Lilian Auduong 9P
LITHIUM
Lithium is the 3rd element on the periodic table. It is in group 1, period 2 and belongs to the group of
alkaline metals. It contains 3 protons, 3 electrons and 4 neutrons. It has an atomic weight of 6.941 (7). It
electronic configuration is 2, 1. It was the first metal encountered in the periodic table. Lithium is a
silvery coloured solid when purified. It is the lightest of metals and is never found alone in nature,
meaning that it is always bonded with other elements.
In 1817, Stockholm (Sweden), lithium was discovered by a chemist named Johann. A Arfvedson. Its
name is from the Greek word Lithos, which means stone. Lithium is used in batteries, ceramics, glass,
lubricants, alloy hardeners, rocket propellants, nuclear reactor coolant, underwear buoyancy devices
and other things.
Lithium ignites the air when it comes near its melting point. It is very dangerous when exposed to water,
acids or oxidizing agents. If lithium were exposed to these things, it could catch fire or explode. Lithium
reacts exothermally with nitrogen in moist air in high temperatures.
Some compounds containing lithium are; lithium hydride (LiH), lithium fluoride (LiF), lithium chloride (LiCl),
lithium chloride monohydrate (LiCl.H2O) and lithium sulphide (Li2S).
Density
0.535g/cm3
Boiling Point
1342oC
Melting Point
180.7oC
Crystal Structure
Cubic body centered
Shell Model
Isotopes
6-Lithium

3 Neutrons

3 Protons

3 Electrons

P
N
N
P
P
N
2 Shells
7- Lithium

4 Neutrons

3 Protons
P
N
N

3 Electrons

2 Shells
N
P
P
N
Lilian Auduong 9P
BERYLLIUM
Beryllium is the 4th element of the periodic table. It is part of the alkaline earth metals and is in group 2,
period 2. It contains 4 protons, 4 electrons, 5 neutrons and has an atomic weight of 9.0122 (9). It has 2
electrons in its first shell, and 2 in the second shell. When purified, beryllium is a grey, hard steel-like
metal that is very poisonous. Although Beryllium is a metal, it is not magnetic. Like lithium, beryllium can
not be found in alone, it is always combined with other elements.
The surface of beryllium metal is covered in a thin layer of oxide that assist in protecting the metal from
reacting with air. However, powdered beryllium metal burns in air to give a mixture of white beryllium
oxide and beryllium nitride. It does not react with water or stem even if it is heated to red heat. The thin
layer of oxide also helps protect the metal from attacks by acids. Powdered beryllium metal dissolves in
dilute acids (e.g. sulphuric acid, nitric acid).
Some compounds containing beryllium are; beryllium dihydride (BeH2), beryllium difluorine (BeF2),
beryllium dichloride (BeCl2), beryllium dibromide (BeBrs2) and beryllia (BeO).
Density
1.848g/cm3
Boiling Point
2970°C
Melting Point
1278oC
Crystal Structure
Hexagonal
Shell Model
Isotopes
9-Beryllium

5 Neutrons

4 Protons

4 Electrons

2 Shells
N
P
P
N
N
N
P
P
N
10-Beryllium




6 Neutrons
4 Protons
4 Electrons
2 Shells
N
P
N
P
N
P
N
N
N
N
P
Lilian Auduong 9P
Bibliography
Andrew Rader . (1997-2009 ). LITH-I-UM. Available:
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/003_speak.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010.
Greg Rickard, Geoff Phillips, Janette Ellis, Karin Johnstone, Faye Jeffery, Peter Jeans, Peter Roberson
(2006). Science Dimensions 3. Australia: Pearson Education Australia. 2-36.
Kenneth L Barbalace . (1995 - 2010). Periodic Table of Elements - Lithium - Li. . Available:
http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Li.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010.
Kenneth L Barbalace . (1995 - 2010). Periodic Table of Elements - Beryllium - Be. Available:
http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Be.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010.
Mark Winter. (1993-2009 ). Web Elements The Periodic Table of Elements. Available:
http://www.webelements.com/beryllium/. Last accessed 28 February 2010.
Roger. (2010). The Element Lithium - Structure and Properties. Available: http://www.green-planet-solarenergy.com/element-lithium.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010.
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Lilian A Lithium & Beryllium