Reading Assessments
Table of Contents
The What, Why & How of Assessment
242
Running Record
243
Oral Reading Fluency
256
Dolch High Frequency Word Test
259
Dictation Test
269
Phonics Survey
272
Retelling Profile: Literary Elements
279
Retelling Profile: Plot Structure
280
Retelling Expository Text
281
C.R.I.S.S & Test Taking
282
The WHAT, WHY & HOW of Assessment
WHAT
do I want to know?
What interests does
the student have?
What does the
student choose to
read?
What is the student’s
reading level?
What strategies does
the student use when
he/she is reading?
Does the student read
for meaning?
Does the student read
with expression and
fluency?
WHY
do I want to know it?
Selecting books for instruction and the
classroom library will be easier if I have this
information. I can also use these interests to
group students in different ways, enabling them
to become more familiar with their classmates.
I understand that children need to read many
different kinds of books in order to become good
readers. I want to see what the child is choosing
so I can help round out their reading
experiences.
Most of what a student reads should be at their
independent and instructional levels. If the
student is reading material beyond these levels, I
need to adjust the support I will provide for the
student.
Good readers use a variety of strategies to make
meaning. Dependence on one or two strategies
can inhibit reading growth. Proficient readers
use all three cueing systems. I need to know if
the student is using all three to ensure efficient
reading.
Comprehension is the goal of reading. I need to
know if the student is trying to make sense while
reading. I also need to directly teach students
who lack the strategies necessary to comprehend
text.
If a student lacks fluency they may have trouble
comprehending what they read. I need to know
who is reading fluently and help those who are
having difficulty.
Does the student have For emergent readers understanding how print
an understanding of
functions and the terminology associated with
the concepts of print? reading is essential. Identifying what the student
needs to learn can help me plan.
HOW
can I best discover it?
Flynt Cooter Interest
Inventory from the Flynt
Cooter Reading Inventory
for the Classroom
Independent Reading
Record
Running Record
Flynt Cooter Reading
Inventory for the
Classroom
(recommended reading
inventory)
Running Record
Flynt Cooter Reading
Inventory for the
Classroom
Retelling
Running Record
Flynt Cooter Reading
Inventory for the
Classroom
Multidimensional Fluency
Scale
Concepts of Print
Assessments
.
from: Flexible Grouping in Reading: Getting to Know Students. Scholastic Books, 1998
RUNNING RECORD
What Is A Running Record?
A running record is an assessment tool developed by Marie Clay as a reliable measure of how well students
read printed text. Taking a running record regularly throughout the school year involves listening to a student
read and retell a story, recording and analyzing the student’s reading behaviors, and identifying
appropriate teaching strategies. The frequency of this assessment is based on the student’s needs. An
average of once a month is an appropriate frequency. Scheduling one child each day at the beginning or end of
a guided reading group will provide a quick check on the appropriateness of the instructional level. The use of
the formal form is not always necessary. Using a benchmark book or the DRA to take a running record is
not to be done more than 3 times a year.
Why Should I Use Running Records?
Running records can guide teachers in:
 observing strengths/difficulties of individual students.
 determining the student’s instructional and independent reading levels.
 assessing the student’s comprehension.
 identifying appropriate teaching strategies.
 planning for guided instruction.
Running records are not only used for instructional purposes; they also guide teachers in their decisions
about the following:
 the grouping of students;
 the acceleration of a student;
 monitoring progress of students;
 the text appropriateness for a student.
How Do I Take A Running Record?
The Five-Step Process:
 Reading & record-taking
 Retelling & responding
 Calculate error, accuracy, & self-correction rate
 Analyze the running record
 Identify appropriate teaching strategies
*Adapted from Marie M. Clay, An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, Heinneman, 1993
THE FIVE-STEP PROCESS
Step I - Reading & Record-Taking




select text.
introduce story.
student reads.
record behaviors on form or blank paper using conventions.
Step 2 - Retelling & Responding


