AP English Language and Composition Syllabus
Course Description
This college level course is designed for eleventh grade students who already
have a good command of the mechanics of language, the ability to read challenging
works and to discuss writing. They must also be committed to the hard work required at
this level because they are not permitted to drop this course after the initial five weeks
without penalty. At the end of the course all students are required to take the AP
Language and Composition Examination.
In Advanced Placement English Language and Composition, students learn to be
analyzers of language, that is, they become familiar with the various rhetorical modes and
techniques that authors use to communicate meaning. They learn how to use language
more effectively, to think critically and analytically, and to communicate clearly. To
accomplish this goal, students read and write analytical, argumentative, expository and
narrative pieces encompassing both fiction and non-fiction from a wide range of time
periods. Among the non-fiction authors featured are Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther
King, Jr., George Orwell (essays), William Bradford, John Smith, Jonathan Edwards,
Edmund Burke, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Mark Twain, Annie Dillard, and Barbara
Ehrenreich. Thus students read about 75 pages of nonfiction per quarter, primarily essays
and articles. Although the AP Language course is primarily a study of nonfiction, some
fiction lends itself well to helping students practice analysis of diction and syntax and
recognize the relationship between structure and meaning. This is particularly true of
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and William Golding’s Lord of the Flies. Other
writers include Arthur Miller (The Crucible) and some selections of poetry by Anne
Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, William Yeats and Thomas Hardy. Study of these works also
assists students in preparing for the New York State Comprehensive Regents
Examination that they are required to take in June.
The central textbooks of this course are 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology;
Student’s Book of College English: Rhetoric, Readings, Handbook; and the eleventh
grade literature textbook Literature: The American Experience. Summer reading includes
Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Erhenreich and 1984 by George Orwell.
Students come to understand that reading in this course always involves
annotation. In close, analytical reading, students annotate passages both independently
and in small groups. To provide a general focus for analysis, they are encouraged to use
such strategies as SOAPSTone and the “What, How, Why model. Through both reading
and writing, students become more aware of how authors accomplish their purpose
through the tools of language, such as diction, syntax, and tone.
They write in a variety of ways, including expository, narrative, and
argumentative modes, paying attention to their own audience, purpose, style, and voice.
Through assignments of varying length and purpose, students are expected to write and
revise an average of 50 pages per quarter. Informal writing includes reflective pieces,
descriptive outlines of their own essays, journal entries, and responses to visual art and
graphic material. For the first two quarters, at least one weekly paper is formal, untimed,
and usually involves a 3-4 page analysis or argument. Once student analytical abilities
and rhetorical skills have been developed, the third and fourth quarter focus to a greater
degree on timed essays.
Writing Process: The writing process is similar for each essay. In order to help
students become comfortable with the tools of language, after individual or group close
reading and annotation of a prose piece, we engage in class discussion of the resources of
language employed by the writer. Students are introduced to the rubric by which their
essay will be evaluated and then write a first draft of the essay. This draft is corrected and
graded. Teacher written remarks focus on logical, detailed support for points, smooth
integration of quotations, cohesion, precise choice of diction, development of a concise
writing style and individual voice. Student models illustrating these factors are then
presented and discussed. At this point students have individual conferences with the
teacher and may revise their essays as often as they desire. They frequently submit their
essays to one another for peer evaluation before turning in revisions. Teacher comments,
noting improvements and making suggestions for further enhancing argument or style,
accompany each revision. During the third quarter, with the greater emphasis on timed
essays and as students have become more familiar with elements of style, less time is
devoted to class discussion prior to writing the essay. However, models, peer and teacher
conferencing, written teacher comments, and revision continue to be important
techniques in developing student skills of analysis and argument and in their
enhancement of style.
Grammar: Formal instruction in grammar is given as needed from College
English and handouts. Topics generally covered in the first quarter of the year include
misplaced modifiers, dangling participles, pronoun reference, avoidance of passive voice,
use of who/whom, parallel structure, use and punctuation of quotations, and use of the
possessive case with a gerund. Development of concise style is encouraged through
formal instruction and modeling from professional and student writers.
Vocabulary: In addition to developing a higher level of vocabulary from
challenging reading, students engage in limited, formal study of vocabulary,
approximately 75 words per quarter.
Evaluation: Students are evaluated based on the following breakdown: Formal
Writing Assignments 70%; Oral presentations, Informal Writing assignments such as
journals 20%; Homework 5%; Vocabulary 5%.
