Copyright explanation table
Figure
number
1
Caption
Copyright status
Figure 1. Relationships between
plants, animals and organisms
historically considered “fungi”.
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Figure 2. Relationships among
the phyla of Kingdom Fungi.
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Figure 3A. Stromata of
Ophiocordyceps sinensis emerging
from parasitized caterpillars
(left); Figure 3B.
Ophiocordyceps for sale in
department store in China (right).
(photos by L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Adapted from Keeling et al. 2009, Tree of
Life Web Project at
http://newsystem.tolweb.org/Eukaryotes/3
/2009.10.28
Adapted from Blackwell et al. 2009, Tree of
Life Web Project at
http://newsystem.tolweb.org/Fungi/2377/
2009.04.10.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 4. Wood decayed by
brown rot fungus (photo by L. A.
Castlebury, used with
permission)
Email permission obtained from Lisa
Castlebury, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD
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Figure 5. Wood decayed by
white rot fungus (photo courtesy
of T. Volk, Fundamental Fungi,
APS Press)
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
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Figure 6. Examples of
ectomycorrhizal mushroomforming fungi (photos by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 7. Lichen and apothecia
(inset, arrow) (photo by C. Little,
used with permission)
Figure 8. Haustorium of
powdery mildew Blumeria
graminis (photo by L. M. Carris,
used with permission)
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Figure 9. Examples of fungal leaf
Email permission obtained from Deborah
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
spots: (A) Black spot of rose, (B)
Colletotrichum leaf spot of
English ivy, (C) Phyllosticta leaf
spot of rhododendron, and (D)
shot-hole symptom as seen in
eggplant leaf spot. (photos
courtesy of Deborah Miller,
Davey Expert Tree Company,
used with permission)
Miller (Davey Expert Tree Company).
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Figure 10. Examples of chlorotic
halos surrounding fungal lesions
in two fungal plant diseases: (A)
sooty stripe of sorghum
(Ramulispora sorghi) and (B)
greasy spot of citrus
(Mycosphaerella citri). (photo by
C. Little, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 11. Black knot caused by
Apiosporina morbosa (photo
courtesy of T. Volk, Fundamental
Fungi, APS Press)
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
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Figure 12. Galls and telial horns
of Gymnosporangium juniperivirginiae (cedar-apple rust) in
cedar tree. (Photos by Elizabeth
Bush, Megan Kennelly, and John
Olive, respectively, used with
permission)
Figure 13. Hyphae of Rhizopus
stolonifera (photo by L.M. Carris,
used with permission)
Email permissions obtained from Elizabeth
Bush (Virginia Tech), Megan Kennelly
(Kansas State University), and John Olive
(Auburn University).
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Figure 14. Examples of fungal
colonies belonging to the genus
Fusarium in pure culture growing
on artificial media. (A) Fusarium
equiseti, (B) F. graminearum, (C)
F. proliferatum, and (D) F.
verticillioides (photos by C. Little,
used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 15. Budding yeast cells
Author is copyright owner and grants
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Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
of Saccharomyces cerevisae. This
yeast is important in the
production of bread, wine and
beer. (photo by L.M. Carris, used
with permission)
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 16. Mature and
developing asci of Pseudorhizina
californica. Asci typically contain
8 ascospores as in ascus at
bottom of image. (photo by L.M.
Carris, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 17. Basidium with
developing basidiospores (photo
by L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 18. General ascomycete
life cycle. In order to form eight
ascospores, which is typical, an
additional round of mitosis must
occur after meiosis. Haploid (n),
dikaryotic (n+n), and diploid (2n)
phases of the life cycle are
denoted by thin, double, and
thick lines, respectively. (Image
by C. Little, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 19. Mature and
developing asci of Pleospora sp.
Each mature ascus contains eight
dark brown, multicellular
ascospores. (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Figure 20. Fission yeast,
Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Cells reproduce by fission—note
cells in process of division. Asci
containing four ascospores also
present. (photo by L. M. Carris,
used with permission)
Figure 21. Peach Leaf Curl
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
caused by Taphrina deformans
(photo courtesy of A. B. Baudoin,
Fundamental Fungi, APS Press)
according to License conditions.
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Figure 22. Asci containing
ascospores, Taphrina deformans;
asci are formed when the fungus
ruptures the cuticle of the
infected host. (photo by G. J.
