Biol. 104 Final Lecture Exam Topics
Final Lecture exam is on Friday, Dec. 17th at 8:30 AM in E 348.
Exam format:
~130 marks
Multiple choice, fill in the blanks, quickies, short answer, True/False and
why, longer answer questions.
~ 20% will be from pre-Midterm material
Lec. 6: Antibiotic Resistance
List some of the factors that can contribute to the development of antibiotic
resistance and some of the strategies that can control it.
Lec. 7: Bacterial Metabolism
Describe what happens in the three stages of aerobic heterotrophic catabolism.
Describe two anaerobic catabolic pathways used by some bacteria.
Lec. 8: Bacterial Genetics
Genetic composition changes via mutations and ‘horizontal’ gene transfer:
Why are changes in genetic composition necessary for evolution?
Describe 3 mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer.
Lec. 9: Virus structure and Replication
General virus structure
How classified
Generalized animal virus replication cycle
3 mechanisms for penetration
3 mechanisms for release
Latent viruses: Mechanism and examples
Oncogenic viruses: Examples
Lec. 10: Influenzavirus
Structure and replication cycle
Describe antigenic shift and drift and consequences of each
Lec. 11: Host Defence Mechanisms: Innate
List Characteristics and major components of the First line of defence
Examples of:
Microbial antagonism
Second line of defence:
Roles of NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes
Process and role of phagocytosis
Inflammation: purpose, process, signs and symptoms
Lec. 12: Host Defence Mechanisms: Adaptive
Characteristics and purpose of third line of defence
Roles of B cells and T cells
Antibody: structure and functions
Process of B cell and T cell activation
Differentiate between Humoral and Cell Mediated immunity: Target(s), cell(s)
involved and end-result(s).
Types of vaccines, advantages and disadvantages of each
Lec. 13: HIV/AIDS
Structure and replication cycle
Virulence factors
Role of HIV enzymes and how they are targets for anti-viral drug therapy
Lec. 14: Pathogenesis
Contributing host factors: Role of normal flora
Contributing microbe factors:
Virulence determinants: examples of how pathogens
Enter and attach to host cells
Invade, spread, evade host defences
Damage host cells (Endotoxins vs. exotoxins)
Lec. 15: Emerging Infectious Disease
Pre-assigned question: Choose one emerging or re-emerging infectious disease,
discuss where and why (3 factors) it is (re)emerging.
Evolution of infectious disease: strategies of ‘successful’ pathogens

Final Lecture Exam Study Guide