materials into and out of cells. Energy use and release in biochemical reactions. 2.04 Investigate and describe the structure Essential Questions: How do organisms maintain homeostasis in changing conditions? How does the surface area to volume ratio of cells affect diffusion rates? Skills: Examples for exploration should include regulation of temperature, pH, blood glucose levels and water balance. Discussion should include active vs. passive transport, diffusion, osmosis, and the porous nature of the semipermeable plasma membrane. (Pinocytosis, phagocytosis, endocytosis, and exocytosis have been deliberately excluded) Given different types of cells, students should be able to predict any changes in osmotic pressure that may occur as the cell is placed in solutions of differing concentrations. (Emphasis is on the processes, not terminology such as hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic, turgor pressure) Examine ATP as the source of energy for cell activities. Students will describe how cells store and use energy with ATP and ADP molecules. Skills: An osmosis lab / diffusion lab Inquiry Support Activities: Osmosis and the Egg How do biological materials respond to acids and bases? (Buffer lab) SAS Model: Chemiosmosis CH 7.3 SAS InterActivity: Membranes SAS Web Lesson: Lights…Camera…Ac tion Potential! CH 7.3 Activities that demonstrate when food is burned energy is given off (such as burning a peanut or cheese doodle) Relate properties of water (studied in middle school) to cell membranes and functions. Regulation of osmotic pressure within the human body Demonstration Lab— Osmosis and Diffusion Smooth Moves: The Jello Cell Family Story Inquiry Support Activity: SAS InterActivity: and function of enzymes and explain their importance in biological systems. 2.05 Investigate and analyze the bioenergetic reactions: Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Photosynthesis Instruction should include investigation of: Enzymes as proteins that speed up chemical reactions (catalyst). Enzymes as re-usable and specific. Enzymes as affected by such factors as pH, and temperature. Students should understand that enzymes are necessary for all biochemical reactions and have a general understanding of how enzymes work. Skills: The emphasis should be placed on investigation of: Overall equations including reactants and products and not on memorizing intermediate steps of these processes. Factors which affect rate of photosynthesis and or cellular respiration. Comparison and contrast of these processes with regard to efficiency of ATP formation, the types of organisms using these processes, and the organelles involved. o Anaerobic respiration should include lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Instruction should include the comparison of anaerobic and aerobic organisms. (Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain have been deliberately excluded) (Students are not required to distinguish between light dependent and light independent parts of photosynthesis) Properties of Enzymes Enzymes Modern drug design based on genomics CH 2.4 Essential Lab: Plastic Bag Labs (Iodine / Starch) (Glencoe, p. 204) OR The Incredible Egg - plasmolysis Lab (using red onion skin) Inquiry Support Activity: Yeast Fermentation Inquiry activities which allow students to investigate factors affecting rate of photosynthesis and/or cellular respiration Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain Light dependent vs. light independent reactions Fermentation Labs Yeast Lab (PCS Lab #5, p. 13) OR Fermentation of Yeast (Glencoe, p. 560) OR Fermentation of Apple Juice (Glencoe, p. 242) Photosynthesis Labs – Pigment Chromatography SAS InterActivity: Photosynthesis SAS Classroom Activity: Floating Leaves CH 8.1 CH 8.2 CH 8.3 CH 9.2 Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the changes of organisms over time. SCOS OBJECTIVES 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND SKILLS Essential Questions: What are the ramifications to the organism if these processes (DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation) go “wrong?” How does gene regulation lead to cell specialization? DNA Replication Skills: Instruction should include: Structure of DNA as compared to RNA Complementary base pairing Understanding that the sequence of nucleotides in DNA codes for proteins – the central key to cell function and life. Protein Synthesis (transcription and translation) How the process allows daughter cells to have an exact copy of parental DNA. Understanding of the semiconservative nature of the replication process. (nature of the process, not the term semi-conservative) Mutations as a change in the DNA code. The position of replication within the cell cycle. The importance of relatively weak ESSENTIAL TASKS, STRATEGIES, PROJECTS, CONNECTIONS RECOMMENDED RESOURCES Investigation of replication, SAS Classroom transcription and Activity: (CH 12.3) translation using models. Cracking the Protein Code Inquiry Support Activity: What are the effects of SAS InterActivity: various mutations on DNA Replication protein synthesis? CH 12.2 Chargaff’s ratio CH 12.3 Semi-conservative vs. Conservative model CH 12.4 Contribution of Franklin and Wilkins in addition to Watson and Crick CH 12.5 DNA Model Construction Transcription/Translation Game Paper Plasmids DNA goes to the Races NC Biotechnology Center Lab hydrogen bonds. Gene Regulation The recognition of protein synthesis as a process of: Transcription that produces an RNA copy of DNA, which is further modified into the three types of RNA mRNA traveling to the ribosome (rRNA) Translation - tRNA supplies appropriate amino acids Amino acids linked by peptide bonds to form polypeptides which are folded into proteins. Use of a codon chart to determine the amino acid sequence produced by a particular sequence of bases. 