Unit 1 Name_________________________________ Definitions 1. adulterate (v.) to corrupt, make worse by the addition of something of lesser value adulterate the milk with water 2. ambidextrous (adj.) able to use both hands equally well; very skillful; deceitful, hypocritical marveled at his ambidextrous abilities 3. bereft (adj.) deprived of; made unhappy through a loss bereft of friends in his old age 4. condone (v.) excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with condone poor behavior 5. derogatory (adj.) expressive of low opinion; tending to detract or diminish derogatory remarks 6. dour (adj.) stern, unyielding; gloomy, ill-humored a dour and sullen disposition 7. emanate (v.) proceed or issue forth, as from a source to emanate constant heat 8. fortitude (n.) courage in facing difficulties showed great fortitude during the flood 9. gibe (v.) to utter taunting words; (n.) an expression of scorn gibe at him for his cowardice 10. ideology (n.) an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation Unit 1 the church’s ideology 11. insidious (adj.) intended to deceive or entrap; sly, treacherous an insidious scheme 12. intimation (n.) a hint, indirect suggestion gave no intimation of her difficulties 13. manifest (adj.) clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or senses (v) provide evidence for; stand as proof of manifest disapproval in her tone 14. opulent (adj.) wealthy, luxurious, ample, grandiose opulent living quarters 15. overt (adj.) not hidden; open overt act of stealing 16. partisan (adj.) showing a strong support for a party or cause; characteristic of a guerrilla fighter partisan politics 17. paucity (n.) scarcity; smallness in number or amount paucity of funds 18. rationalize (v.) to bring into accord with reason or cause something to seem reasonable rationalize purchases as “investments” 19. renege (v.) to break a promise or commitment; the error of not following suit when one is able to renege on the settlement Unit 1 20. stolid (adj.) not easily moved, mentally or emotionally, dull, unresponsive a stolid person who takes everything in stride Bonus Phrases: per capita: (pər káppitə) [by head] per unit of population (person) OR equally to each individual highest per capita income curriculum vitae: ( ) [course of life] complete summary of one’s personal history and professional qualifications, more detailed than a résumé bring a curriculum vitae to the interview _______________________________________________________________________ Complete the Sentence Due____________ From the words for this unit, choose the one that best completes each of the following sentences. Write the word in the space provided. 1. The judge’s wise decision in the tough case _____________________ his sense of fairness. 2. In Shakespeare’s famous tragedy Othello, Iago’s scheme to destroy Othello is ______________________ to the audience, but remains hidden to the characters in the play. 3. I sympathize with your circumstances, but I cannot ______________________ your continual tardiness. 4. America’s earliest settlers faced the hardships of life on the frontier with ___________________ and faith. 5. Perhaps I would be bored with the __________________ lifestyle of a millionaire; I’m willing to try it. Unit 1 6. A national crisis demands ignoring ____________________ politics and opportunism so that the best interests of all citizens are the main focus. 7. The ______________________ of rain in the Midwest will cause a serious food shortage in the months to come. 8. How can you tell whether the chopped-meat patty you ate for lunch had been _____________________ with artificial coloring and other foreign substances? 9. We learned that beneath his___________________ exterior there was a sensitive, highly subtle and perceptive mind. 10. Some students try to _____________________ their disruptive behavior by pointing out loopholes in the class rules. 11. When I walked into the vice principal’s _______________________ face, I knew she wasn’t going to cut me any breaks. 12. His unchanging facial features and controlled voice as he received the news gave no ____________________ of his true feelings. 13. What a tragedy that in the twilight of her life the unfortunate woman should be ____________________ of all her loved ones! 14. Why should I be the object of all those ____________________ just because I’m wearing baby-blue Bermuda shorts on campus? 15. Many ballplayers can bat from either side of the plate, but they cannot throw well with each hand unless they are ___________________. Unit 1 16. To this day, historians are still debating whether or not Aaron Burr was guilty of a (n) ___________________ plot to break up the United States. 17. Following the war, many nations shifted their __________________ to be more peacecentered. 18. After making a verbal agreement to be my volleyball partner, Sally __________________ her promise and made plans to team up with Ann. 19. The light that ____________________ from the lamp on our front porch attracts hundreds of moths in the summer months. 