JOURNAL THESIS
ALLOCATION HEAVY EQUIPMENT NEEDS ON A ROAD WIDENING
PROJECT OF A.P. PETTARANI MAKASSAR
DISUSUN OLEH :
ARRANGED BY :
NAZLY MUTRIF
D111 08 306
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF HASANUDDIN
MAKASSAR
2013
ALLOCATION HEAVY EQUIPMENT NEEDS ON A ROAD WIDENING PROJECT OF
A.P. PETTARANI MAKASSAR
H. Witanto Wisal1, R.Usman Latief1, N. Mutrif2
ABSTRACT
Allocation, scheduling and equipment selection for each item of work is very important for the ability to optimize its
operation and mutual support of other equipment. Given that heavy equipment is very expensive and quite dominant
contributions on the Road Widening Project A.P. Pettarani Makassar, so it will need action by the efficiency of resource
utilization of these tools. Thus, this study is intended to analyze the scheduling and allocation of heavy equipment. The
observation was conducted by calculating the production capacity of each machine, in order to obtain the value of
productivity and number of needs the necessary tools on projects reviewed. Then by using Line of Balance method, the
allocation of heavy equipment can be plotted for each item of work in accordance with the needs of a more efficient
tool, so its use can be controlled to be more effective. Based on the results of the study, the needs of dump truck as
much as 7 umits, 1 unit of motor grader, 2 units of wheel loaders, 1 unit of tandem roller, 1 unit of vibrator roller, 1 unit
of water tank truck, 1 unit of excavator, 1 unit of pneumatic tire roller, 1 unit of asphalt sprayer and 1 unit of asphalt
finisher.
Kata kunci : Allocation, Scheduling, and Produktivity
INTRODUCTION
In the implementation of a project is
influenced by the availability of resources
that will be required, including in the
construction project of a highway. Such
availability may affect the effectiveness and
efficiency of the implementation of a project,
either in terms of cost and implementation
time of the project. One resource that plays
an important role is heavy equipment. Due to
the contribution of heavy equipment to the
implementation of the project is important
enough and the use of heavy equipment that
is relatively expensive, then it takes a good
management in utilizing heavy equipment
resources.
The use of heavy equipment for the
manufacture of road construction need to be
aware of the type of road construction, heavy
equipment, used his knowledge of the
capacity and ability of heavy equipment in
order to comply with the terms of use does
not cause wastage of manpower, capital,
productivity as well as safety requirements.
The allocation, scheduling, and
equipment selection carefully on any type of
work is crucial to the ability of its operations
can be optimized.
RESEARCH METHOD
The general description project
The national road construction projects
identified by the name “The Road Widening
Project A.P. Pettarani Makassar”. This
1
project was carried out by PT Sinar Jaya
Agung Lestari as the Contractor and PT.
Deserco Development Services as a
Consultant with the length of the 1,340 m.
The funds needed for the project
improvement
of
this
road
is
Rp.
18.985.801.794,86
with
the
implementation time, March 22, 2012 until
November 16, 2012 (240 working days).
The work carried out on this project are:
1. Work land which includes work quarry;
work heap, and the preparation of the road.
2. Work pavement grained includes: layer
foundation aggregate class A and lapis
foundation
aggregate
class
B.
3. Asphalt pavement work includes:
absorbing binder layer , adhesive layer, wear
layer laston (AC-WC), the between layer
laston (AC-BC), and the base layer laston
(AC-Base).
Table 1. Types of heavy equipment used
No
1.
2.
3.
Description
Job
Excavation
Ordinary
Ordinary
Stockpiles
Stockpiles
Options
Dosen, Universitas Hasanuddin,Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan KM 10 Makassar, INDONESIA
S1, Universitas Hasanuddin, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan KM 10 Makassar, INDONESIA
² Mahasiswi
Types of heavy
equipment used
Excavator PC 200
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Excavator PC 200
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Motor Grader GD 405A
Vibrator Roller 212D
Wheel Loader WA200
Dump truck Hino FM 260
Motor Grader GD 405A
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
The
Preparation
Way Board
The
Foundation
Aggregate
Layer
(Class A & B)
Tandem Roller BW141
Water Tank Truck Dyna
Motor Grader GD 405A
Water Tanker Truck Dyna
Vibrator Roller 212D
Wheel Loader WA200
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Motor grader GD 405A
Vibrator Roller
212D
4.
Water Tanker Truck Dyna
Absorbing
Asphalt Sprayer Kasprindo
Binder Layer
Compressor Airman
5.
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
6.