Topics covered in the course are listed in the approximate order in which they are
addressed during the year.
Introduction to Rhetoric
Summer Reading
Students have read Nickel and Dimed and 1984 for summer reading. For Nickel
and Dimed they are asked to keep a response journal. The assignment for 1984 involves
writing two essays, one focusing on how the society of 1984 destroyed the concept of
objective truth and the other explaining how the Party accomplished its goal of
dehumanizing the individual.
We begin with Nickel and Dimed as a basis for discussion of elements of style
including word choice, tone, and choice of detail. Students explore how Ehrenreich uses
these techniques to further her argument and appeal to her audience. Students are
introduced to SOAPSTone as a tool for analysis. They apply this tool to several pages of
Erhenreich’s preface and communicate their findings in class discussions and in an
informal essay. They are then introduced to the role of the persuasive appeals in
argument and analyze, both verbally and in written form, how Erhenrich uses these
appeals to communicate her purpose. During the process, annotation of text is modeled to
ensure that students understand its purpose and utility. For example, they are given an
unannotated copy of “The Whistle” by Benjamin Franklin from “Workshop Materials for
AP English Language and Composition.” They are asked to annotate the text with a view
to discussing the purpose of the letter and the tools of language Franklin employs to
achieve his purpose. They are then presented with the annotated version for comparison
with their own.
Nickel and Dimed Major Paper:
Applying their work on previous assignments and discussion, students write an
analysis of a different section of Nickel and Dimed explaining how Ehrenreich uses the
rhetorical elements we have discussed to craft her argument and appeal to her audience.
Students are expected to use MLA format to document direct and indirect citations.
Evaluation and revision of the paper follows the procedure described above in “writing
1984 Major Assignment:
Discussion of 1984 focuses on the issues brought up in their essays written over
the summer, with particular emphasis on the role of language control in the society of
Students watch the 1984 Super Bowl Macintosh advertisement and discuss how
various aspects such as lack of color, costumes, and chanting correspond to Orwell’s
depiction of the inhabitants of Oceania. Students then write an essay analyzing the ad on
its own merits: how it uses such elements as visual images, sound, color, camera shots,
and movement to accomplish its purpose.
Advice of Writers: Initial Assignment
Students read “Dialogue: Giving Good Advice—How to Write” from The Brief
Arlington Reader. This work presents short excerpts from interviews and the
introspection of well-known authors who reflect on the craft of writing. Authors included
are Roger Rosenblatt, James Thurber, Rita Mae Brown, Ernest Hemingway, Peter Elbow,
Anne Lamott, Donald M. Murray, George Orwell, Natalie Goldberg, Jane Kenyon,
Katherine Anne Porter, and Wendy Bishop. In their journals, students write about the
advice that they found most thought provoking and beneficial for them as they consider
their own development as writers.
Development and practice of rhetorical analysis skills
Multiple Choice Questions
Using primarily the SOAPSTone method of analysis, students are required to read
and annotate one essay per week from 50 Essays. As one method of preparing for the
multiple choice questions on the AP exam, they complete the multiple choice questions
that accompany each selection and correct the answers individually from an answer key.
In their journals, they note which questions they answered incorrectly, reflect on the
reason for their choice, and suggest reasons why the correct answer is more appropriate.
Questions that still present difficulty are discussed in class.
In order to help students understand how multiple choice questions are helping
them “unpack the text,” they are presented with the excerpt from Edmund Burke’s
Reflections on the Revolution in France as found in “Workshop Materials for AP English
Language and Composition.” They are asked to analyze and annotate the text and are
then given the multiple choice questions to answer. We discuss the process of annotation
to help students come to the realization that the questions are focusing them on elements
they should be noting as they read.
Development and practice of rhetorical analysis skills
Individual Choice Essays
Topics for writing are presented at the end of each essay in 50 Essays. In addition
to the writing tasks required for the class as a whole, students are asked to choose two
pieces each quarter and complete an essay on the suggested topic for each work.
Persuasive Essays
Students are asked to analyze a series of persuasive non-fiction works. They begin
by discussing and then writing an analysis of “The Gettysburg Address,” focusing on
how Lincoln utilizes structure, choice of detail, persuasive appeals, diction, repetition and
tone to develop his argument. In their journals, students evaluate excerpts from Everett’s
speech given on the same day by comparing/ contrasting its rhetorical techniques with
those of Lincoln’s address. In small groups they then share their findings.