20. Often women claim that they are the object of several _______________________ comments throughout the course of their lifetimes. ___________________________________________________________________________ Synonyms Due____________ For each of the following sets of words, identify the word from this unit that is most similar in meaning. Write the word on the line given. 1. rich, lavish, plentiful, abundant _____________________ 2. to ridicule, mock, deride, jeer _____________________ 3. supporter, devotee, defender _____________________ 4. to contaminate, pollute, sully _____________________ 5. impassive, phlegmatic, unresponsive _____________________ 6. observable, undisguised, apparent _____________________ Unit 1 7. renounce, recant, weasel _____________________ 8. tenet, dogma, philosophy _____________________ 9. cunning, underhanded, perfidious _____________________ 10. disparaging, belittling, injurious _____________________ 11. overlook, disregard, pardon _____________________ 12. resolve, steadfastness, valiancy, spunk _____________________ 13. dearth, deficiency, meagerness _____________________ 14. a clue, indication, inkling _____________________ 15. cantankerous, uptight, petulant _____________________ 16. stem, give forth, originate _____________________ 17. deprived, saddened by loss, bereaved _____________________ 18. equally skillful with both hands _____________________ 19. justify, validate, substantiate _____________________ 20. certify, evidence, attest _____________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Unit 1 Antonyms Due____________ For each of the following sets of words, identify the word from this unit that means the opposite. Write the word on the line given. 1. poverty-stricken, wretched, destitute ______________________ 2. cheery, inviting, genial ______________________ 3. fearfulness, timidity, faintheartedness ______________________ 4. ampleness, prosperity, abundance ______________________ 5. to purify, purge, expurgate ______________________ 6. praising, flattering, admiring ______________________ 7. emotional, oversensitive, high-strung ______________________ 8. frank, ingenuous, aboveboard ______________________ 9. a compliment, praise ______________________ 10. reprimand, deplore, reproach ______________________ 11. opponent, challenger ______________________ 12. clumsy, all thumbs, maladroit ______________________ 13. a direct or blunt communication ______________________ 14. replete, well provided with ______________________ Unit 1 Choosing the Right Word Due____________ Encircle the boldface word that best completes each of the following sentences. 1. Recruits who complain of the cold should try to show a little more (fortitude, intimation) in facing the elements. 2. The young prince, who much preferred blue jeans, had to dress in the (stolid, opulent) robes designed for the coronation. 3. Though all hope of victory had faded, the remaining troops continued to resist the enemy with a (bereft, dour) tenacity. 4. He (reneged, manifested) on his promise and therefore, she could never trust him again. 5. Mr. Jones is considered notorious for responding in a (bereft, derogatory) manner to most students’ questions. 6. The buildings in Athens (manifest, rationalize) a high level of architectural sophistication. 7. Do you believe that the curriculum will be (bereft, adulterated) if courses like driver education and consumer science are introduced? 8. During the Civil War, the issue of slavery created (partisans, fortitudes) vying for their beliefs. 9. Let us not forget that the early fighters for women’s rights were greeted with the (gibes, intimations) of the unthinking mob. Unit 1 10. Mary regarded her (paucity, intimations) of income during the summer as a horrible inconvenience because it cut into her travel plans. 11. A sort of heaviness in the air and eerie silence were the first real (ideologies, intimations) of the approaching cyclone. 12. Gerald will not (manifest, condone) his business partner’s infidelities. 13. I always know it’s winter time when I see smoke (reneging, emanating) from chimneys. 14. Without any (stolid, overt) statement, the couple made it clear that they intended to get married despite the parents’ disapproval. 15. In this scene of wild jubilation, my (stolid, ambidextrous) roommate continued to eat his peanut butter sandwich as though nothing had happened. 16. Jane must have been (bereft, dour) of her senses when she bought that old car! 17. If you (rationalize, gibe) the factory’s method of production, you will surly increase its profits. 18. Because of my inexperience, I did not recognize at first his (insidious, ambidextrous) attempts to undermine our employer’s confidence in me. 19. Have you heard the joke about the (ambidextrous, opulent) loafer who was equally adept at not working with either hand? 20. John Proctor was hostile toward the Salem court’s (fortitude, ideology); hence Judge Danforth sentenced him to death.