offer general prompts only if needed.
keep the retelling informal.
Step 3 - Calculate Error, Accuracy, & Self -Correction Rate
 error rate is a ratio - 1 : running words .
errors


accuracy rate is a percentage - # of words read correct .
running words
self -correction rate is a ratio - 1 : error + self -corrections .
self -corrections
Step 4 - Analyze the Running Record


cues used/neglected
self-corrected
Step 5 - Identify Appropriate Teaching Strategies


plan instruction based on student strengths and needs.
select reading material at instructional level.
* Guided Reading – A Practical Approach for Teachers, Wright Group, 1995
Ongoing
RECORD OF READING BEHAVIOR
Name:
Title:
Age:
Series:
Seen
Stage:
Unseen
Date:
/
/
Calculations
Error Rate
Understanding from Retelling/Questions
RW = 1:
E
Characters
Yes …………….. No
Accuracy %
Setting
Yes …………….. No
S/C Rate
(E + SC) = 1:
SC
Plot
Yes …………….. No
Inferences
Yes …………….. No
Level:
Easy
Instructional
Hard
Competencies (circle predominant behaviors)
1 on 1 matching
Directionality
Fluent Reading
At an unknown word
Makes no attempt
Seeks help
Reruns
Reads on
Attempts using
Letter/sound knowledge
Meaning
Syntax
Ignores
Seeks help
Reruns
Attempts s/c
Self-corrects using
Letter/sound knowledge
Meaning
Syntax
After an error
E
SC
E
SC
msv
msv
E
SC
Cues used
E
SC
TOTAL
Fluency Rate:
Total words read in one-minute_____ - errors ______ = words correct per minute ______
RUNNING RECORD
CALCULATION AND CONVERSION TABLE
Whether students are reading seen or unseen texts, most of their reading will contain errors. It allows
teachers to observe how students work on texts to problem-solve and monitor their own reading.
The Conversion Table provides for a quick conversion of error rate to a percentage accuracy score. This
allows teachers to select leveled texts for guided reading.
CONVERSION TABLE
CALCULATIONS
RW=Running words; E=Errors; SC=Self-corrections
ERROR RATE
Error
Rate
Percent
Accuracy
1:200
1:100
1: 50
1: 35
1: 25
1: 20
99.5
99
98
97
96
95
1: 17
1: 14
1:
12.5
1:
11.75
1: 10
1: 9
1: 8
1: 7
1: 6
1: 5
1: 4
1: 3
1: 2
94
93
92
91
90
89
87.5
85.5
83
80
75
66
50
Running Words
Errors
Independent Levels
Good opportunities for
teachers to observe
students’ ‘reading work’.
e.g. 150 = Ratio 1:10
15
ACCURACY
100 – E x 100
RW 1
Instructional Levels
100 – 15 x 100 = 90%
150
1
Frustration Levels
The reader tends to lose the
support of the meaning of
the text.
SELF-CORRECTION RATE
E + SC
SC
15 + 5
5
= Ratio 1 : 4
*Adapted from Marie M. Clay, An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, Heinneman, 1993
RUNNING RECORD
Determining the Instructional Level of a Student
Accuracy %
Above 94%
Instructional Level
Easy, Recreational:
Independent Reading
90-94%
Provides some challenge:
Instructional
Too Difficult:
Frustration
Below 90%
Self Correction Rate:
Number of Errors (E) 6
Number of Self-corrections (SC) 3
E + SC = 6+3 = 9 = 1:3
SC
3
3
A Self Correction Rate of
1 in 3 to 1 in 5
is considered good and tells you the student is paying attention
to semantic, syntactic and visual cues.
RUNNING RECORD CONVENTIONS
Student = What Student Says
Text
What Is In Book
Convention
Marking
Scoring
Correct word

