Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Centro Tecnológico
Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica
Coordenadoria de Estágio do Curso de Engenharia Mecânica
CEP 88040-970 - Florianópolis - SC - BRASIL
www.emc.ufsc.br/estagiomecanica
[email protected]
INTERNSHIP REPORT – 3/3
Activities developed in the Body Vehicle department
BMW Motorcycle Development Center
03/06/2009 to 03/08/2009
BMW Motorrad A.G.
This report contains confidential information and protected from disclosure.
It must be used only for the purpose of evaluating the student.
Student: Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Tutor: Dipl. -Ing. Hans Wolfmüller
UFSC Tutor: Prof. Dr. -Ing. Lauro César Nicolazzi
Munich - Germany, August 6th 2009
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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1.
Introduction
This report presents the activities developed by the academic Thiago Schimmelpfennig during
his period of practical training at BMW’s Research and Innovation Center in Munich, Germany. The
internship takes place in the Motorcycles Development Department, in the division of Body Vehicle
Engineering – UX-EK-1.
The last two months of the internship were priory based on the modeling of new seat
surfaces and components with the software CATIA V5, based on the knowledge acquired in the first 4
months of internship. One vehicle seat was completely developed during this time and other vehicle was
structured in the project three of the company (see first report), with the purpose of construction space
delimitation.
As every semester the department and the company receives new interns which need to
learn about the details and construction of the components, this report is going to be a brief tutorial
about how to model motorcycle seats in the software CATIA V5 with solids and GSD1, in order to be used
as an source of information for the new interns of the department.
1
Generative Shape Design – Tool for surface project in the software CATIA V5.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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2.
Index
1.
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2
2.
Index............................................................................................................................................ 3
3.
The Software CATIA V5 ............................................................................................................... 4
3.1.
CAD/CATIA V5 ........................................................................................................................ 4
3.2.
Working Area ......................................................................................................................... 5
3.3.
Packages of the software ....................................................................................................... 6
3.3.1.
Part Design ..................................................................................................................... 6
3.3.2.
Generative Shape Design ............................................................................................... 6
3.3.3.
Assembly Design ............................................................................................................ 7
3.3.4.
Drawings......................................................................................................................... 7
4.
Constructing a motorcycle seat with CATIA V5 .......................................................................... 8
4.1.
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 8
4.2.
Construction of the seat surface............................................................................................ 8
4.2.1.
General information about the construction................................................................. 8
4.2.2.
Creation of the Seat Surface .......................................................................................... 8
4.3.
Construction of the seat tool ............................................................................................... 13
4.3.1.
Initial considerations .................................................................................................... 13
4.3.2.
Creation of the Seat Tool skeleton............................................................................... 13
4.3.3.
Creating the seat tool surface and solid ...................................................................... 14
4.3.4.
Reinforcing the structure ............................................................................................. 15
5.
Conclusions concerning the students learning ......................................................................... 16
6.
References ................................................................................................................................ 16
7.
Appendix ................................................................................................................................... 17
7.1.
Shared Main Operations ...................................................................................................... 17
7.2.
Part Design/Solids ................................................................................................................ 17
7.3.
Generative Shape Design ..................................................................................................... 18
7.4.
Assembly Design .................................................................................................................. 20
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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3.
The Software CATIA V5
3.1.
CAD/CATIA V5
Starting in the late 1980s, the development of readily affordable Computer-Aided Design
programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in drafting
departments in many small to mid-size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator could readily
replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many engineers began to
do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional drafting departments. This trend
mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally performed by a secretary as word
processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. became standard software packages that "everyone" was
expected to learn.