Students write an analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
In class discussion, we focus on how and why King uses some of Lincoln’s structure and
diction. In their essays, students note not only King’s climactic argument construction but
also the relationship between his audience and his choice of rhetorical devices, including
diction, allusion, example, repetition, and persuasive appeals.
Students write an analysis of an excerpt from Jonathan Edwards’s sermon
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” They are asked to discuss Edwards’s purpose
and how he uses structure, persuasive appeals, diction, tone and figurative language to
achieve the goal of his argument.
Students read Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” and use the response
journal format to reflect on his points. They are then asked to choose at least two
examples of political speeches from current media and in an argument paper discuss
whether Orwell’s analysis of the language of politics is still valid.
Comparison and Contrast
After writing several essays analyzing individual persuasive works, students begin
to compare and contrast writers’ purposes and the rhetorical tools they employ to achieve
those purposes.
In the chapter “Comparison and Contrast” from College English, students read
about various ways of constructing a comparison/contrast essay and then analyze
professional models such as Bruce Catton’s “Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts” and
works written on a similar topic including William Zinsser’s “Speaking of Writing” and
Mohan Sivanand’s “Why I Write Wrong.” Students note such elements as patterns of
organization, creation of coherence, and choice of detail. They then read excerpts from
two narratives: The General History of Virginia by John Smith and Of Plymouth
Plantation by William Bradford. We discuss how style reveals the purposes for which
these historical accounts were written and how diction and choice of events reveal the
subjective views of the writers. Students then construct a thesis comparing and/or
contrasting the rhetorical techniques each author employs to accomplish his purpose.
Students read “Speech in the Virginia Convention” by Patrick Henry and Thomas
Paine’s “The Crisis, Number 1.” In an analytical paper, they compare and contrast the
purposes of these two revolutionaries and the rhetorical tools such as persuasive appeals,
choice of arguments, diction, and syntax each man chooses to sway his audience.
Comparison/ Contrast and Timed Essays
Once students have become familiar with rhetorical techniques authors use to
achieve their purpose and have some experience analyzing these techniques in longer
papers, timed essays now begin to be integrated into the curriculum. For the first group of
about five essays, students are allowed to prepare their thoughts before actually writing
the essay under timed conditions. Starting with the January mid-term, however, all timed
essays are written under AP examination time restrictions. Gradually integrating timed
essays allows students to build their confidence and expertise for both their mid-term,
which includes an analytical and an argumentative piece, and for the AP Language and
Composition Examination.
Already familiar with SOAPSTone, students enhance their repertoire of strategies
for analyzing non-fiction with the introduction of “What, How, Why,” a three column
graphic method of organizing material for comparing/contrasting passages with a similar
topic. In small groups, for example, students might use this framework to analyze “On
War” by James Boswell and an excerpt from Chapter XXIV of Steven Crane’s The Red
Badge of Courage. For each selection they write important words or phrases that indicate
“What” the passage is about; they list the rhetorical devices each author employs in the
“How” column and, for the “Why” column, offer reasons why the author employs these
rhetorical tools. They then write the essay in a forty minute class period: “Considering
such elements as diction, choice of detail, figurative language and tone, discuss how
Crane and Boswell use elements of language to establish their particular perspectives on
For the next few timed essays, students are again allowed to prepare their
thoughts either in a homework assignment or in small group class discussion, perhaps
using the “Think, Pair, Share” format. For reinforcement purposes, they are asked to
utilize the “What, How, Why” organizer to focus their analysis. Another timed essay
might involve their reading two passages, written ten years apart, on the destructive
effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. They would then be asked to discuss how the
timing of each author’s visit affected the style in which his passage was written. Yet
another prepared, timed essay might ask students to respond to a question from the 2003
AP exam which asks them to compare and contrast Dillard’s and Audubon’s styles.
At intervals throughout the year, students write a minimum of fifteen timed essays
modeled on the free response questions of the AP Language Exam. For questions actually
taken from previous AP exams, after writing their essays, students read the student model
essays evaluated by AP raters. They are asked to rate them according to the AP rubric
and then read the rating and comments offered by the AP evaluators. Thus they are
offered a basis upon which to evaluate their own essays.
Web sites and visual texts
As part of honing their research skills, students read “Arguments in Electronic
Environments” from Everything’s an Argument. They are introduced to criteria for
evaluating Web sites, such as noting their visual and aural elements, persuasive devices,
links, graphic layout, source, and updates.