correct
Substitution
mad
made
1 error
m / ma/ m-d
made
1 error
Record all tries
Repetition
 R 
or
No error
  R
Omission
give
1 error
Insertion
the
-
1 error
Self-correction
mad / make /SC
made
No error
Appeal & told
h – A
him T
1 error
INTERPRETING AN ORAL READING RECORD
Substitutions: Focus the student's attention on the word/s and encourage the student to pay attention to all
cueing systems.
Rereading: Encourage this strategy when a student hesitates on a word or is losing meaning. "Go back to the
beginning and read it again."
Omissions: Indicate whether the student is matching one-to-one as s/he read, and if s/he is paying attention
to meaning.
Insertions: Frequent insertions can indicate that a student is paying attention to meaning obtained by
viewing the picture or illustration but...
 one-to-one correspondence is not established.
 the student is not paying attention to print details.
 semantic and syntactic clues are overriding print details or visual cues.
Self Corrections: Should be encouraged and praised. This strategy indicates the student is integrating the
various cues and paying attention to meaning, syntax, and visual information.
Verbalizing the Initial Sound of a Word: Indicates the student is paying attention to print details and
should be praised and encouraged.
When a Student Asks for Help: Remain silent for a short while, giving the student time to think. Students
who frequently stop and appeal for help may:
 lack confidence to give it a try;
 be fearful of making a mistake;
 lack strategies for tackling unknown words.
Provide an environment in which trying is praised and encouraged. Support the student by suggesting the
following strategies:
 looking at the picture for clues;
 looking at and saying the starting letter;
 rereading the sentence;
 telling the student the initial letter and reading with the student.
ANALYZING RUNNING RECORDS
It is only when you go to the trouble of analyzing all the errors that you get quality information
regarding the way the reader is processing print.
Looking at every error helps the teacher work out whether the student is responding to the different sources
of information in print. Looking at every error also tells the teacher if the student is responding to the
different kinds of reading cues. The teacher needs to examine each error and ask, "Now what led the student
to do or say that?"

Meaning: If what the student reads makes sense, even though it is inaccurate, then s/he is probably
applying his/her knowledge of the world to his/her reading.

Structure: Is what the student said possible in an English sentence? If it is, his/her oral language is
probably influencing his/her responding. If not, there may be two reasons. Perhaps his/her language
skill is limited and his/her personal grammar does not contain structures that are used in the reading
book. OR, if s/he is paying close attention to detail, or to word-by-word reading, s/he may not be
allowing his/her control over English syntax to influence his/her choices.

Visual Information: Does the student use visual information from the letters and words or the
layout of print?

Word Memory: Does the student read word by word as if recalling each word from a memory
bank, unrelated to what s/he has read before? If so, s/he may not realize that reading is like speaking,
and that his/her language behavior is a rich source of help in choosing correct reading responses.

Cross-checking Strategies: Cross-checking is most obvious when a student is not satisfied with a
response for some reason.

