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1. adulterate (v.) to corrupt, make worse by the addition of something of lesser value
adulterate the milk with water
2. ambidextrous (adj.) able to use both hands equally well; very skillful; deceitful, hypocritical
marveled at his ambidextrous abilities
3. bereft (adj.) deprived of; made unhappy through a loss
bereft of friends in his old age
4. condone (v.) excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with
condone poor behavior
5. derogatory (adj.) expressive of low opinion; tending to detract or diminish
derogatory remarks
6. dour (adj.) stern, unyielding; gloomy, ill-humored
a dour and sullen disposition
7. emanate (v.) proceed or issue forth, as from a source
to emanate constant heat
8. fortitude (n.) courage in facing difficulties
showed great fortitude during the flood
9. gibe (v.) to utter taunting words; (n.) an expression of scorn
gibe at him for his cowardice
10. ideology (n.) an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
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the church’s ideology
11. insidious (adj.) intended to deceive or entrap; sly, treacherous
an insidious scheme
12. intimation (n.) a hint, indirect suggestion
gave no intimation of her difficulties
13. manifest (adj.) clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or senses (v) provide evidence for;
stand as proof of
manifest disapproval in her tone
14. opulent (adj.) wealthy, luxurious, ample, grandiose
opulent living quarters
15. overt (adj.) not hidden; open
overt act of stealing
16. partisan (adj.) showing a strong support for a party or cause; characteristic of a guerrilla
partisan politics
17. paucity (n.) scarcity; smallness in number or amount
paucity of funds
18. rationalize (v.) to bring into accord with reason or cause something to seem reasonable
rationalize purchases as “investments”
19. renege (v.) to break a promise or commitment; the error of not following suit when one is
able to
renege on the settlement
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20. stolid (adj.) not easily moved, mentally or emotionally, dull, unresponsive
a stolid person who takes everything in stride
Bonus Phrases:
per capita: (pər káppitə) [by head] per unit of population (person) OR equally to each
highest per capita income
curriculum vitae: (
) [course of life] complete summary
of one’s personal history and professional qualifications, more detailed than a résumé
bring a curriculum vitae to the interview
Complete the Sentence
From the words for this unit, choose the one that best completes each of the following sentences.
Write the word in the space provided.
1. The judge’s wise decision in the tough case _____________________ his sense of fairness.
2. In Shakespeare’s famous tragedy Othello, Iago’s scheme to destroy Othello is
______________________ to the audience, but remains hidden to the characters in the play.
3. I sympathize with your circumstances, but I cannot ______________________ your
continual tardiness.
4. America’s earliest settlers faced the hardships of life on the frontier with
___________________ and faith.
5. Perhaps I would be bored with the __________________ lifestyle of a millionaire; I’m
willing to try it.
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6. A national crisis demands ignoring ____________________ politics and opportunism so that
the best interests of all citizens are the main focus.
7. The ______________________ of rain in the Midwest will cause a serious food shortage in
the months to come.
8. How can you tell whether the chopped-meat patty you ate for lunch had been
_____________________ with artificial coloring and other foreign substances?
9. We learned that beneath his___________________ exterior there was a sensitive, highly
subtle and perceptive mind.
10. Some students try to _____________________ their disruptive behavior by pointing out
loopholes in the class rules.
11. When I walked into the vice principal’s _______________________ face, I knew she wasn’t
going to cut me any breaks.
12. His unchanging facial features and controlled voice as he received the news gave no
____________________ of his true feelings.
13. What a tragedy that in the twilight of her life the unfortunate woman should be
____________________ of all her loved ones!
14. Why should I be the object of all those ____________________ just because I’m wearing
baby-blue Bermuda shorts on campus?
15. Many ballplayers can bat from either side of the plate, but they cannot throw well with each
hand unless they are ___________________.
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16. To this day, historians are still debating whether or not Aaron Burr was guilty of a (n)
___________________ plot to break up the United States.
17. Following the war, many nations shifted their __________________ to be more peacecentered.
18. After making a verbal agreement to be my volleyball partner, Sally __________________
her promise and made plans to team up with Ann.