For the mechanical design of the products BMW uses the software CATIA V5. CATIA V5 is
suitable to a variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, industrial machinery, electrical,
electronics, shipbuilding, plant design, and consumer goods. The toolkits of the software are specifically
designed for structured companies which have an extended product development cycle. Some
important advantages of the software are:
 Provides an integrated suite of Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Engineering
(CAE), and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) applications for digital product definition
and simulation;
 Addresses the complete product development process, from product concept specifications
through product-in-service, in a fully integrated and associative manner;
 Facilitates true collaborative engineering across the multidisciplinary extended enterprise,
including style and form design, mechanical design, equipment and systems engineering,
digital mock-up, machining, analysis, and simulation;
 Enables enterprises to reuse product design knowledge and accelerate development cycles;
 Helps companies to speed their responses to market needs and frees users to focus on
creativity and innovation.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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3.2.
Working Area
The Working Area of the software is extremely friendly and well structured, in order to make
every operation in the model easy and fast. The software also allows the user to create his private
desktop with keyboard or icon shortcuts. In the Picture 1 it is possible to have an idea about the position
of each tool in the software CATIA V5. A brief description of each component is listed below.
Picture 1 - Overview of CATIA V5 working area
 (1) Main Menu: Tool bar where all the operations and menus are listed.
 (2) Definition of the Workbench: Enables the user to select between the different workbenches.
 (3) File options: Shortcuts for the basic operations like new file, save, return and printing.
 (4) View bar: Selection of different views, hide components and rendering style.
 (5) Hided Icons: Toolbars which are hidden.
 (6) Structure three: With a history of the model, it contains all the operations and need to be
well organized for a good construction.
 (7) Model: Place where the real model is being constructed
 (8) Main planes: The reference planes created with the coordinate system.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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 (9) Compass: Used for movement and orientation during the modeling process.
 (10) “In-use” workbench: All the toolbars of the selected workbench.
 (11) Coordinate System: Based in three main axis (x,y,z), it is used as a reference for the
modeling.
3.3.
Packages of the software
CATIA V5 works with many different environments and workbenches. Many of those
workbenches have a very special application in some industrial segments, therefore we can list 4
workbenches which are the most common ones and almost always used by mechanical designers. The
Picture 2 illustrates those workbenches. In the Appendix 7- page 17 - there is a list with almost all the
important tools of CATIA V5, with its respective icon in the software. This appendix will be used as a
resource for the explanation about the construction in the next session.
Picture 2 - CATIA V5 most used workbenches
3.3.1. Part Design
This is the most common Workbench for all the CAD software and where the model normally
starts. With this WB the user can easily create solids basically based on sketches. The initial step for this
WB is the extrude command, which creates the firs solid. Up to this first solid several other operations
can be performed such as the creation of holes, fillets, shells of threads. On the other hand, when the
model requires more complex shapes, mainly related to the new design trends, the WB to be used is the
Generative Shape Design, combined with the Part Design WB.
3.3.2. Generative Shape Design
This tool is very important and is one of the biggest differentials of CATIA to the other CAD/CAM
software available on the market. With GSD the designer can create parametric surfaces with special
tools and easily come to parts with complex geometry. CATIA enable designers to incorporate surface
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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models into solid objects, sewing the shapes to make a unified product model. By the combination of
surface and solid-modeling techniques the range of geometries which is possible to model grows
significantly. This tool is also very important when a visual smooth and differentiate visual design is
required, such as the revetment parts of the UX-EK department.
3.3.3. Assembly Design
This workbench is used once the individual parts are already modeled and need to be assembled
in a final product. The product has a special extension and it supports the creation of constrains
between the components, such as parallelism, concentricity, coincidence among others. In a product it is
also possible to change the reference position of a component and also to duplicate the position. This
way each instance will have its own position in the structure and they can be added or removed without
any alteration in the structure of the part. In spite of being very helpful, the upload of structures with
links and constrains is forbidden in the main three of BMW.
3.3.4. Drawings
Once the components, parts or assemblies are already modeled, it is possible, with the drawing
tool, to create a professional file with all the engineering information of the object. The creation of this
drawing is made with special tools and workbenches. It can be automatically or manually created, with
the addition of any extra-information that the mechanical designer wants.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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4.
Constructing a motorcycle seat with CATIA V5
4.1.