Self-correction: Occurs when a student discovers information in the text that tells him/her
something is wrong. Efficient self-correction behavior is an important skill in good reading. When
analyzing self-corrections consider the error first. What kind of information was the student using up
to the time when the error occurred? After examining the error, consider what extra information the
student used to make the self-correction. What additional information is in the self-correction that
was not in the error?
CUEING SYSTEM
When reading, the student makes meaning from print. The reading process is the means by which this
occurs. In order to read independently, students need to use information from three sources. These sources
of information are known as cueing systems.
MONTHLY RUNNING RECORD SHEET
NAME: ______________________________________
SC
Accuracy
Strategies/Targets
Seen or
Unseen
Title
Level
Date
RUNNING RECORD
PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION
Strategy
Moves correctly across print.
Student Behaviors
Student reads left to right and top
to bottom.
Matches one to one.
For every word in print, student
reads one word.
Locates known words.
Can point to a known word and
uses that to maintain 1:1
correspondence.
Can point to an unknown word to
signify help is needed.
Locates unknown words.
Monitors own reading.
Stops when what is seen or heard
is not making sense, or sounding
right, or matching what’s on the
page.
Searches for cues in text by using
prior knowledge, pictures, or
previous text.
Meaning
“Does it make sense?”
Searches for cues in word
sequence
Structure
“Does it sound right?”
Searches for cues
graphophonically.
Visual
“Does it look right?”
Notices something is wrong and
stops, may search picture, may
reread to search for cues.
Integrates all cues efficiently.
Meaning – makes sense
Structure – sounds right
Visual – looks right
Crosschecks one cue with another.
At point of difficulty, student uses
a multiple of strategies to
successfully attack unknown
words.
Predicts what a word will be by
using one cue and then
crosschecks it with another cue.
Teacher Prompts
Teacher can point on top of the
words and ask the child to point
underneath the words.
“Read it again with your finger
and make it match. Did that
match?”
“Were you right? Show me.”
“You know this word is ‘he’.
When you get to this word, what
are you going to read?”
“Point to the word you need help
on. What would make sense,
sound right and look right? You
try it. Give it your best guess.”
“What did you notice?”
“There’s something not quite right.
Good for you for noticing. How
did you know? Read it again and
see if you can find it.”
“You said _____. Does that make
sense?”
“Would ___ make sense?”
“Would ____ fit there?”
Rereads to see if it sounds right
and to search for cues.
“You said ___. Does that sound
right?” “Read that again and see if
it sounds right. Were you right?”
Sounds through the word. May
also point to words.
“Does it look like ___?” or “___
makes sense, but does this word
look like ___?”
“I like the way you looked
carefully and read what was on the
page.”
“Does it make sense? Does it
sound right? Does it look right?
Are you right?”
“Reread that part and see if it
makes sense, sounds right, and
looks right.”
RUNNING RECORD
PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION (continued)
Strategy
Self-corrects assuming the
initiative for monitoring.
Student Behaviors
Student decides if reading does not
make sense, sound right or look
right and uses a strategy/ies to
self-correct.
Rereads to confirm reading so far.
Student rereads.
Rereads to search for cues.
Student rereads.
Uses chunks in word analysis.
Student knows the word “book” so
s/he can read other “-ook” words
such as look, took or finds known
chunks in words to help with word
analysis.
At the student’s instructional
reading level, student reads so it
sounds natural and fluent.
Reads fluently.
Teacher Prompts
“I like the way you figured out
what was wrong all by yourself.
How did you figure that out?”
“There’s a tricky part on that page.
Read that again and see if you can
find it.”
“Why did you read that again?
What did you find out?”
“When you reread that, did it make
sense, sound right and look right?”
“Read that again and think about
what would make sense or sound
right. Reread and bump into the
word.”
“You know ‘book’; what is it now
(took)?” or “Is there a part you
know?”
“Read that again and make it
sound like you’re talking.”
Model fluent reading.
Give opportunities to reread
familiar text.
Oral Reading Fluency
Procedure for calculating words correct per minute
