Lilian Auduong 9P LITHIUM Lithium is the 3rd element on the periodic table. It is in group 1, period 2 and belongs to the group of alkaline metals. It contains 3 protons, 3 electrons and 4 neutrons. It has an atomic weight of 6.941 (7). It electronic configuration is 2, 1. It was the first metal encountered in the periodic table. Lithium is a silvery coloured solid when purified. It is the lightest of metals and is never found alone in nature, meaning that it is always bonded with other elements. In 1817, Stockholm (Sweden), lithium was discovered by a chemist named Johann. A Arfvedson. Its name is from the Greek word Lithos, which means stone. Lithium is used in batteries, ceramics, glass, lubricants, alloy hardeners, rocket propellants, nuclear reactor coolant, underwear buoyancy devices and other things. Lithium ignites the air when it comes near its melting point. It is very dangerous when exposed to water, acids or oxidizing agents. If lithium were exposed to these things, it could catch fire or explode. Lithium reacts exothermally with nitrogen in moist air in high temperatures. Some compounds containing lithium are; lithium hydride (LiH), lithium fluoride (LiF), lithium chloride (LiCl), lithium chloride monohydrate (LiCl.H2O) and lithium sulphide (Li2S). Density 0.535g/cm3 Boiling Point 1342oC Melting Point 180.7oC Crystal Structure Cubic body centered Shell Model Isotopes 6-Lithium 3 Neutrons 3 Protons 3 Electrons P N N P P N 2 Shells 7- Lithium 4 Neutrons 3 Protons P N N 3 Electrons 2 Shells N P P N Lilian Auduong 9P BERYLLIUM Beryllium is the 4th element of the periodic table. It is part of the alkaline earth metals and is in group 2, period 2. It contains 4 protons, 4 electrons, 5 neutrons and has an atomic weight of 9.0122 (9). It has 2 electrons in its first shell, and 2 in the second shell. When purified, beryllium is a grey, hard steel-like metal that is very poisonous. Although Beryllium is a metal, it is not magnetic. Like lithium, beryllium can not be found in alone, it is always combined with other elements. The surface of beryllium metal is covered in a thin layer of oxide that assist in protecting the metal from reacting with air. However, powdered beryllium metal burns in air to give a mixture of white beryllium oxide and beryllium nitride. It does not react with water or stem even if it is heated to red heat. The thin layer of oxide also helps protect the metal from attacks by acids. Powdered beryllium metal dissolves in dilute acids (e.g. sulphuric acid, nitric acid). Some compounds containing beryllium are; beryllium dihydride (BeH2), beryllium difluorine (BeF2), beryllium dichloride (BeCl2), beryllium dibromide (BeBrs2) and beryllia (BeO). Density 1.848g/cm3 Boiling Point 2970°C Melting Point 1278oC Crystal Structure Hexagonal Shell Model Isotopes 9-Beryllium 5 Neutrons 4 Protons 4 Electrons 2 Shells N P P N N N P P N 10-Beryllium 6 Neutrons 4 Protons 4 Electrons 2 Shells N P N P N P N N N N P Lilian Auduong 9P Bibliography Andrew Rader . (1997-2009 ). LITH-I-UM. Available: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/003_speak.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010. Greg Rickard, Geoff Phillips, Janette Ellis, Karin Johnstone, Faye Jeffery, Peter Jeans, Peter Roberson (2006). Science Dimensions 3. Australia: Pearson Education Australia. 2-36. Kenneth L Barbalace . (1995 - 2010). Periodic Table of Elements - Lithium - Li. . Available: http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Li.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010. Kenneth L Barbalace . (1995 - 2010). Periodic Table of Elements - Beryllium - Be. Available: http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Be.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010. Mark Winter. (1993-2009 ). Web Elements The Periodic Table of Elements. Available: http://www.webelements.com/beryllium/. Last accessed 28 February 2010. Roger. (2010). The Element Lithium - Structure and Properties. Available: http://www.green-planet-solarenergy.com/element-lithium.html. Last accessed 28 February 2010.