Introduction
As previously discussed, this report is a short tutorial about how to construct simple motorcycle
seats with CATIA V5, mainly to be uploaded as “Dummies” in the development three. This creation is
very important in the pre-project phase because it gives a perfect idea about the dimensions and the
shapes required for the final project. In the next sessions it is possible to find a detailed description
about the construction of each element and all the explanation is going to be linked to the Appendix 7,
where all the tools are listed. This report is recommended to users with an “intermediary” knowledge
with the software CATIA.
4.2.
Construction of the seat surface
4.2.1. General information about the construction
As this report is going to introduce a technique to model surfaces and parts, some information is
important at beginning to avoid questions and doubts. It is important to know that:
 The seat surface is modeled according to very restricted measurements and parameters – do
not forget to check all the values when you are constructing your structure.
 For the model of the surface, it is necessary to create an initial skeleton.
 All the construction is usually made on one side and after mirrored to the other side, as it is
symmetrical.
 Always organize your construction in geometrical sets. Make it easy for changes in your
model three.
4.2.2. Creation of the Seat Surface
The first step on the construction is the “spine” of the seat. This line is the basic reference for all
the further model and need to be very well constructed. It needs to contain information about the
shape of the seat and the height position, which is usually located in the motorcycle´s project targets. In
the Picture 3 it is possible to see three different spines for seats. The lowest one is for the extra-low
seat. The green line in the middle is the normal seat and the red line is the high seat. It is important to
have all those lines in the same sketch to easily compare the different seats during the project phase.
The inclination of the curves is also determined and it is located in special target-files like illustrated in
the Picture 5 - j. To create this initial sketch the tool to be used is the 7.1.1 and the height is always
measured from the DIN-LEER Plane2, located in the project three. The sketch can be a combination of
connection curves (7.3.5) and lines (7.1.3) and is created in the XZ plane.
2
The DIN-LEER Plane is one of the project planes used for the construction of the motorcycle. It represents the ground relative
position of the bike without any load. There are also other planes like the full plane and the normal plane.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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Picture 3 - Initial Sketch with the different high values of the motorcycle seat
Once the reference spine for all the seat positions is completed, it is time to model the seat
surface. For this construction, there is also a target drawing with some measurements (Picture 5 – j). The
first step in the construction of the surface is the creation of a support skeleton. For the skeleton one of
the lines from the Picture 3 needs to be extracted (7.3.10). The next step is to add several points (7.1.2)
into the line and in each point two perpendicular planes (7.1.4). Those planes are going to be the
reference for the construction lines. To add the points, try to use as much as possible the same position
of the connections in the previous sketch – this will make the surface cleaner. The result of this
procedure is shown in the Picture 4. Remember to always separate the construction in different
geometrical sets in order to make the arrangement easy on the construction structure.
Picture 4 - Main Spine for the seat development with direction planes for the structure.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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Further in the construction of the skeleton, each of the planes perpendicular to the spine are
going to be used as support for constructions, which are going to be the “ribs” of the skeleton. The
Picture 5 shows exactly how to construct those ribs and all of them need to contain the same
geometry/construction, but with different parameters/values. For those constructions it is also possible
to make sketches, however this option is not advised because it is not so practical to make changes.
For each plane it is necessary to construct 5 lines - Picture 5 (c;d;e;g;h) - with the extrude
command (7.3.12). The point at the end of the “e” line is then going to be connected to the point “a”,
with a tangency relation with the line “c” – tool (7.3.5). A similar curve is going to be created between
the point at the end of the line “e” and the point at the end of the line “h”, with tangency relation with
the previous connection curve – “f”. This is going to be the curve “i”. Remember that this procedure
needs to be repeated for all the planes created, so you are going to have 10 “ribs” for the model shown
in the Picture 4. At the end, both the black points in the Picture 5 need to be connected with a spline
(7.3.27). The result of the complete skeleton is shown in the Picture 5 – l.
Picture 5 - Structuring the lines for the main surface.