They are also introduced to strategies for analyzing “visual arguments.” In small
groups, students are presented with visual texts that present a position on an issue. They
analyze the text using the OPTIC (Overview, Parts, Title, Interrelationships, Conclusion)
strategy and noting the use of persuasive appeals. Finally, students choose an
argumentative topic, find a minimum of three Web sites that make argumentative claims
on that topic and then, in an essay, explain why the Web-based arguments are effective or
Use of humor to develop an argument
To achieve a basic understanding of the use of humor as a rhetorical form,
students read the chapter “Humorous Arguments” from Everything’s an Argument.
They then read Mark Twain’s “A Presidential Candidate,” discuss it in small
groups, and write individual essays, analyzing the techniques he utilizes to satirize the
typical political campaign speech.
After discussing some historical background, they read Swift’s “A Modest
Proposal,” noting his use of persuasive appeals, exaggeration, choice of examples,
diction, and other methods through which he creates his rational persona and ironic tone.
We examine how Swift crafts his argument, including his refutation of opposing points of
view. Finally, students draw these elements together in a formal analytical essay
discussing how Swift’s use of satire communicates his point.
In small groups, students then examine more contemporary examples of satire
from various media. Each group must analyze one example from print media such as
articles found in The Onion, and one example from electronic media such as videotapes
from The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, The Colbert Report, and episodes of Homer
Simpson. For the examples from electronic media, they discuss the contribution not only
of word choice, but also of visuals, tone of voice and body language to the creation of
satire. Each group then makes a 10-15 minute presentation of their findings to the class.
Continuing with the custom of interspersing sample, free response, timed essays
whenever relevant, students answer the question from the 2005 AP Language Exam that
asks them to analyze the strategies used to satirize how products are marketed to
consumers in a mock press release from The Onion. Once again, before students actually
receive their grades, the model essays are provided, so that students can evaluate them
and then compare their ratings with the evaluations of the AP raters. This practice helps
students become more perceptive about the strengths and weaknesses of their own
Synthesis Essays
To introduce them to the Puritan culture they will encounter in The Scarlet Letter
and to give practice in writing synthesis essays, students read and discuss Anne
Bradstreet’s “To My Dear and Loving Husband” and “Upon the Burning of Our House,
Edward Taylor’s “Huswifery,” and an excerpt from Jonathan Edwards’ sermon “Sinners
in the Hands of an Angry God.” They are also referred to William Bradford’s excerpt
from Of Plymouth Plantation that they have read earlier. They complete the following
assignment: “The works of Edwards, Bradstreet, Taylor, and William Bradford reveal the
values and beliefs of their Puritan culture. In a well-written essay, choose a minimum of
3 authors and analyze how each author’s use of rhetorical strategies and literary devices
reveal these values. Be sure to use MLA format to document your citations.”
Throughout the year, students continue to write essays and research papers that
require them to synthesize several works to support an argument. Some of these essays
are part of the body of timed essays they are required to write during the course. One
such essay, for example, presents them with three selections: an excerpt from The History
of Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, “In Time of ‘The Breaking of Nations’” by Thomas
Hardy, and “Politics” by William Butler Yeats. They are then asked to develop a thesis
on the effects of war and support it by referring to the works and to the rhetorical tools
each author uses to communicate his position.
The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
First, students are introduced to Hawthorne’s place in the Romantic and
Transcendental movements. They note that just as Ehrenreich had a purpose in writing
the preface to Nicked and Dimed, so Hawthorne had a purpose in writing “The Custom
House.” We discuss the four phases of its structure as explained by John E. Becker in
Readings on The Scarlet Letter. We note how Hawthorne departs from the traditional first
or third person relationship with the reader, in which the author wants the reader to be
completely immersed in his world. Hawthorne, on the contrary, wants the reader to look
at his world from the outside, to stand apart and look at its meaning.
In annotating, students are asked to note such topics as Hawthorne’s structuring the
novel around scaffold scenes and characters and the effect of that structure on meaning;
Hawthorne’s motifs; places where Hawthorne’s voice as author is evident; influences of
Romanticism (in Nature’s reflection of man’s mood, for example); literary devices
particularly irony, allusion, figurative language, parallelism, symbolism, contrast; and the
creation of mood through diction and imagery.