Adhesive
Asphalt Sprayer Kasprindo
Layer
Compressor Airman
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Asphalt
Wheel Loader WA200
Concrete
AMP Azp 1000
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Asphalt Finisher Nigata
Tandem Roller BW141
P. Tire Roller Sakai
Demolition of Wheel Loader WA200
Stone Masonry Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Compressor Airman
Demolition of Wheel Loader WA200
Concrete
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Hot Mix
Wheel Loader WA200
Asphalt for
AMP Azp 1000
Minor Works
Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Asphalt Finisher Nigata
Tandem Roller BW141
P. Tire Roller Sakai
12.
Marka
Thermoplastic
Road
13.
Precast Kerb
Dump Truck Hino FM260
Compressor Airman
Dump Truck Hino FM
260
Job Description and Volume
The large volume of work on this
project is based on data obtained from the
contractor, as follows:
1. Earthwork
Excavation Ordinary
Ordinary Stockpiles
Stockpiles Options
: 5.449,54 m³
: 351,85 m3
: 671,00 m3
The preparation Way Board
: 10.000,00 m2
2. Grained pavement work
Lapis pondasi agregat kelas A: 2.720,70 m³
Lapis pondasi agregat kelas B: 3.400,88 m³
3. Asphalt pavement work
Absorbing binder layer
Adhesive layer
Asphalt Concrete
: 9.522,45 ltr
: 2.471,48 Ton
4. Structural Work
Demolition of Stone Masonry: 150,00 m³
Demolition of Concrete
: 186,00 m³
5. Reinstatement and Minor Works
Hot Mix Asphalt for Minor Works: 100,63 m³
Mark Thermoplastic Road
: 1650,00 m³
Precast Kerb
: 20237,00 bh
ALLOCATION
METHOD
AND
SCHEDULING
Productivity Tool
The productivity or capacity is the
amount of output device (output) given the
volume of work generated tool per-unit time.
To estimated productivity tool, required :
- The performance of the tools provided by
the manufacturer of the equipment.
- Factors efficiency tool, operators, and
material conditions in the field.
The productivity tool is calculated
based on the volume of per-cycle time and
number of cycles in one hour.
Q = q x N x E ………….….. pers. (1)
Where:
Q = production tool per hour (m³ / h)
q = production tool per cycle (m³ / cycle)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
N = number of cycles per hour, that is:
…………………………. pers. (2)
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
Thus, productivity
calculated by:
tool
can
be
Q = q x 60 x E ……………… pers. (3)
Ws
Each of machine has a specific
productivity according to the production
capacity:
1. Production Wheel Loader (m³/ h)
Q = q x 60 x E ……..…. pers. (4)
Ws
Where:
Q = production tool per hour (m³ / h)
q = production per cycle (m3) = q1 x k
q1 = bucket capacity (m3)
k = factor bucket
E = efficiency factor of the total work
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
2. Production Excavator (m³/h)
Q = q x 60 x E …………pers. (5)
Ws
Where:
Q = production tool per hour (m³/ h)
q = production per cycle (m3) = q1 x k
q1 = bucket capacity (m3)
k = factor bucket
E = efficiency factor of the total work
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
= wg + 2(wp) + wb
Wg = digging of time (minutes)
Wp = play of time (minutes)
Wb = waste of time / load (minutes)
3. Production Dump Truck (m³/h)
P = C x 60 x E ………... pers. (6)
Ws
Where :
P = production tool per hour (m³/h)
C = capacity dump truck (m3)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
D 1+---+t
D 2…. pers.(7)
Cmt= (n x Cms)+ ---+t
V
V
1
2
n = charging by the number of rit loader
C
C
n = ----------= ----………….