Now that the skeleton is ready, it is time to create the main surface of the seat. This surface is
created with the “Multi-sections surface” tool (7.3.19), which is very powerful in CATIA GSD. The Multisections surface can represents a small complexity in its use, so it is recommended to practice with
simple surfaces before its use in the skeleton of the seat. The result for the surface is represented on the
Picture 6.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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Picture 6 - Final structure before the creation of the main surface.
Picture 7 - Final procedures in the modeling of the seat surface.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
Page 12 of 20
Once the multi-section surface is ready, the entire seat surface is almost finished. As a further
step an extrapolation must be done with the under edge of the surface. This procedure is executed with
the tool (7.3.11) and its result is observed in the Picture 7 - a. In the same picture it is possible to see the
next step, which is the mirror of the surface – tool (7.3.18). After this step both sides must be joined
with the join tool (7.3.17).
The last step in the creation of the seat surface is the cut with the boundary of the seat. For this
procedure you need to create a sketch with the side view of the seat in the XZ plane. This sketch can be
extruded with the tool (7.3.12) to both sides until it full intercepts the main surface. The cut of the main
surface is done with the extruded surface by using the cut tool (7.3.28). The result of this step is the final
surface, shown in the Picture 7 – c.
Further steps as the radius at the border of the surface can be done with the sweep tool
(7.3.29), however this is just a simple model and this procedure is not going to be described in this
report.
After the complete construction of the surface, the values of the construct lines - Picture 5
(d;e;g;h) – can be changed in order to make the seat as similar as possible to the targets.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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4.3.
Construction of the seat tool
4.3.1. Initial considerations
Some important considerations about the seat tool must be observed:
 This geometry is not going to be a surface like the seat surface, but a solid part with
approximately 3,5mm thickness.
 As the previous surface, the construction is going to be made just in one side and after mirrored
to the other side.
 The thickness of foam in the seating region needs to stay around 60-80mm, and those values
need to be respected for the construction of the seat tool.
4.3.2. Creation of the Seat Tool skeleton
Similarly to the seat surface skeleton, it is necessary to create a structure of lines which will
support the seat tool surface. To create the main spine of the seat tool, the main spine of the seat
surface is going to be the reference.
Picture 8 - Main skeleton for the creation of the seat tool.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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For each point described on the Picture 4 you need to extract perpendicular lines – Picture 8 (a)
– which are going to parameterize the main spine of the seat tool. Once those lines are created, use the
tool (7.3.27) to connect all the points and create the main spine. Give to this spine the shape that you
want for the seat tool, respecting the observations in the last paragraph - Picture 8 (b).
The next step is the creation of lines parallel to the “y” axis, shown on Picture 8 (c). The
extremities of those lines are also going to be connected by a spline - Picture 8 (d). As a further step,
extract the border of the seat surface with the tool (7.3.9) and cut this result in the side area of the seat
- Picture 8 (e). Now create in this line - Picture 8 (e) – several intersections (7.3.15) with the main planes
of the spine and connect those resulting points (7.3.5) with the lines Picture 8 (c). This result is observed
in Picture 8 (f). Your skeleton is now ready for the creation of the seat tool surface.
4.3.3. Creating the seat tool surface and solid
With the creation of the skeleton, the procedure to make the surface is similar to the last
chapter. Using the Multi-Section surface tool (7.3.19), make the first side of the sketch - Picture 9 (a) –
and mirror as described on the Picture 9 (b). The surface can also be cut by the cutting surface on
Picture 7 (b). After you have a perfect surface for the seat tool, you can transform it into a solid using
the “thick surface” tool – (7.2.17) – with approximately 3,5mm of thickness. The result of this operation
can be seen on Picture 9 (c).
Picture 9 - Turning the surface into a solid.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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4.3.4. Reinforcing the structure
The seat tool receives all the force from weight of the driver and transmits it into the motorcycle
structure. For this reason, this component needs to be well reinforced with rips through the structure.