In addition to answering questions on the novel as they read, each student is assigned
one chapter upon which to focus and must present to the class an analysis of several
passages from that chapter. Their presentation must relate the content of the passages to
the rest of the chapter, explain the purpose of the passages, (for example, how they are
related to themes or motifs of the novel, whether they enhance characterization or mood),
and analyze the stylistic devices Hawthorne uses to communicate his point. This
assignment is designed to allow students to understand the deliberate way that an author
crafts his work: the author’s diction and tone, rhetoric, and figurative connotations of
words create his message.
Finally students are asked to write an argumentative, synthesis paper of 5-7 pages
on a topic related to the novel. They must support their position with references to a
minimum of four secondary sources, only one of which may be a website. Students must
cite all information according to MLA guidelines.
Suggested topics include the following:
 In Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the main character says
that he has been “make to learn that the doom and burthen of our life is bound
forever on a man’s shoulders, and when the attempt is made to cast it off, it but
returns upon us with more unfamiliar and more awful pressure.” Basing your
response on The Scarlet Letter, explore the validity of the assertion that human
beings are ultimately unable to liberate themselves from their fates.
 Take a position on the identity of Hester’s antagonist and prove the validity of
your assertion.
 Explore the validity of the following statement by Aeschylus as it applies to the
characters in The Scarlet Letter. “In our sleep, pain that cannot forget falls drop
by drop upon the heart and in our own despair, against our will, comes wisdom
through the awful grace of God.”
Write a thesis paper in which you construct and prove an argument from the
novel. For example, a student might argue that Roger Chillingworth’s obsession
for Hester Prynne motivates his unhealthy attachment to Reverend Dimmesdale.
For all research papers, students are graded according to the following rubric:
Rubric for Grading Research Papers
 You have a good thesis that explains what you plan to argue
 Your paper defends and supports this thesis well and consistently
 Your organization is logical and coherent
 You have the correct number of sources
 You found good sources and you quote them effectively and sufficiently 10
 Your in-text parenthetical citations are correct
 The quoted material is integrated smoothly into your own text
 You quote adequately and effectively from the story itself
 Your “Works Cited” is formatted correctly
 You follow the conventions of standard formal written English
During the early stages of their work, they share their deliberations over their
research in classroom-based study groups. After writing a first draft, they have the
opportunity to conference with the teacher to discuss the development of their arguments
and their use of secondary sources.
The Crucible
Arthur Miller
While reading The Crucible, students respond in their journals to five or six
questions offered for their consideration in each act and reflect on the characters or issues
presented. Some examples of questions to which they are asked to respond include the
following: Ascertain from Act 1 the prevalent philosophy of Salem during the time in
which the play is set; What is the dramatic purpose of John Proctor’s discovery of
Elizabeth’s reprieve? What dramatic functions does Giles serve in Act III? Describe how
Miller uses irony at the climax of the play; Is Proctor a hero in your eyes? At the end of
each act they share their reflections with one another in small group discussion.
After concluding the play, students read Miller’s essay “Why I Wrote The Crucible:
An Artist’s Answer to Politics.” They are required to write a 5-7 page research paper on
one of the following topics or on a topic of their choice that receives teacher approval:
 Values and attitudes resulting in the Salem witch trials as presented by Miller in
The Crucible
 The Crucible: a Metaphor for the McCarthy Hearings
They must use six to eight secondary sources, three of which may be websites. All
citations must follow the MLA format.
Student work is evaluated according to the “Rubric for Grading Research Papers”
described above.
Lord of the Flies
William Golding
Students are expected to annotate the novel with the goal of answering the
following “Essential Questions”: What is the nature of the beast? What is the nature
of Jack’s and Ralph’s leadership? What qualities must the citizens of a democracy
and of a dictatorship possess in order for these forms of government to survive? They
are expected to note how Golding structures his novel in order to answer these
questions, for example, his careful delineation of Jack’s and Ralph’s regression and
thus his step by step revelation of the beast.
Each student is assigned a chapter upon which he/she must write a journal entry.