Total number of words read in one minute – errors = correct per minute
1.
2.
3.
Count the total number of words read in 1 minute.
Subtract the number of errors (substitution, omission, insertion, told)
Number remaining is the Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)
Words Read Correctly: These are words that the student pronounces correctly, given the reading context.
 Count self-corrections within 3 seconds as correct
 Don’t count repetitions as incorrect
Words read incorrectly: Count substitutions, omissions, insertions, mispronunciations and teacher told as
types of errors that are incorrect for fluency. Also, count words the student doesn’t read within 5 seconds as
incorrect.
5-second rule: If a student is struggling to pronounce a word or hesitates for 5 seconds, tell the student the
word, and count it as an error.
Oral Reading Fluency Norms
Grade
Percentile
WCPM
Fall
WCPM
Winter
WCPM
Spring
1
2
50
75
50
25
75
50
25
75
50
25
75
50
25
82
53
23
107
79
65
125
99
72
126
105
77
1006
78
46
123
93
70
133
112
89
143
118
93
60
124
94
65
142
114
87
143
118
92
151
128
100
3
4
5
Hasbrouck, J.E. & Tindal, G.
How to Interpret and Use the Fluency Norms
The norms are listed as percentile scores. For example, a percentile score of 65 means that 65% of students
received fluency scores equal to or lower than the number indicated. Generally, students reading at the 50th
percentile will have good comprehension of grade-level texts. Therefore, a fourth-grade student reading at
118 WCPM ( 50th percentile) would be expected to have at least adequate comprehension of grade-level text
at the end of the year. A fourth grader who reads 143 WCPM (75th percentile) would be expected to have
excellent comprehension of grade-level text at the end of the year. Those reading at 92 WCPM (25th
percentile) would, however, be expected to have difficulty comprehending grade-level text.
Oral Reading Fluency Continued
General Goals for Rates of Reading Using Fountas & Pinnell’s Levels
Current Instructional Level
Rate of Reading
Oral Reading Rate
Silent Reading Rate
Levels H-M
Levels L-P
Levels O-T
Levels S-W
75-100
100-124
115-140
125-150
75-100
115-140
130-175
160-200
Multidimensional Fluency Scale
(J. Zutell & T. Rasinski 1991)
Student’s name____________________________________________ Date_________________
Text Selection:__________________________________________________________________
Directions: Use the scale in all three areas to rate reader fluency. Circle the number in each category
that best corresponds to your observation.
Phrasing
1
Monotonic with little sense of phrase boundaries; frequent word-by-word reading.
2
Frequent two- and three-word phrases, giving the impression of choppy reading; improper stress
and intonation that fails to mark ends of sentences and clauses.
3
Mixture of run-ons, midsentence pauses for breath, and possibly some choppiness; reasonable
stress/intonation.
4
Generally well phrased, mostly in clause and sentence units with adequate attention to expression.
Smoothness
1
Frequent extended pauses, hesitation, false starts, sound-outs, repetitions, and/or multiple
attempts.
2
Several “rough spots” in text where extended pauses, hesitations, and so on, are more frequent and
disruptive.
3
Occasional breaks in smoothness caused by difficulties with specific words and/or structures.
4
Generally smooth reading with some breaks, but word and structure difficulties are resolved
quickly, usually through self-corrections.
Pace
1
Slow and laborious
2
Moderately slow
3
Uneven mixture of fast and slow reading
4
Consistently conversational
From: Good-Bye Round Robin by M. F. Opitz & T. V. Rasinski. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
DOLCH HIGH FREQUENCY WORD TEST
Begin with the assessment from kindergarten. There is no need to retest a word the student has
previously recognized. If the student did not attend kindergarten in Collier County, start at the
beginning of the list. Do not send prompt sheets home with the student. Sending home a modified list
appropriate to the student is acceptable. Encourage the parents to read to their child, not just drill on these
words.
Directions:
 Show only one row at a time and point to each word as you move across the row.
 Record responses on the response sheet that has all 220 words on it. This response sheet should
follow the student through first and second grade.
DO NOT COMMENT ON WHETHER A STUDENT’S RESPONSE IS CORRECT OR INCORRECT. DO
NOT PROVIDE ANY ADDITIONAL CLUES, VERBAL OR OTHERWISE, TO ASSIST THE STUDENT
IN MAKING A RESPONSE. The assessment needs to indicate what the student can do on his/her own.




