United States Presidents 1869-2012
Ulysses S. Grant
President, Republican; Fifteenth Amendment, Union General
during the Civil War, associated in Black Friday, presidency marked in
corruption . Major events during his presidency: Alexander Graham Bell invents the
telephone, Transcontinental Railroad Completed, Opening of the West, The Gilded Age
occurred during his presidency. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was
started in 1873. This group publicized the connection between alcohol and family
violence, unemployment, poverty and disease.
Rutherford B. Hayes
President, Republican, 1876 Presidential election was disputed—he
was called “His Fraudulency.” Major events that happened during his presidency:
Thomas Edison invents the light bulb/electric power, Opening of the West, the Gilded
Age ,John D. Rockefeller started the Standard Oil Trust in 1879, the American
Federation of Labor was created, Great Railroad Strike of 1877, Bland Allison Act1878 directed the US Treasury to purchase between $2 and $4 million dollars worth of
silver each month to be coined into silver dollars.
James A. Garfield
1881-1881, 20th President, Republican, Opening of the West, the Gilded ,the
American Federation of Labor was created in 1881
Chester Arthur
President, Republican, Opening of the West, the Gilded Age ,
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was passed. The entry of Chinese laborers into
the United States was prohibited for 10 years. By 1886, the Knights of Labor
had over 700,000 members. The Immigration Act of 1882 was passed during
his presidency. This prohibited the immigration of criminals, paupers, the
insane or others likely to become public concern. Pendleton Act of 1883 was
passed. This created the Civil Service Commission with three members
appointed by the President. This started the use of competitive exams to
determine the merit of individuals applying for government jobs.
Grover Cleveland
and 24th President, Democrat, American Federation of Labor
& Knights of Labor gained power. Opening of the West,the Gilded Age,
Haymarket Riot 1886-AFL and Knights of Labor went on strike. A bomb was
thrown into the crowd, several were killed and many wounded. The strike was
for an 8-hour work-day. Cleveland was committed to improving the economy.
Populist Party was a third party that arose during his presidency. Their issues
were: 1) supported free and unlimited coinage of silver, 2) supported
government ownership of railroads and telegraph lines, 3) graduated income
tax, 4) direct election of senators, and 5) referendum, initiative and recall
methods. Presidential Act of 1886-established the succession of the presidency
if death or resignation occurred. The succession line fell on the executive
departments. Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed. This established a
5 person agency: The Interstate Commerce Commission which required
railroads to publish their rates and to be reasonable and just. A new
presidential cabinet position was added in 1887: Secretary of Agriculture.
Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890 was passed. This prohibited monopolies. It
declared any business combination that restrained trade illegal. (corporations)
This was not enforced by the courts. Panic of 1893: was an economic
depression that included agricultural depression, decline in the U.S. Gold
Reserve, and unsound railroad financing practices. A railroad in Philadelphia
declared bankruptcy and the gold reserve dropped. Effects of this depression:
banks closed, railroad strikes, unemployment, and violence. 20% of the labor
force was out of work (average is 4 to 5% unemployment). This was the highest
unemployment rates in American history at the time. Coxey’s Army 1893: A
populist businessman, Jacob Coxey, of Ohio advocated a works program that
would put the unemployed to work. Congress did not act on this program and
an army of 500 unemployed workers went to Washington D.C. demanding
$500 million in fiat money to provide jobs for the unemployed. The army was
surrounded by police, Coxey was arrested and the protest failed. Anti-Saloon
League was founded in 1893. This group pushed for a constitutional
Amendment that would prohibit the production and consumption of alcohol.
In 1887 an agreement was renewed to make Pearl Harbor a naval base for the
United States.
2nd Term: Pullman Strike 1894, the Gilded Age, Munn v. Illinois, Pullman
Strike—1894-Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages 25% and the workers
went on strike. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896- separate but equal facilities was
constitutional, Coxey’s Army 1894.
Benjamin Harrison
1889-1893, 23rd President, Republican. Grandson of President William Henry
Harrison McKinley Tariff Act 1890, Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890,
Disability Pension Act 1890, Admission of 6 states 1889-1890, Pan-American
Conference 1890, The National and Women’s Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
was formed. This agency fought for the right for women to vote.
William McKinley
President, Republican, The Gilded Age occurred during his
presidency. He defeated William Jennings Bryan, democrat, in the election of
1896. The democrats and the populist received 47.7% of the votes. Spanish
American War occurred during his presidency. “Splendid Little War of 1898”.
Spain v. United States, U.S. Maine, yellow journalism. Events that led to the
Spanish American War: de Lome letter, sinking of the Maine and yellow
journalism. Effects of the war: Teller Amendment (made Cuba a protectorate of
the United States), Guantanamo Base was established as a USA naval base in
Cuba, Foraker Act 0f 1900 and Jones Act of 1917 made Puerto Rico an
unincorporated territory of the United States, Roosevelt Corollary was started
(made USA the international police), Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty: Panama leased
the Panama Canal to USA, and the united States acquired Guam as a colony.
His presidency brought about tariff increases, the gold standard and economic
betterment. He raised tariffs to 57%, the highest ever. The Gold Standard of
1900: The gold dollar of 25.8 grams became the standard unit of value. The
gold reserve was established at $150,000,000 for redemption in paper
currency. He was shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchists on September 6, 1901.
He died and Theodore Roosevelt became President. He was shot in Buffalo,
New York, while at a Pan-American Exposition. Populist Party started to fade.

United States Presidents 1869-2012 Ulysses S. Grant 1869