The journal entry consists of 5 columns: Key Events which include the major plot
events of the chapter; Jack in which the student adopts Jack’s persona and responds to
each event with Jack’s reaction and voice; Ralph in which the student assumes
Ralph’s persona and responds to the key events with Ralph’s reaction and voice; and
Personal Reaction in which the student, in his/her own voice, comments on both the
events and on the characters’ responses. In the few chapters when neither Jack nor
Ralph is present, students choose the character upon whom Golding focuses, for
example, Simon or Piggy. Whenever relevant, the Personal Reaction column must
include the student’s thoughts on the following: What implication is Golding making
about the kind of leadership necessary for effective governing? What are the
implications for democracy in Golding’s view? In a fifth column, Tools of Language,
students choose examples of Golding’s diction that they find noteworthy and explain
its function in the chapter. Students are given a model journal entry for the first
chapter of the novel and a rubric delineating the bases upon which their work will be
evaluated. Students share their entries with each other. Class discussion focuses on
reasons they adopted a particular voice for a character and the tools of language
Golding uses to communicate the key events. For example, at one point, when
Golding recounts how Jack persuaded the boys to join him in a hunt, he writes, “The
mask compelled them.”(italics mine) We discuss the layers of meaning
communicated in Golding’s choice of “mask” rather than “Jack compelled
them.”(italics mine)
After reading the novel, students work in groups to analyze one of the following
topics and, using PowerPoint or another form of visual presentation, teach the topic to
the class. Each analysis depends on very specific support from the novel as well as
from any secondary sources they choose to use. Students are expected to give page
references from the novel and full MLA citations from secondary sources.
Topics for this presentation:
 The nature of the beast or “Why civilization on the island falls apart”
 Acts of civilization
 The regression of Ralph
 The regression of Jack
 The characterization of Piggy and Simon
In presenting their analysis, students are expected to point out the rhetorical
devices Golding employs to construct meaning. For example, they note his use of
symbolism when discussing Piggy’s characterization and his imagery and syntax
when depicting the killing of the sow.
As the culmination of their study of Lord of the Flies, students write a synthesis,
research paper of 8-10 pages. They must use a minimum of six secondary sources
cited according to MLA format. Students are graded according to the “Rubric for
Grading Research Papers.”
General topics for this paper:
 The nature of human nature according to William Golding
 Analysis of Jack’s style of leadership
 Analysis of Ralph’s style of leadership
 Strengths and weaknesses of democracy according to William Golding
Students are given some direction concerning points they might consider in their
 For “the nature of human nature,” reflect upon the following: the good
qualities of human nature that Golding portrays (consider boys like Piggy,
Simon, Ralph); the evil qualities of human nature that Golding presents
(analyze the evil actions performed on the island and ascertain the desires
that give rise to them; you need to understand why things “break up” like
they do; you need to consider the various reasons the boys follow Jack).
 For the analysis of Jack’s and Ralph’s leadership, consider the following:
the strengths of Jack’s/Ralph’s style of leadership; the negative qualities or
disadvantages of Jack’s/Ralph’s style of leadership; the characteristics of
citizens who live in Jack’s/Ralph’s society; the fate of Jack’s/Ralph’s
society as suggested by Golding
 For the strengths and weaknesses of democracy, consider the following:
strengths and weaknesses of Ralph’s leadership; strengths and weaknesses
of Jack’s leadership; necessary characteristics of citizens of a democracy.
Course Texts
Cohen, Samuel. 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s,
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York:
Henry Holt, 2001.
Golding, William. Lord of the Flies Casebook Edition, Text, Notes & Criticism. Ed.
James R. Baker and Arthur P. Ziegler, Jr. New York: Berkley Publishing,
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Bantam Dell, 2003.
Literature: The American Experience, Paramount Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 1994.
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: New American Library, 1977.
Shee, Renee H., and Lawrence Scanlon. Teaching Nonfiction in AP English: A Guide to
Accompany 50 Essays. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
Squire, David, and Harvey S. Wiener. Student’s Book of College English: Rhetoric,
Readings, Handbook. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2005.
Course Supplements/Teacher Resources
Aaron, Jane E. The Little, Brown Compact Handbook. 5th ed. New York: Longman,
Bloom, Lynn Z., and Louise Z. Smith, eds. The Brief Arlington Reader: Canons and
Contexts. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004.
Brassil, John, Sandra Coker, and Carl Glover, Ph.D. Writing the Synthesis Essay. Saddle
Brook: Peoples Education, 2008.
College Board. Advanced Placement Program: Professional Development for English
Language and Composition. New York: College Entrance Examination Board,
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: Sixth Edition. USA:
Modern Language Association of America, 2003.
Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s an
Argument. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004.
Pauk, Walter. How to Study in College. 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
Vogel, Richard, and Charles F. Winans. Multiple Choice and Free-Response Questions
in Preparation for the AP English Language and Composition Examination.
5th ed. New York: D & S Marketing Systems, 2001.