pers. (8)
q
q1 x k
q1 = capacity loader tool (m3)
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
D = distance (m)
V1 = Conveyance average speed (m/menit)
return
the
average
speed
(m/minutes)
t1= loading time (minutes)
t2= The maneuver load again (minutes)
V2=
4. Production Motor Grader (m³/h)
Q = V x (Le-Lo) x H x E … pers. (9)
Ws
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/ h)
V = the working speed (m/h)
Le = effective length of blade (m)
Lo = wide - overlap = 0,3 m
E = the total work efficiency factor
N = the number of trip
Ws= waktu siklus
5. Production Compactor ( m³/h )
Q = W x V x H x E ……...pers. (10)
N
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
V = the working speed (km/ h)
W = effective width compactor (m)
H=thick layer of solidification (between
0,2– 0,5 m)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
N= the number of the compactor
6. Production Water Tank Truck (m³/h)
Q = C x N x E ………..…pers. (11)
Wc
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
C = capacity tubs /volume of tank (m³)
N = charging tank per hour
E = efficiency factor of the total work
Wc= needs of water /m³ solid materials
7. Production Asphalt Sprayer (m³/h)
Q = q x E ……………... pers. (12)
Ws
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
q = capacity of tank sprayer (m³)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
8. Production Asphalt Finisher (m³/h)
Q = w x V x H x E………. pers.(13)
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
w = wide overlay (m)
V = the working speed (km/ h)
H = thick layer (m)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
9. Production Water Compressor (m³/h)
Q = q x Ap .………….......pers.(14)
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
q = the capacity of the working tools
Ap = aspal perekat/pengikat (spec)
10. Production Asphalt Mixing Plant (m3/h)
……….. pers.(15)
Q=
Where :
Q = production tool per hour (m³/h)
C = capacity batch (ton)
E = efficiency factor of the total work
Ws = cycle time (minutes)
Analysis of the equipment needs
Equipment needs influenced by :
1. Volume of work: m3
2. Duration : hari
3. Sets of tools
4. Production capacity tool
5. Hours of effective tools : the time required
by the tool to generate work in hours
Volume of work (m3)
Duration =
_
Production capacity tool (m3/h)
Kebutuhan alat =
3
Volume of work (m ) _
Production capacity tool xDuration
with the respective activity scheduling jobs
per unit. So there happen a buildup of
materials, equipment or labor overload or
shortage that could result in delays of project
work time.
Barchart
Barchart
is
Flowchart
of
implementation work is made to show the
required completion time. Things that the
displayed in barchart is a type of work,
duration/time implementation of the work
station/location and execution of the work.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Excavation Ordinary
Based on the recapitulation of the
observations then production capacity tools
excavators and dump trucks on the job can be
calculated as follows :
1. Excavator PC200
Q =
= 0,72 x 60 x 0,81
0,85
= 41,17 m3/jam (Loosened Condition)
= 41,17 x 0,80
= 32,94 m3/jam (Bank Condition)
2. Dump Truck Hino FM 260
P =
= 10,00 x 60 x 0,75
26,25
Planning the schedule of equipment
Line of Balance (LOB)
Line of balance is a simple diagram to
show location (work stations) and the time at
which the tool/workforce will be working on
a particular work item.
The purpose of the method line of
balance is to ensure that the necessary
resources either in the form of labor or
material is always available in the right
amount at the time required in accordance
= 17,14 m3/jam (Loosened Condition)
= 17,14 x 0,80
= 13,71 m3/jam (Bank Condition)
Heavy equipment needs calculation
Excavation Ordinary
The needs of equipment for excavation
ordinary :
Volume of work
= 5.449,54 m3
Hours of effective tools
= 7 jam kerja
1 month
= 25 hari kerja
Tools used at work for excavation ordinary :
1. Excavator PC200
Production per hour = 41,17 m3/ jam
= 288,19 m3/ hari
Duration = Volume / Capacity Production
= 5.449,54 m3 / 41,17 m3/ h
= 132,37 h
= 18,91 days
The duration of the work to ordinary
deposits based on planning = 21 days
So the retrieved amount of excavator
needs on the job beyond normal is as
follows:
Need tool
2.
Ordinary Stockpiles
Excavator
Dump Truck
Motor Grader
Vibrator
Roller
3.
=
=
29,65
0,08
4,29
0,56
49,05
0,05
7,80
0,31
m3
m3
m3
m3
Stockpiles Options
Wheel Loader
m3
Dump Truck
m3
3
Motor Grader
m
Tandem Roller
m3
Water Tank
Truck
m3
14,36
0,48
4,29
1,60
49,05
0,14
26,00
0,26
0,15
46,88
= 0,90 ≈ 1 unit
2. Dump Truck Hino FM 260
Production per hour = 17,14 m3/ jam
= 119,98 m3/ hari
Duration = Volume/Capacity Production
= 5.449,54 m3 / 17,14 m3/h
= 317,94 h
= 45,42 days
The duration of the work to ordinary
deposits based on planning = 21 days
So the retrieved amount of dump trucks
on the necessities of work deposits is as
follows:
Need tool
4.
5.
=
0,31
Vibrator
Roller
m3
39,00
1,47
Water Tank
Truck
m3
46,88
1,22
The Foundation Aggregate Layer Class A
Dump Truck
m3
65,61
0,19
m3
6,85
1,77
m3
65,49
0,19
m3
11,70
1,04
m3
46,88
0,26
Motor
Grader
Vibrator
Roller
Water Tank
Truck
Heavy equipment needs calculation for
other work stages are presented in the form
of a table :
Table 2. Recapitulation productivity heavy
equipment
1.