3.02 Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction. All (with a few exceptions) of an organism’s cells have the same DNA but differ based on the expression of genes. differentiation of cells in multicellular organisms cells responding to their environment by producing different types and amounts of protein. advantages (injury repair) and disadvantages (cancer) of the overproduction, underproduction or production of proteins at the incorrect times. Essential Questions: How does one single cell with a set number of chromosomes become thousands of different types of cells in mature multi-cellular organism? Inquiry Support Activity: Cell Cycle SAS InterActivity: Cell Division Investigation involving mitosis/ meiosis CH 10.1 Skills: Instruction should include: Recognizing mitosis as a part of asexual reproduction and meiosis as a part of sexual reproduction. Similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis including replication and separation of DNA and cellular material, changes in chromosome number, number of cell divisions, and number of cells produced in complete cycle. Putting mitosis diagrams in order and describing what is occurring throughout the process. Students are not expected to memorize the names of the steps or the order of the step names. The sources of variation including: o Crossing over. o Random assortment of chromosomes. o Gene mutation o Nondisjunction o Fertilization 3.03 Interpret and predict patterns of inheritance. Dominant, recessive and intermediate traits. Essential Questions: How do genes and the environment interact to produce a phenotype? simulations CH 10.2 Mitosis Labs (PCS Lab #6, p. 16, also in Glencoe, p. 220). Identify, draw, and label phases of onion root tip cells CH 11.4 Inquiry Support Activity: Genetics of Parenthood SAS InterActivity: Mendelian Genetics Interpretation of pea experiments that led to Mendel’s Principles CH 11.1 Skills: Instruction should include: Identifying and determining genotypes Using Chi Square with and phenotypes. “Genetics of Parenthood” Recognition that phenotype is the result of both genotype and the CH 10.3 CH 11.2 CH 11.3 Multiple alleles. Polygenic traits. environment. A discussion of Mendel’s experiments and laws. Interpreting karyotypes (gender, chromosomal abnormalities) Understanding that dominant traits mask recessive alleles. There are a variety of intermediate patterns of inheritance, including codominance and incomplete dominance. While teachers should not necessarily expect students at this level to distinguish between these forms of intermediate inheritance on a biochemical level they should be able to solve problems involving apparently intermediate phenotypes. The following discussion is included to help teachers with understanding these frequently confused terms. o Incomplete dominance (also called partial dominance) results in the blending of traits. (Usually results from an inactive or less active gene so the heterozygous phenotype appears intermediate. E.g. Pink flowers) o Co-dominant alleles result in the expression of both traits. (two different proteins are produced and both are detected e.g. roan cows and AB blood type.) Autosomal inheritance patterns and characteristics of sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington’s disease Dihybrid Crosses Essential Labs: Face Lab (PCS Lab #7, p. 19) Making Babies ProjectSee Resource Book Dog Spot (p. 173 Everyday Genetics) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Genetic Ratios (Glencoe, p. 282) Essential Project: Genetic Disease Research – literature research of a selected genetic disease/condition; create resource note cards; rough draft (MLA format); works cited page; formal interview of relevant individual; final paper; individual Sex linked traits. Independent assortment. Test cross. Pedigrees. Punnett squares. Solving and interpreting co-dominant crosses involving multiple alleles. A, B, AB and O blood types (alleles: IA, IB, and i). Determining if parentage is possible based on blood types. Recognizing that some traits are controlled by more than one pair of genes. This pattern of inheritance is identified by the presence of a wide range of phenotypes (consider examples of skin and hair color). An understanding of human sex chromosomes. Solving crosses involving sex linked traits (examples: color-blindness and hemophilia.) Understand why males are more likely to express a sex-linked trait. The importance of the genes being on separate chromosomes as it relates to meiosis. How the process of meiosis leads to independent assortment and ultimately to greater genetic diversity. Given certain phenotypes suggest an appropriate test cross to determine the genotype of an organism. Identify the genotypes of individuals from a given pedigree. (students should be able to interpret pedigrees which show phenotype not genotype) 3.04 Assess the impacts of genomics on individuals and society. Human genome project. Applications