19. The light that ____________________ from the lamp on our front porch attracts hundreds of
moths in the summer months.
20. Often women claim that they are the object of several _______________________
comments throughout the course of their lifetimes.
For each of the following sets of words, identify the word from this unit that is most similar in
meaning. Write the word on the line given.
1. rich, lavish, plentiful, abundant
2. to ridicule, mock, deride, jeer
3. supporter, devotee, defender
4. to contaminate, pollute, sully
5. impassive, phlegmatic, unresponsive
6. observable, undisguised, apparent
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7. renounce, recant, weasel
8. tenet, dogma, philosophy
9. cunning, underhanded, perfidious
10. disparaging, belittling, injurious
11. overlook, disregard, pardon
12. resolve, steadfastness, valiancy, spunk
13. dearth, deficiency, meagerness
14. a clue, indication, inkling
15. cantankerous, uptight, petulant
16. stem, give forth, originate
17. deprived, saddened by loss, bereaved
18. equally skillful with both hands
19. justify, validate, substantiate
20. certify, evidence, attest
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For each of the following sets of words, identify the word from this unit that means the opposite.
Write the word on the line given.
1. poverty-stricken, wretched, destitute
2. cheery, inviting, genial
3. fearfulness, timidity, faintheartedness
4. ampleness, prosperity, abundance
5. to purify, purge, expurgate
6. praising, flattering, admiring
7. emotional, oversensitive, high-strung
8. frank, ingenuous, aboveboard
9. a compliment, praise
10. reprimand, deplore, reproach
11. opponent, challenger
12. clumsy, all thumbs, maladroit
13. a direct or blunt communication
14. replete, well provided with
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Choosing the Right Word
Encircle the boldface word that best completes each of the following sentences.
1. Recruits who complain of the cold should try to show a little more (fortitude, intimation) in
facing the elements.
2. The young prince, who much preferred blue jeans, had to dress in the (stolid, opulent) robes
designed for the coronation.
3. Though all hope of victory had faded, the remaining troops continued to resist the enemy
with a (bereft, dour) tenacity.
He (reneged, manifested) on his promise and therefore, she could never trust him again.
5. Mr. Jones is considered notorious for responding in a (bereft, derogatory) manner to most
students’ questions.
The buildings in Athens (manifest, rationalize) a high level of architectural sophistication.
7. Do you believe that the curriculum will be (bereft, adulterated) if courses like driver
education and consumer science are introduced?
8. During the Civil War, the issue of slavery created (partisans, fortitudes) vying for their
9. Let us not forget that the early fighters for women’s rights were greeted with the (gibes,
intimations) of the unthinking mob.
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10. Mary regarded her (paucity, intimations) of income during the summer as a horrible
inconvenience because it cut into her travel plans.
11. A sort of heaviness in the air and eerie silence were the first real (ideologies, intimations) of
the approaching cyclone.
12. Gerald will not (manifest, condone) his business partner’s infidelities.
13. I always know it’s winter time when I see smoke (reneging, emanating) from chimneys.
14. Without any (stolid, overt) statement, the couple made it clear that they intended to get
married despite the parents’ disapproval.
15. In this scene of wild jubilation, my (stolid, ambidextrous) roommate continued to eat his
peanut butter sandwich as though nothing had happened.
16. Jane must have been (bereft, dour) of her senses when she bought that old car!
17. If you (rationalize, gibe) the factory’s method of production, you will surly increase its
18. Because of my inexperience, I did not recognize at first his (insidious, ambidextrous)
attempts to undermine our employer’s confidence in me.
19. Have you heard the joke about the (ambidextrous, opulent) loafer who was equally adept at
not working with either hand?
20. John Proctor was hostile toward the Salem court’s (fortitude, ideology); hence Judge
Danforth sentenced him to death.

From the words for this unit, choose the one that best completes