Record correct responses with a checkmark. 
Record no response with a dot.

Record all attempts (incorrect responses).
Make all recording notations in the upper left-hand corner of the box for that word.
Teachers will need to date the responses or use different colors for each time assessment occurs. Date
the color. (For example, red – September, blue – January, etc.)
For Example:


we
up
correct

no response
a
attempt
No
and
correct
go
attempt
Record total number correct in the “dates and scores” boxes at the top of the response sheet.
For Example:
5/21/98

Apple
12
Dolch High Frequency Words
Dates/Scores
Teacher Record Sheet
Name _________________________________________
up
we
a
and
go
I
in
the
to
you
for
red
yellow
he
too
look
one
jump
me
see
my
it
can
is
at
into
like
big
blue
all
four
are
down
not
she
little
run
said
do
be
so
two
play
am
no
on
out
an
eat
black
did
get
away
help
but
have
by
stop
that
going
make
yes
fly
here
come
three
this
will
of
brown
some
they
had
then
was
his
who
ran
old
good
there
has
him
them
six
find
over
came
funny
our
where
off
your
her
call
with
just
put
from
its
well
went
as
give
know
when
saw
soon
green
or
now
ride
say
new
under
ask
live
hot
sit
ten
got
let
take
ate
could
how
may
walk
were
if
must
after
don’t
please
cold
pretty
five
why
fall
seven
sing
sleep
us
about
what
white
want
been
made
open
their
very
would
today
cut
eight
keep
every
pick
round
buy
think
does
around
pull
because
read
before
best
any
thank
first
right
tell
which
only
always
fast
try
gave
wish
hold
long
small
again
much
never
these
upon
warm
those
wash
done
light
goes
many
use
show
write
draw
drink
better
bring
carry
clean
laugh
myself
shall
together
far
full
grow
hurt
kind
own
start
once
both
found
work
DOLCH WORD LIST –Prompt Sheet
up
we
a
and
go
I
in
the
to
you
for
red yellow
he
too
look
see
one jump
me
my
it
can
at come
big
she
into
like
blue
all
down
is
four
are
not
little
run
said
do
be
am
so
two
play
no
on
out
an
eat
black
away
but
did
get
help
have
that
by
stop
going
fly
make
here
three
of
yes
this
brown
will
some
they
had then
was
his
who
ran
old
good
there
them
him
six
find
funny
where
call
has
over
came
our
off
your
her
what
with
just
put from
its
well
went
as
give
know
when
saw
soon
green
or
now
ride
ask
live
say
new
under
sit
hot
ten
got
let
take
ate
could
how
may
walk
were
if
must
don’t
cold
after
please
pretty five
fall
seven
sing
us
about
sleep
why
white
want
made
their
open
very
today
eight
would
cut
keep
pick
buy
been
round
think
around
because
best
every
does
pull
read
any
before
thank
first
tell
work
gave
which
only
fast
right
always
try
wish
long
again
these
hold
small
much
upon
never
warm
those
done
goes
wash
light
many
use
show
write
draw
drink
bring
clean
carry
laugh
shall
far
better
together
full
kind
myself
grow
hurt
own
start
found
once
both
Second Grade
Dictation Test
Scoring Standards:
The following story is used for a second grade dictation task. The scores and guidelines given
here are necessary to ensure reliability and validity. In second grade we expect a student to be
learning and applying the orthography (the spelling rules and patterns) of language. For example,
the expectation of oy in boys, er in over, and tt and pp in little and dripping.
You may note partially correct responses in your own analysis. These tell a great deal about the
students’ writing and knowledge of orthography.
The following grid shows the allowable forms for each word/phoneme:
(3)
Th r ee
Th r e
(5)
s t r ea m
s t r ee m
s t r e m
(3)
b oy s
(5)
j u m p e d
(3)
over
(1)
a
(2)
Th e
(4)
w a t e r
w o t e r
(4)
v e r y
v e r e
(3)
a n d
(4)
th e I r
th ey r
th a r
th ai r
th e r
th a r e
th e r e
(3)
f ee t
f e t
f ea t
(3)
w a s
w u s
w a z
w u z
(3)
g o t