of biotechnology. Solving and interpreting problems featuring monohybrid crosses. (Parental, F1, F2 generations) Determining parental genotypes based on offspring ratios. Skills: Instruction should include: The reasons for establishing the human genome project. Recognition that the project is useful in determining whether individuals may carry genes for genetic conditions and in developing gene therapy. Gel electrophoresis as a technique to separate molecules based on size. (Students are not expected to know the steps of gel electrophoresis in order or great detail. They should be able to interpret the results and have a general understanding of what takes place during the process.) Uses of DNA fingerprinting Applications of transgenic organisms (plants, animals, & bacteria) in agriculture and industry including pharmaceutical applications such as the production of human insulin. Ethical issues and implications of genomics and biotechnology. (stem cell research and genetically modified organisms) Electrophoresis lab or simulation. Inquiry Support Activity: Genetic Detective Research genetic diversity in human populations Analysis of ancestry based on genetic patterns Reproductive cloning Reading and using restriction maps DNA recombination: Paper Plasmids (Glencoe, p. 362) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Electrophoresis (Biotech) or worksheet SAS Classroom Activity: DNA Fingerprinting: A Simulation CH 11.5 3.05 Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including: Development of the theory. The origin and history of life. Fossil and biochemical evidence. Mechanisms of evolution. Applications (pesticide & antibiotic resistance) Essential Questions: Do allelic frequencies change over time in response to natural conditions? Inquiry Support Activity: Fishy Frequencies SAS Classroom Activity: Natural Selection Scientific controversy How does pesticide and antibiotic resistance support the principle of natural selection? Skills: Instruction should include: Historical development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Biogenesis in contrast to abiogenesis with emphasis on the experiments used to support both ideas. Early atmosphere hypotheses and experiments. How the early conditions affected the type of organism that developed (anaerobic and prokaryotic). Evolution of eukaryotic and aerobic organisms. Fossils– relative and absolute dating methods A discussion of what can be inferred from patterns in the fossil record. Biochemical similarities. Shared anatomical structures. (Patterns in embryology and homologous and analogous vocabulary are intentionally excluded) How variations provide material for natural selection. The role of geographic isolation in speciation. The importance of the environment in Endosymbiotic hypothesis Gradual vs. punctuated equilibrium Reproductive isolation The rate of evolution Essential Lab: Geologic Time - Timelines (Glencoe, p. 384) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Candy Corn and M&Ms (Biology Resource Manual, p. 213) Bird Beaks (Biology Resource Manual, p. 215) Chocolate Bug Lab- See Resource Book Camouflage Lab (Glencoe, p. 406) Opposable Thumb (PCS Lab #10, p. 43) SAS InterActivity: Microevolution CH 15.3 CH 16.1 CH 16.2 CH 17.1 selecting adaptations. Discuss the evolutionary selection of resistance to antibiotics and pesticides in various species. Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of life. SCOS OBJECTIVES 4.01 Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships. The historical development and changing nature of classification systems. Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists, ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND SKILLS Essential Questions: How has modern technology allowed scientists to develop more sophisticated schemes for classification? What are the advantages and disadvantages of simplicity vs. complexity in cellular/organism structure and function? ESSENTIAL TASKS, STRATEGIES, PROJECTS, CONNECTIONS RECOMMENDED RESOURCES Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. SAS InterActivity: Modern Taxonomy Activities might include student-created keys based on observable characteristics (e.g. symmetry) CH 18.1 Skills: Students should learn about the changing nature of classification based new knowledge generated by research on evolutionary relationships. Explore the phylocode controversy (new system vs. Linnaeus) History of classification system Originally two kingdoms (plants and animals). More kingdoms added as knowledge of the diversity of organisms increased. Development of the seven level classification system (KPCOFGS) and binomial nomenclature (The intention is that students understand that classification systems are changed as new knowledge is gathered. Currently, the thinking is 3 Domains with 6-7 kingdoms) Dichotomous Keys Identifying Sharks (Glencoe, p. 474) Creation of a dichotomous key CH 18.2 CH 18.3 Fungi, Plants, and Animals. Classify organisms using keys. Basis of classification system Evolutionary phylogeny, DNA and biochemical analysis, embryology, morphology Interpret phylogenetic trees. Only basic differences and similarities should be detailed. Membrane bound organelles – none in prokaryotes. Ribosomes in both. Contrasts in chromosome structure. Contrasts in size. Compare: Cellular structures. Unicellular vs. Multicellular. Methods of making/getting food and breaking down food to get energy. Reproduction. 