According to (Hibbeler, 2004) the thickness of the ribs increases in the third potency the resistance to
deformation of the structure. Experimental results with normal plastic material give a value about 12
mm to the rips thickness. It is important to construct those structures under the seat tool surface,
increasing the total thickness of the seat.
To construct those rips, the procedure is very similar to the previous description. The tools to be
used are illustrated on the left corner of the Picture 10. It is necessary to create those rips with surfaces
and then convert them into solids with the thick surface tool (7.2.17). You are going to have two bodies
this way: the main structure body and the rips body. To join both bodies you need to use the union-trim
tool (7.2.18). With this tool you can select which faces needs to be removed and which faces remains in
the construction. The result of this operation is illustrated on the upper left corner of the Picture 10.
With those procedures the construction of the “dummy” seat is ready and it can be uploaded to
the project three. The final result (surface + seat tool) can be observed on the right side of the Picture
10.
Picture 10 - Final operations for the seat tool.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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5.
Conclusions concerning the students learning
The last two months of the internship where intense, basically because the knowledge acquired
in the first months helped in a fast development of the given tasks. The possibility of constructing
together with the opportunity of driving the motorcycles also contributes to a complete understanding
about the vehicle development.
As commented on the previous reports, the disposition of the tutor to help and to explain the
procedures and the details in the construction and theoretical fields were also very important for the
control of the tasks.
A further suggestion, on the other side, relates to the elaboration of the reports for the
University. The University, until today, requires just an internship for the students, with no obligation of
a formal project or the development of a continuous project. This problem leads many students to the
development of simple tasks during the internship, which are hard to be linked with the university
theoretical knowledge when writing the internship reports. As changed in the new course´s curriculum,
the elaboration of an end-of-studies thesis is going to be an asset to more structured works by the
students.
Finally, the 6 months of internship were very important for the student also in two other
aspects: the possibility of living abroad and the opportunity of working in a very big organization, where
all the tasks must be synchronized due to the size of the projects and responsibilities.
6.
References
Arquivos de Estágio. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2009, from EMC - Estágio em Engenharia Mecânica:
http://www.emc.ufsc.br/controle/arquivos/estagio/geral/arquivo_Instrucoes_rel_estagio.doc
DÜRR, W. (2005). Catia V5 Übungen. Einführung in 3D Teile und Baugruppenkonstruktion und 2D
Zeichnungsableitung. Hochschule Heilbronn, Germany.
FLEISCHMANN, P. (2007). Catia V5 R16. Hochschule Heilbronn, Germany.
HIBBELER, R. C. (2004). Resistência dos Materiais. São Paulo: Pearson.
Internship Report – Thiago Schimmelpfennig
BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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7.
Appendix
7.1.
Shared Main Operations
1.
Sketcher
The most used tool in CATIA, this command enables
the user to create the first lines/sketches which will
generate the solid models.
2.
Insert Point
Insert a point into the model.
3.
Insert Line
Insert a line into the model.
4.
Insert Plane
Insert a plane into the model.
5.
Hide/Show
Enables the user to send unused elements to the
“hide” plane.
6.
Measure between
Measure distance between instances.
7.
Measure Inertia
Measure mass proprieties.
8.
Measure Component
Measure geometrical proprieties.
9.
Swap visible space
Alternate between
workspaces.
10.
Isometric view
Shows the model in different views (top, side, front,
back, under, etc)
11.
Normal view
Shows the view normal to a selected face/plane.
12.
Shading
Changes the visualization proprieties of the model.
7.2.
the
visible
and
invisible
Part Design/Solids
1.
Add
Enables the add operation between solid bodies.
2.
Assemble
Enables the assemble operation between solid bodies.
3.
Chamfer
Makes a chamfer with a specific degree in an edge.
4.
Close Surface
Turns a closed surface into a solid body.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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5.
Draft Angle
Enables the creation of angular regions in straight
solid bodies.
6.
Pad
Executes an extrusion in a sketch.
7.