(4)
l I tt l e
l I tt u l
(4 )
c o l d
k o l d
(7)
d r I pp I n g
j r I pp I n g
(3)
w e t
Extra letters are not counted
Reversals of letters are not correct if they could represent a different letter
One point is taken off for letters out of order
Total phonemic analysis = 64
Total words accurately spelled = 18
Th r e e
b oy s
1
4
2 3
5
6
j u m p ed
7
8 9 10
w a t er
w a s
v e r y
27 28 29 30
31 32 33
34 35 36 37
d r I pp I n g
w e t.
55 56 57 58 59 60 61
62 63 64
11
o v er
a
l I tt l e
12 13 14
15
16 17 18 19
c o l d
a n d
38 39 40 41 42 43 44
th e I r
s t r ea m.
20 21 22 23 24
f ee t
45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Th e
25
g o t
52 53 54
26
Second Grade
Dictation Test
The scores give some indication of the student’s ability to analyze the word s/he hears or says and to find a
way of recording with letters the sounds that s/he can hear.
The dictation test can be administered 1:1 or in small groups. For more proficient students, a small group
setting of 4 students for administration is acceptable. Each student will need a blank sheet of paper with
their name and date at the top. Make sure that the students cannot copy from each other. The recorder will
need a place to keep track of how the student is responding to words other than standard spellings. If the
student writes “b” for “bus”, the recorder should write that down out of the student’s sight. This will be
useful in evaluating the results when testing is completed. It may be helpful to write the text below the
student’s version when the task is finished.
Say to the student:
“I am going to read a story. When I have read it through once I will read it again very slowly so that you
can write down the words in the story.”
Read the test sentence(s) to the student at normal speed. Then say:
“Some of the words are hard. Say them slowly and think how you can write them. Start writing the words
now.”
Dictate slowly, word by word. When the student comes to a problem word say:
“You say it slowly. How would you start it? What can you hear?”
Then add: “What else can you hear?”
If the student cannot complete the word say: “We’ll leave that word. The next word is…”
Sentence A
Th r e e
b oy s
1
4
2 3
5
j u m p ed
6
7
8 9 10
w a t er
w a s
v e r y
27 28 29 30
31 32 33
34 35 36 37
d r I pp I n g
w e t.
55 56 57 58 59 60 61
62 63 64
11
o v er
a
l I tt l e
12 13 14
15
16 17 18 19
c o l d
a n d
th e I r
38 39 40 41 42 43 44
f ee t
g o t
52 53 54
o n
h e r
m i t t e n s
1 2 3
8 9
10
12 13 14
h e r
6
7
p r e s e n t.
27 28 29 30 31 32 33
h ou s e
a n d
49 50 51
1 2
3 4
5 6
7
e d
24
i t
t o
M i k e’ s
36 37 38
41 42
43 44
45 46 47
s a n g
39
40
“H a p p y
56 57 58
u p
25 2 6
48
B i r th d a y
59
60
61 62 63 64
m y
d o g
S a m m y
ch a s ed
a
r a b b i t
8 9
10 11 12
13 14 15 1
17
21
22 23 24
th e
f r o n t
31 32
33 34 35 36 37
r a b b i t
p i ck
21 22 23
c a r r i e d
35
27 28 329
t h e
a n d
18 19 20
sh e
u n d e r
30
15 16 17
26
34
52 53 54 55
Sentence C
Y e s t e r d a y
11
Th e
25
45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Sentence B
P a t
p u l l e d
4 5
s t r ea m.
20 21 22 23 24
p
o r ch
38 39 40 41
6
18 19 20
25 26
t r i e d
t o
f o l l ow
b u t
42 43 44
46 47
48 49 50
52 53 54
w a s
t oo
s m a r t.
55 56 57
58 59
60 61 62 63 64
45
51
Third Grade
Dictation Test
The scores give some indication of the student’s ability to analyze the word s/he hears or says and to find a
way of recording with letters the sounds that s/he can hear.
The dictation test can be administered 1:1 or in small groups. For more proficient students, a small group
setting of 4 students for administration is acceptable. Each student will need a blank sheet of paper with
their name and date at the top. Make sure that the students cannot copy from each other. The recorder will
need a place to keep track of how the student is responding to words other than standard spellings. If the
student writes “b” for “bus”, the recorder should write that down out of the student’s sight. This will be
useful in evaluating the results when testing is completed. It may be helpful to write the text below the
student’s version when the task is finished.
Say to the student:
“I am going to read a story. When I have read it through once I will read it again very slowly so that you
can write down the words in the story.”
Read the test sentence(s) to the student at normal speed. Then say:
“Some of the words are hard. Say them slowly and think how you can write them. Start writing the words
now.”
Dictate slowly, word by word. When the student comes to a problem word say:
“You say it slowly. How would you start it? What can you hear?”
Then add: “What else can you hear?”
If the student cannot complete the word say: “We’ll leave that word. The next word is…”
Sentence A
Th e
e a g l e
1
2
t h e
3
s c r e a m e d
4 5
6 7 8
g r ou n d.
25 26 27 28 29
9
10
11
a s
i t
12 13
14 15
S u d d e n l y
30 31 32 33 34 35 36
i t
c i r c l e d
16
f l ew
37 38 39
a
m ou s e
w i th
i t s
c l aw s.
46 47 48 49
51
52 53
55 56 57
58 59 60
61 6 2 63 64
54
Sentence B
Th e
n ew s
sh ow e d
t h a t
1
6
9 10 11 12
2
3
4
5
t i g h t
a t
23 24
26 27
w a s
43 44 45
25
c au s
56 47
48
7
8
t h e
t r a
b y
49
50 51
t w o
52
53
c a r s
12 14 15 16
f f i c
28 29 30 31
e d
t h e
32 33
l i g h t s.
34 35
21 22 23 24
d ow n
40 41 42
t r a p p ed
50
a b o v e
17 18 19 20
a n d
43 44 45
w e r e
17
18
T h e
36 37
j a m m e d
19 20 21
t r ou b l e
38 39 40
g a r b a g e
t r u ck s.
54 55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64
41 42
22
Retelling Profile: Literary Elements
Name____________________________________
Date_________
Title and Author of Book____________________________________
Minimal
Information
Moderate
Information
Very
Complete
Theme