4.02 Analyze the processes by which organisms representative of the following groups accomplish essential life functions including: Unicellular protists, annelid worms, insects, amphibians, mammals, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Transport, excretion, respiration, regulation, nutrition, synthesis, reproduction, and growth and development. Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. Essential Questions: How do various organisms accomplish essential life functions? Skills: Teachers should help students compare and contrast how the organisms listed accomplish the essential life functions specified below. The focus is on physiology rather than on the names of parts. Transport – how organisms get what they need to cells; how they move waste from cells to organs of excretion. Observe representative organisms from the specified groups. Inquiry Support Activity: Organism Newspaper Project Plant tropisms Plant WebQuest Stomata Lab (Glencoe, p. 640) CH 20.1 CH 25.1 CH 25.2 CH 25.3 CH 27.1 CH 27.2 CH 27.3 CH 28.1 CH 28.2 CH 28.3 CH 30.3 CH 32.1 CH 32.2 CH 32.3 Excretion – how organisms get rid of their waste and balance their fluids (pH, salt concentration, water). Regulation – how organisms control body processes – hormones, nervous system. Respiration – how organisms get oxygen from the environment and release carbon dioxide back to the environment and how plants exchange gases. Nutrition – how organisms break down and absorb foods. Synthesis – how organisms build necessary molecules. Reproduction – sexual versus asexual, eggs, seeds, spores, placental, types of fertilization. Growth and development – metamorphosis, development in egg or in uterus, growth from seed or spore. 4.03 Assess, describe and explain adaptations affecting survival and reproductive success. Structural adaptations in plants and animals (form to function). Disease-causing viruses and microorganisms. Essential Questions: How is society affected by disease? What characteristics of viruses and microorganisms result in epidemic/pandemic outbreaks of diseases such as SARS and bird flu? Why do different populations respond differently to the same disease (e.g. cold virus in Europeans vs. South American tribes)? How does the flu co-evolve with humans and other organisms (e.g. ducks)? Human Body Systems Notebook – research human body systems noting interrelationship of structure and function; create and design a notebook; for each system: descriptive essay; neatly drawn and labeled diagrams; current literature article critique; individual CH 35 CH 37 CH 38 CH 39 Dissections - Frog or Virtual / CD-Rom (see Glencoe: Chapter 30) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Dissection of Crayfish/ Earthworm/ Starfish/ Grasshopper/ Fetal Pig Investigation that includes the observation of structural adaptations Disease transmission Epidemiology Types of viruses (how the type influences mutation rate and production of vaccines) Plague of 1918 SAS InterActivity: Disease Dynamics CH 40.1 CH 40.2 CH 40.3 Co-evolution. Skills: Focus should be on structural adaptations from organisms that are listed in 4.02, particularly: Feeding adaptations. Adaptations to ensure successful reproduction. Adaptations to life on land. Instruction should include: Structure of viruses. Mutation of viruses and other microorganisms. Variety of disease causing (pathogenic) agents (viruses, bacteria) including: HIV Influenza Smallpox Streptococcus (strep throat) Essential Labs: Flower Parts - Dissection / Beans and Seeds (WriteUp) (Station Labs) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Slides-Monocots vs Dicot (focus on roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) Celery Lab (Glencoe, p. 629) Seed Germination (monocot vs. dicot seeds) May be used to show geotropism Emphasis should be on the relationship between angiosperms and their pollinators. 4.04 Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease: Genetics. Immune response. Essential Questions: The body is able to recognize self vs. nonself. What are the consequences of mistakes in recognition? Skills: Focus should be on the interactive role of genetics and the environment in determining a specific response including: Sickle cell anemia and malaria Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and sun exposure Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic Use of case studies to analyze the role of genetics and environment in human health. Optional Project: Research project on bacteria or viral disease including presentation. Suggest making models, posters or other visual aids. SAS InterActivity: Disease Dynamics CH 20.2 CH 40.1 CH 40.2 CH 40.3 Nutrition. Parasites. Toxins. interaction). PKU and diet Instruction should include basic understanding of: Function and relationship of T-cells, B-cells, antibodies/antigens. (Overview only of different types and roles of T and B cells: role of memory cells, B cells make antibodies, some T cells help B cells make antibodies, other T cells kill infected cells.) Passive and active immunity. Vaccines. Teachers should emphasize aspects of nutrition that contribute to: Optimal health. Poor nutrition (obesity, malnutrition and specific deficiencies.) Teachers should focus on the general life cycle (not specific details), vector, symptoms, and treatments for: Malarial parasite (Plasmodium) 4.05 Analyze the broad patterns of animal behavior as adaptations to the environment. Innate behavior. Understand effects of environmental toxins Lead Mercury Essential Questions: How do pheromones allow for the social behaviors of colonial organisms to adapt to their environment? Inquiry Support Activity: Animal Responses to Environmental Stimuli Termite Behavior Learned behavior. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using pheromones adaptations? Suggested Labs: CH 34 Skills: Taxes and instincts, including: suckling (instinct) insects moving away from or toward light (taxis) migration, estivation, hibernation Social behavior. Focus should be on various types of learned behavior including: Habituation Imprinting Classical conditioning (eg Pavlov’s dog –stimulus association) Trial and error (focus on concept of trial and error learning not term operant conditioning). Behavioral Responses Do one of following: Earthworm Lab (Glencoe, p. 754) and (IBC, p. 65) OR Pillbug Lab (Text, p. 890 and BioLab book, p. 7 and IBC, p. 66) Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Termites and Ink Pens Focus should be on communication, territorial defense, and courtship, including: Communication within social structure using pheromones (ex: bees and ants). Courtship dances. Territorial defense (ex: Fighting Fish). Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships among organisms. SCOS OBJECTIVES 5.01 Investigate and analyze the interrelationships among organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS, BENCHMARKS, AND SKILLS Essential Questions: What tools do scientists use to study biodiversity? What factors influence biodiversity? Techniques of field ecology How is carrying capacity different for two organisms living in the same environment? ESSENTIAL TASKS, STRATEGIES, PROJECTS, CONNECTIONS RECOMMENDED RESOURCES Inquiry Support Activity: SAS Interactivity: Campus Field Study Stream Ecology CH 3 Biome Research – create a newspaper/ travel CH 4 brochure/ website/ power point presentation; CH 5 individual Abiotic and biotic factors Carrying capacity Skills: Students should be able to identify and describe symbiotic relationships Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism Biogeochemical Cycles – posters; peer presentations; work in pairs with emphasis on carbon cycle. Supplemental Labs/Suggested Activities: Students should be able to identify and predict Duckweed / Aquatic Fern (PCS Lab #13, p. 56) patterns in Predator /prey relationships. Determining Population Size (Glencoe, p. 108) Use field ecology techniques such as Fruit Fly Population Lab sampling and quadrant studies to determine (Glencoe, Chp 5) species diversity and changes over time. Explain how abiotic and biotic factors are related to one another and their importance in ecosystems. Analyze how limiting factors influence carrying capacity (e.g. food availability, competition, harsh winter). Interpret population growth graphs. 5.02 Analyze the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in the ecosystem. Relationship of the carbon cycle to photosynthesis and respiration Trophic levels- direction and efficiency of energy transfer Essential Questions: What roles do cellular respiration and photosynthesis play in the carbon cycle? How do trophic levels determine how energy is transferred through ecosystems? How are trophic levels related to food webs? What are the effects of biomagnification with respects to the food chain? Skills: Nitrogen cycle, Phosphorus CH 3 cycle Food Chains and Biological Magnification Owl Pellets Study (may be done with anatomy at a later time) Energy Flow in Ecosystems (Food Webs/Chains) design and Investigate the carbon cycle as it relates to photosynthesis and respiration. Analyze food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids for direction and efficiency of energy transfer. 5.03 Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems and global environments: Historic and potential changes in population Factors associated with those changes. Climate Change. Resource use Sustainable practices/ stewardship. Essential Questions: What factors influence the J and S-shaped population curves? How are they significant? construct a computer generated food web; presentation to class; individual Inquiry Support Activity: Environmental Factors that Affect the Hatching of Brine Shrimp CH 6 How do human activities affect ecosystems? Skills: Instruction should include: Analyze human population growth graphs (historical and potential changes) .(See 5.01) Factors influencing birth rates and death rates. Effects of population size, density and resource use on the environment. Discussion of human impact on local ecosystems: Acid rain Habitat destruction Introduced non-native species. How changes in human population affects populations of other organisms. Discussion of factors that influence climate: greenhouse effect (relate to carbon cycle and human impact on atmospheric CO2) natural environmental processes (e.g. volcanos) Human Population Growth Models – research a given country; analyze CH 6 demographics; develop a histogram; present findings on poster; individual Sustainable practice/stewardship field study Investigation of the direct and indirect impact of humans on natural resources (e.g. deforestation, pesticide use and bioaccumulation research ) Examples of sustainable practices and stewardship.