Septal Nephridia Back to Top These lie attached to both sides of the septa behind the 15 th segment. Septal Nephridia Pharyngeal Nephridia Back to Top These are located only in the 4th, 5th and 6th segment. The septal nephridia may be considered as a typical nephridia for detailed description. Parts of a Typical Nephridium The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Excretory System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers Jump to: navigation, search 1.Some of these are not examples of homeostasis: (circle those that are not) a. Sweating, erection of hairs and capillary dilation/contraction to control the body temperature b. Adjusting the rate of breathing to remove carbon dioxide from the blood c. Production of concentrated or dilute urine to maintain the concentration of water and salts in the blood within a narrow range d. Blood clotting to prevent loss of blood e. Reproduction to produce the next generation. Note: this is the only option in this list that is not a mechanism to maintain homeostasis. f. The action of the hormone insulin to keep the level of glucose in the blood within a narrow range g. White cells engulfing bacteria h. Eating to supply the body with essential nutrients i. Sense organs that allow the animal to sense and then remove itself from unsafe conditions j. Various mechanisms to keep the pH of the blood within a narrow range 2. Fill in the left hand column with the terms/values from the list below. 66% The proportion of the body’s water found within the cells. Hypothalamus The part of the brain concerned with controlling water balance. 15% The proportion of the body’s water an animal will not survive losing. Thirst This is the main mechanism for diluting the blood. 80% The proportion of an animal’s body that consists of water. Kidneys These organs are important for controlling water balance. 3. Add the following labels to the diagram below of the urinary system of a mammal. 4. These are functions of the kidney: (Circle 4) b. Controlling the concentration of water in the blood c. Removing urea from the blood f. Keeping the blood at the right pH (acidity/alkalinity) h. Controlling the concentration of salts like sodium and potassium chloride in the blood 5. Match the organ with the function in the table below. Organ Function Urethra Carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body Renal vein Carries deoxygenated blood away from the kidney Medulla The inner region of the kidney Sphincter Muscle that opens to allow urine to be removed from bladder Cortex The outer region of the kidney Renal artery Carries oxygenated blood to the kidney Renal pelvis The part of the kidney that collects the urine before it passes down the ureter Capsule The tough fibrous coat around the kidney Bladder Stores urine before it is removed from body Ureter The tube that carries urine away from the kidney Kidney Converts blood to urine 6. Add the following labels to the diagram of a kidney below. If you like you can also colour in the diagram as indicated. :capsule- turquoise; renal artery – red; renal vein – blue; cortex - brown; medulla - pink; pelvis - yellow; ureter – green; pyramids - purple 7. Add the following labels to the diagram below of a kidney tubule or nephron. collecting duct; branch of renal artery; loop of Henle; distal convoluted tubule; glomerulus; proximal convoluted tubule; Bowman’s capsule 8. Arrange these parts of the kidney tubule in the order in which the fluid that is being converted into urine passes through them. Glomerulus(G) Bowman’s capsule (BC) Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Loop of Henle (LH) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Collecting duct (CD) 9. Indicate whether these parts of the kidney tubule are found in the cortex "C" or the medulla "M" of the kidney. Bowman’s capsule C Collecting duct M Proximal convoluted tubule C Distal convoluted tubule C Glomerulus C Loop of Henle M 10. Match the term with its function. Term Function Renal artery Carries blood to the kidney Antidiuretic hormone or ADH The hormone that is involved in producing concentrated urine Bowman’s capsule Cup shaped structure through which the fluid part of the blood is filtered Collecting duct Where the majority of water is extracted from the urine Loop of Henle Looped portion of the tubule. Important for helping concentrate the urine Distal convoluted tubule Where hydrogen and potassium ions are secreted into the urine Proximal convoluted tubule Glucose, salts, water and amino acids are reabsorbed into the blood capillaries here Glomerulus Tuft of capillaries carrying high pressure blood 11. Circle the substances in the list below that are NOT found in the fluid that has filtered through into the Bowman’s capsule of a healthy animal? Red blood cells; proteins; white blood cells These are large and do not pass through the holes in the walls of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule 12. Circle the substances in the list below that are NOT found in the urine of a healthy animal? Antidiuretic hormone; red blood cells; glucose; proteins; white blood cells 13. Fill in the blanks in the statements below about antidiuretic hormone (ADH). a. ADH is produced by the posterior pituitary gland/hypothalamus b. ADH acts on the walls of the collecting ducts of the kidney tubule. c. When no ADH is produced an animal is said to have the condition known as diabetes insipidus Now cross out the option that does not apply in each of the statements below: d. ADH makes the walls of the collecting ducts permeable to water. e. ADH is secreted when the blood becomes too concentrated. f. When an animal is dehydrated lots of ADH is produced. g. When ADH is secreted the urine produced is concentrated. h. The main symptom of a failure to produce ADH would be lots of dilute urine. 