Edge Fillet
Makes a fillet with a specific radius in an edge.
8.
Groove
Removes material in a revolute shape oriented by an
axis.
9.
Hole
Makes an hole or screw with an specific orientation
and radius.
10.
Mirror
Allows the user to mirror different instances.
11.
Rectangular Pattern
Allows the user to replicate different instances
according to a pattern.
12.
Pocket
Removes material according to a shape.
13.
Sew Surface
Adds the inside volume of a closed surface to a solid.
14.
Shaft
Makes a shaft with a shape and an orientation axis.
15.
Shell
Turns a solid body into a shell.
16.
Split
Splits a solid body with a plane or surface.
17.
Thick Surface
Turns a surface into a solid body by adding thickness.
18.
Union-Trim
Enables the union and trimming of two different solid
bodies.
7.3.
Generative Shape Design
1.
Adaptive Sweep
Creates a sweep instance based on several different
parameters.
2.
Blend
Connects two surfaces or edges with another surface,
with the possibility of tangency and curvature
continuity.
3.
Circle
Creates a circle or part of a circle.
4.
Concatenate
Concatenate surfaces
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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5.
Connect Curve
Connects two curves or points with the possibility of
tangency and curvature continuity.
6.
Corner
Creates a corner between two lines with an support
surface.
7.
Disassemble
Disassembles a surface into its several individual
parts. The parts become, after the process,
unparametric surfaces.
8.
Edge Fillet
Creates a fillet in an edge with a specific radius
through a surface.
9.
Extract Boundary
Creates a new instance with the boundary of a
surface. Used normally as reference for other
constructions.
10.
Extract
Creates a new instance with another instance or part
of an instance. Used normally as reference for other
constructions.
11.
Extrapolate
Extrapolates a point or a line creating a line or a
surface with possibility of continuity.
12.
Extrude
Extrudes an element (point, line or curve) into a
specific direction.
13.
Fill
Fills the space between surfaces or instances with
continuity possibility.
14.
Healing
Heals a surface which contains some discontinuity.
15.
Intersection
Detach the intersection between elements.
16.
Isoparametric Curve
Extracts a curve from a surface into a specific
orientation.
17.
Join
Joins different surfaces or elements in order to
simplify the modeling activity.
18.
Mirror
Allows the user to mirror different instances in GSD.
19.
Multi-Sections Surface
Enables the user to create surfaces based on lines and
other surfaces. It is one of the most used tools in GSD.
20.
Offset
Makes an offset in a line or surface with an specific
distance.
21.
Parallel Curve
Creates a curve parallel to another curve with a
specific distance and a support surface.
22.
Projection
Projects an instance along a direction on a support
surface/plane.
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BMW Motorrad – Product Development - UX-EK-1
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23.
Revolve
Revolves a surface around an axis.
24.
Shape Fillet
Creates a fillet in an edge with a specific radius
through two or more surfaces.
25.
Smooth Curve
Creates a smooth curve based on curves previously
with edges.
26.
Spine
Creates a spine through several planes.
27.
Spline
Creates a spline through several points.
28.
Split
Splits
a
surface/instance
surface/instance.
29.
Sweep
Creates the projection of base geometries through
lines or surfaces. There are several possibilities for
sweep and it is often used for construction.
30.
Untrim
Restores a surface into its original shape.
7.4.
with
another
Assembly Design
1.
Clash
Identifies collisions and clashes between parts.
2.
Component
Insert a new component.
3.
Existing Component
Insert an existing component.
4.
Manipulation
Allows the user to change the position of a part in the
assembly.
5.
Part
Insert a Part.
6.
Product
Insert a Product.
7.
Graph three reordering
Enables the user to reorder the graphical position of
the parts/products in the three.
8.
Sectioning
Sections the assembly in several planes and positions.
9.
Snap
Creates fast constrains to the positioning of the
components.
10.
Translation or Rotation
Enables the translation or rotation of a component.
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4. Constructing a motorcycle seat with CATIA V5 - EM-UFSC