Plot



Mood



Tension



Structure



Adapted From Revisit, Reflect, Retell. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Retelling Profile: Plot Structure
Name____________________________________
Date_________
Title and Author of Book____________________________________
Minimal
Very
Information
Complete
1. Provides information about
characters
1
2
3
4
5
2. Describes the setting
1
2
3
4
5
3. Includes main idea, beginning,
middle, end of story
1
2
3
4
5
4. Restates the problem and
solution
1
2
3
4
5
5. Includes a summary or a
generalization
1
2
3
4
5
6. Relates personal knowledge or
experience to the text
1
2
3
4
5
Adapted From Revisit, Reflect, Retell. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Prompts for Retelling Expository Text
What is the topic?
What are the most important ideas to remember?
What did you learn that you didn’t already know?
What is the setting for this information?
What did you notice about the organization and text structure?
What did you notice about the visuals such as graphs, charts, and
pictures?
Can you summarize what you learned?
What do you think was the author’s purpose for writing this article?
from: Revisit, Reflect, Retell, 1999. Heinemann
C.R.I.S.S. & Test Taking
Sample FCAT Item
Performance Demand
Author’s Purpose
Overall Meaning of Text (2-3
pages)
Tell why you answered, with
proof from text
Re-telling story with
elaboration
Paraphrasing
Distinguish/re-state
fact/opinion
Vocabulary:
Fine distinctions of meaning
C.R.I.S.S.
Corresponding Strategies
Power Thinking
QAR #3
One Sentence Summary
Power Thinking
Concept Map
Summary
Opinion Proof
Conclusion Proof
Thesis Proof
Problem-Solution
Story Structure
Summarizing
Frames
Sentence Expansion
Synthesis
Opinion-Proof
Re-writes
Sticky Notes
Opinion Proof
Power Thinking
Frames
Venn
Concept of Definition
Expansion
Synthesis
Sticky Notes
Venn
Frayer
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