Weidman, Fundamental Fungi,
APS Press)
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
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Figure 23. Yeast cells and asci
with two ascospores of Williopsis
saturna (photo by L. M. Carris,
used with permission)
Figure 24. Rock lichens (photo
by L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 25. Cleistothecia
developing in culture of
Emericella nidulans. White arrow
indicates a cleistothecium. (photo
by Richard Todd, used with
permission)
Email permission received from Richard
Todd, Kansas State University
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Figure 26. Conidia and
conidiophores of Aspergillus (left)
and Penicillium (right) (photo by
L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Figure 27. Cross-section of a blue
cheese wedge showing
accumulations of Penicillium
(often P. roquefortii) mold (white
arrow) giving the cheese its
distinct smell and flavor. (photo
by C. Little, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Figure 28. Mature and immature
chasmothecia of Erysiphe
penicillata from lilac. Several asci
are emerging through fissure
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
(chasm) in wall of the mature
chasmothecium. Note the
dicotomously branched
appendages on mature
chasmothecium (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
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Figure 29. Powdery mildew
(Erysiphe palszewskii) on Siberian
peashrub (Caragana
arborescens). Photo on left shows
the white fungal growth on leaves
that is characteristic of powdery
mildews. Photo on top right
shows a dichotomously branched
appendage from a
chasmothecium, and photo on
bottom right shows asci emerging
from chasmothecium. (photo on
left by C. Nischwitz, photos on
right by L. M. Carris)
Figure 30. Orange apothecia of
Caloscypha fulgens, a common
spring cup fungus in the U.S.
Pacific Northwest. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used with permission)
Figure 31. Black morels
(Morchella elata group), another
common spring fungus in the U.S.
Pacific Northwest. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used with permission)
Email permission received from Claudia
Nischwitz (Utah State University) for photo
on left. Autho is copyright owner and grants
permission for two images on right to be
used.
Figure 32. Peaches infected by
Monilinia fructicola. As the
infected fruits dry, they form
“mummies” which will fall to the
ground, overwinter, and produce
apothecia in the spring. (photo
courtesy of A. B. Baudoin,
Fundamental Fungi, APS Press)
Figure 33. Apothecia of
Monilinia fructicola forming from
mummified peaches (photo
courtesy of Plant Pathology
Department, University of
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
Arkansas, Fundamental Fungi,
APS Press)
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Figure 34. Perithecium of
Coniochaeta sp. The ostiole is
located in the darkened apical
portion of the perithecium, and
asci containing dark ascospores
can be seen through the wall of
the perithecium. (photo courtesy
of B. Kendrick, Fundamental
Fungi, APS Press)
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Figure 35. (A) Apple scab lesions From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
on the abaxial surface
according to License conditions.
(underside) of crabapple leaves
caused by Venturia inaequalis. (B)
Cross section through
pseudothecium in scab lesion
(photo courtesy of W. E.
MacHardy, Fundamental Fungi,
APS Press)
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Figure 36. Conidiophores and
conidia of Alternaria spp. (photo
by C. Little, used with
permission)
Figure 37. Conidiophores and
conidia of Cladosporium sp.
(photo by C. Little, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 38. Rock lichens forming
black apothecia (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 39. Lichen (Cladonia sp.)
forming orange-red apothecia on
stalks called podetia. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used with permission)
Figure 40. Development of
clamp connections in
basidiomycete hyphae. Each
hyphal cell is dikaryotic,
containing a pair of compatible
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
nuclei, and this condition is
maintained by the formation of
the clamp connection. (image by
L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
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Figure 41. Clamp connection as
seen under microscope. (photo
by L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Figure 42. Dark, thick-walled,
teliospores of Tilletia sp. (photo
by L. M. Carris, used with
permission)
Figure 43. Dark, thick-walled,
two-celled teliospores of
Puccinia asparagi. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used by permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Figure 44. Common corn smut
(Ustilago maydis) galls produced
on corn ears (A), tassels (B),
midrib (C), and leaf sheath above
the brace roots (D). (photos by C.
Little, used with permission)
Figure 45. Wheat kernels
converted to bunt balls by Tilletia
caries (common bunt of wheat);
the fungus fills the seeds with
masses of dark, powdery
teliospores. (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Figure 46. General life cycle for a
macrocyclic, heteroecious rust.
Red arrows indicate production
of spermatagonia (of both mating
types) on the upper surface
(upward arrow) of the aecial host
leaf, whereas aecia are produced
on the lower surface (downward
arrow) of the aecial host leaf.
Haploid (n), dikaryotic (n+n), and
diploid (2n) phases of the life
cycle are denoted by thin, double,
and thick lines, respectively. The
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
47
dashed line indicates separation
of the aecial and telial hosts as is
required to complete the life
cycle of heteroecious rusts. Thus,
aeciospores from the aecial host
infect the telial host to produce
uredinia (in a macrocyclic rust),
and basidiospores (of both
mating types, denoted in red and
blue) from the telial host infect
the aecial host to produce crossfertile spermatagonia so that the
dikaryon may be reestablished.