14. Normally all the glucose filtered into the kidney tubule is absorbed further down the tubule. If glucose is found in the urine what might one suspect to be the cause? Problems with production of insulin by the pancreas i.e. diabetes mellitus. Retrieved from "http://wikieducator.org/The_Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Excretory_System_Worksheet/Worksheet _Answers" THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Table of Contents Regulation of Extracellular Fluids | Nitrogen Wastes | Water and Salt Balance Excretory System Functions | Invertebrate Excretory Organs | Vertebrates Have Paired Kidneys The Human Excretory System | Kidney Function | Hormone Control of Water and Salt Disruption of Kidney Function | Links Cells produce water and carbon dioxide as by-products of metabolic breakdown of sugars, fats, and proteins. Chemical groups such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous must be stripped, from the large molecules to which they were formerly attached, as part of preparing them for energy conversion. The continuous production of metabolic wastes establishes a steep concentration gradient across the plasma membrane, causing wastes to diffuse out of cells and into the extracellular fluid. Single-celled organisms have most of their wastes diffuse out into the outside environment. Multicellular organisms, and animals in particular, must have a specialized organ system to concentrate and remove wastes from the interstitial fluid into the blood capillaries and eventually deposit that material at a collection point for removal entirely from the body. Regulation of Extracellular Fluids | Back to Top Excretory systems regulate the chemical composition of body fluids by removing metabolic wastes and retaining the proper amounts of water, salts, and nutrients. Components of this system in vertebrates include the kidneys, liver, lungs, and skin. Not all animals use the same routes or excrete their wastes the same way humans do. Excretion applies to metabolic waste products that cross a plasma membrane. Elimination is the removal of feces. Nitrogen Wastes | Back to Top Nitrogen wastes are a by product of protein metabolism. Amino groups are removed from amino acids prior to energy conversion. The NH2 (amino group) combines with a hydrogen ion (proton) to form ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is very toxic and usually is excreted directly by marine animals. Terrestrial animals usually need to conserve water. Ammonia is converted to urea, a compound the body can tolerate at higher concentrations than ammonia. Birds and insects secrete uric acid that they make through large energy expenditure but little water loss. Amphibians and mammals secrete urea that they form in their liver. Amino groups are turned into ammonia, which in turn is converted to urea, dumped into the blood and concentrated by the kidneys. Water and Salt Balance | Back to Top The excretory system is responsible for regulating water balance in various body fluids. Osmoregulation refers to the state aquatic animals are in: they are surrounded by freshwater and must constantly deal with the influx of water. Animals, such as crabs, have an internal salt concentration very similar to that of the surrounding ocean. Such animals are known as osmoconformers, as there is little water transport between the inside of the animal and the isotonic outside environment. Marine vertebrates, however, have internal concentrations of salt that are about one-third of the surrounding seawater. They are said to be osmoregulators. Osmoregulators face two problems: prevention of water loss from the body and prevention of salts diffusing into the body. Fish deal with this by passing water out of their tissues through their gills by osmosis and salt through their gills by active transport. Cartilaginous fish have a greater salt concentration than seawater, causing water to move into the shark by osmosis; this water is used for excretion. Freshwater fish must prevent water gain and salt loss. They do not drink water, and have their skin covered by a thin mucus. Water enters and leaves through the gills and the fish excretory system produces large amounts of dilute urine. Terrestrial animals use a variety of methods to reduce water loss: living in moist environments, developing impermeable body coverings, production of more concentrated urine. Water loss can be considerable: a person in a 100 degree F temperature loses 1 liter of water per hour. Excretory System Functions | Back to Top 1. Collect water and filter body fluids. 2. Remove and concentrate waste products from body fluids and return other substances to body fluids as necessary for homeostasis. 3. Eliminate excretory products from the body. Invertebrate Excretory Organs | Back to Top Many invertebrates such as flatworms use a nephridium as their excretory organ. At the end of each blind tubule of the nephridium is a ciliated flame cell. As fluid passes down the tubule, solutes are reabsorbed and returned to the body fluids. Excretory system of a flatworm. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. Excretory system of an earthworm. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. Body fluids are drawn into the Malphigian tubules by osmosis due to large concentrations of potassium inside the tubule. Body fluids pass back into the body, nitrogenous wastes empty into the insect's gut. Water is reabsorbed and waste is expelled from the insect. Excretory system of an ant. Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. Vertebrates Have Paired Kidneys | Back to Top ALL vertebrates have paired kidneys. Excretion is not the primary function of kidneys. Kidneys regulate body fluid levels as a primary duty, and remove wastes as a secondary one. The Human Excretory System | Back to Top The urinary system is made-up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The nephron, an evolutionary modification of the nephridium, is the kidney's functional unit. Waste is filtered from the blood and collected as urine in each kidney. Urine leaves the kidneys by ureters, and collects in the bladder. The bladder can distend to store urine that eventually leaves through the urethra. Human excretory system and the details of the kidney. Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. The Nephron The nephron consists of a cup-shaped capsule containing capillaries and the glomerulus, and a long renal tube. Blood flows into the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into capillaries associated with the glomerulus. Arterial pressure causes water and solutes from the blood to filter into the capsule. Fluid flows through the proximal tubule, which include the loop of Henle, and then into the distal tubule. The distal tubule empties into a collecting duct. Fluids and solutes are returned to the capillaries that surround the nephron tubule. Filtration of the blood in the fine structure of the kidneys. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. The nephron has three functions: 1. Glomerular filtration of water and solutes from the blood. 2. Tubular reabsorption of water and conserved molecules back into the blood. 3. Tubular secretion of ions and other waste products from surrounding capillaries into the distal tubule. Nephrons filter 125 ml of body fluid per minute; filtering the entire body fluid component 16 times each day. In a 24 hour period nephrons produce 180 liters of filtrate, of which 178.5 liters are reabsorbed. The remaining 1.5 liters forms urine. Urine Production 1. Filtration in the glomerulus and nephron capsule. 2. Reabsorption in the proximal tubule. 3. Tubular secretion in the Loop of Henle. Components of The Nephron Glomerulus: mechanically filters blood Bowman's Capsule: mechanically filters blood Proximal Convoluted Tubule: Reabsorbs 75% of the water, salts, glucose, and amino acids Loop of Henle: Countercurrent exchange, which maintains the concentration gradient Distal Convoluted Tubule: Tubular secretion of H ions, potassium, and certain drugs. Kidney Stones In some cases, excess wastes crystallize as kidney stones. They grow and can become a painful irritant that may require surgery or ultrasound treatments. Some stones are small enough to be forced into the urethra, others are the size of huge, massive boulders (or so I am told). Kidney Function | Back to Top Kidneys perform a number of homeostatic functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Maintain volume of extracellular fluid Maintain ionic balance in extracellular fluid Maintain pH and osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid. Excrete toxic metabolic by-products such as urea, ammonia, and uric acid. Hormone Control of Water and Salt | Back to Top Water reabsorption is controlled by the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in negative feedback. ADH is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Dropping levels of fluid in the blood signal the hypothalamus to cause the pituitary to release ADH into the blood. ADH acts to increase water absorption in the kidneys. This puts more water back in the blood, increasing the concentration of the urine. When too much fluid is present in the blood, sensors in the heart signal the hypothalamus to cause a reduction of the amounts of ADH in the blood. This increases the amount of water absorbed by the kidneys, producing large quantities of a more dilute urine. Aldosterone, a hormone secreted by the kidneys, regulates the transfer of sodium from the nephron to the blood. When sodium levels in the blood fall, aldosterone is released into the blood, causing more sodium to pass from the nephron to the blood. This causes water to flow into the blood by osmosis. Renin is released into the blood to control aldosterone. Disruption of Kidney Function | Back to Top Infection, environmental toxins such as mercury, and genetic disease can have devastating results by causing disruption of kidney function. Many kidney problems can be treated by dialysis, where a machine acts as a kidney. Kidney transplants are an alternative to dialysis. Links | Back to Top Urea Molecular model and information about the inorganic synthesis of this molecule. The Fluid Regulation System NASA article (with illustrations) about fluid regulation and how it relates to space.