(image by C. Little, used with
permission)
Figure 47. Black stem rust of
wheat, Puccinia graminis var.
triciti. Uredinial stage on wheat
stems. (photo by X. Chen, used
with permission)
Email permission obtained from X. Chen,
USDA ARS, Pullman WA
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Figure 48. Puccinia graminis var. Email permission obtained from X. Chen,
tritici, aecial stage on abaxial side USDA ARS, Pullman WA
of barberry (Berberis sp.) (photo
by X. Chen, used with permission)
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Figure 49. General life cycle for a
basidiomycete. The red arrows
indicate the hymenium of a
basidiocarp where basidia are
located and basidiospore
development occurs. Although
only mushroom-like and bracketlike basidiocarps are shown,
many other types exist, but have
the same function. Haploid (n),
dikaryotic (n+n), and diploid (2n)
phases of the life cycle are
denoted by thin, double, and
thick lines, respectively. (image
by C. Little, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 50. Example of
mushrooms (photo by L. M.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Carris, used with permission)
Figure 51. Puffballs growing on
rotting log (photo by L. M. Carris,
used with permission)
Figure 52. Fomitopsis pinicola, a
common shelf fungus in the U. S.
Pacific Northwest (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Figure 53. Dictyophora
duplicata, a skirted stinkhorn.
Spores are in the brown slimy
mass at the apex; the smell of
rotting flesh attracts flies and
other insects, which pick up the
spores on their bodies and hence
facilitate spore dispersal. (photo
courtesy of T. J. Volk,
Fundamental Fungi, APS Press)
Figure 54. Brown, gelatinous
fruiting bodies shaped like
human ears give Auricularia
auriculara its common name, the
‘Wood Ear’ fungus. A related
species is cultivated and widely
used in Asian cuisine. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used with permission)
Figure 55. Orange, gelatinous
fruiting bodies of the jelly fungus
Dacrymyces palmatus growing on
wood (photo by L. M. Carris, used
with permission)
Figure 56. Fruiting bodies of two
common birds nest fungi,
Crucibulum laeve (left) and Nidula
niveotomentosa (right).
Basidiospores are formed inside
the peridioles (lozenge-shaped
structures inside the cups); the
peridioles are splashed out of the
cups by drops of rain. The
basidiospores are released when
the peridioles decay or are eaten
by insects. (photos by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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Figure 57. General zygomycete
life cycle. Plasmogamy,
karyogamy, and meiosis are
highlighted. Haploid (n),
dikaryotic (n+n), and diploid (2n)
phases of the life cycle are
denoted by thin, double, and
thick lines, respectively. (image
by C. Little, used with
permission)
Figure 58. Sporangiophores and
sporangia of Rhizopus stolonifera.
A characteristic of this fungus is
the formation of dark, root-like
rhizoids at the base of the
sporangiophore. (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Figure 59. Sporangiophores of
Pilobolus sp. developing on horse
dung in laboratory. (photo by L.
M. Carris, used with permission)
Figure 60. Closeup of
sporangiophores and sporangia
of Pilobolus sp. The
sporangiophores are growing
towards a light source. The dark,
cap-like sporangia are explosively
shot off when the swollen apical
portion of the sporangiophore
ruptures. The sporangia can
travel over 3 meters before
landing on a substrate. (photos
by Marco Hernandez-Bello, used
with permission)
Figure 61. Plasmodium (photo
by S. Stevenson, used with
permission)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Figure 62. Colorful sporophores
of slime mold. (photo by S.
Stevenson, used with permission)
Figure 63. Bright yellow
plasmodia of Fuligo septa such as
Email permission obtained from Steven
Stevenson, Univ. of Arkansas
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
Email permission obtained from Marco
Hernandez-Bello, Univ. California-Davis
Email permission obtained from Steven
Stevenson, Univ. of Arkansas
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
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this one can appear overnight in
landscaping beds. (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Figure 64. Sporophore of Fuligo
septica developing on woodchips
in landscaping (photo by L. M.
Carris, used with permission)
Figure 65. The club root
pathogen Plasmodiophora
brassica causes host roots to
become grossly swollen as with
this infected broccoli plant.
(photo courtesy of R. N. Campbell,
Fundamental Fungi, APS Press)
Figure 66. Spongospora
subterranean causes powdery
scab of potato, so-named because
of the scabby-appearing lesions
that form on infected tubers as
seen in this picture. (photo
courtesy of W. J. Hooker,
Fundamental Fungi, APS Press)
Author is copyright owner and grants
permission for image to be used.
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
From Fundamental Fungi, APS Press, used
according to License conditions.
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Carris_Introduction to Fungi Copyright Table