185,25
Wheel
Loader
= 2,16 ≈ 3 unit
Job
description
m3
Motor
Grader
=
No.
The Preparation Way Board
Sat.
Capacity
Production
Time
The Foundation Aggregate Layer Class B
Wheel
Loader
Dump Truck
Factor
Excavation Ordinary
Motor
Grader
Excavator
m3
41,17
0,90
Dump Truck
m3
17,14
2,16
-
6.
Vibrator
Roller
m3
65,61
0,19
m3
6,85
1,77
m3
82,10
0,18
m3
14,63
1,04
m3
Water Tank
Truck
46,88
Asphalt
Finisher
0,32
Tandem
Roller
m3
22,50
0,05
m3
31,20
0,03
m3
48,67
0,02
P.Tire Roller
12.
7.
Absorbing Binder Layer
Asphalt
Sprayer
Compressor
Dump Truck
m3
405,00
0,23
m3
160,00
0,56
m3
405,00
0,23
8.
Marka Thermoplastic Road
Dump Truck
m3
17,14
0,98
Compressor
m3
160,00
0,11
m3
21,46
1,80
Precast Kerb
Dump Truck
8.
9.
Adhesive Layer
Asphalt
Sprayer
m3
405,00
0,13
Compressor
m3
160,00
0,91
Dump Truck
m3
405,00
0,13
m3
38,47
0,29
m3
56,25
0,20
m3
15,94
0,69
m3
51,75
0,21
m3
71,76
0,15
m3
111,95
0,10
Asphalt Concrete
Wheel
Loader
AMP
Dump Truck
Asphalt
Finisher
Tandem
Roller
P.Tire Roller
10.
Analysis of Scheduling with the method Line
of Balance
On the project implementation work
was done just based on the schedule of the
“Curve S”, so that more detailed analysis
carried out using linear scheduling method
(line of balance) and plot the length of the
planning of the analytical calculation of the
amount of heavy equipment in field work
station so that the retrieved the vector
diagram for each type of work as below.
Demolition of Stone Masonry
Wheel
Loader
m3
15,80
0,19
m3
10,67
0,29
m3
60,00
0,05
Dump Truck
Compressor
11.
Hot Mix Asphalt for Minor Works
Wheel
Loader
AMP
Dump Truck
m3
16,73
0,06
m3
24,26
0,04
m3
6,93
0,15
Picture 1. Diagram Vektor LOB
Analysis of the results of the
calculation, planning the allocation of heavy
equipment needs and scheduling on the
retrieved a total of effective heavy equipment
needs required in the field, as follows:
Table 4.3. Total need for a heavy instrument
No.
Types of heavy equipment
Total need for a heavy instrument
1
Excavator
1
2
Dump Truck
7
3
Wheel Loader
1
4
Motor Grader
1
5
Tandem Roller
1
6
Vibrator Roller
2
7
Water Tanker Truck
2
8
Asphalt Sprayer
1
9
Compressor
1
10
Asphalt Finisher
1
11
Pneumatic Tire Roller
1
Based on the above table retrieved
amount of heavy equipment being used. For
Dump trucks retrieved 7 units while the
number of the initial planning as many as 10
units, 2 Wheel Loader unit while on the
initial planning unit, Excavators found 1 unit
while the number planning 2 units, 2 units of
Water tankers gained while in the planning
unit. For other heavy equipment retrieved an
amount equal to the initial planning of Wheel
Loaders, Motor graders and 1 unit 1 unit 2
unit Roller, Vibrator Tandem Roller unit,
Pneumatic Tire roller unit, Asphalt Mixing
Plant, Asphalt Finisher 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit,
asphalt Sprayer and Compressor unit.
2. The amount of heavy equipment needs
plotted into a vector Line of Balance so as
to note the position of the placement tool
time-based implementation, so the use of
the tool can be controlled to make it more
effective.
3. Some work has time factor small
equipment, due to the long duration and
location of the project factors which are in
one of the areas that has a fairly high
vehicle density.
4. The duration of the working day can be
accelerated by increasing resource
productivity of equipment and labor.
SUGGESTIONS
1. The availability of heavy equipment needs
allocation planning is very important in a
project so that it does not cause wastage of
manpower, capital, productivity as well as
safety requirements.
2. Scheduling and employ the method “Line
of Balance” will be more effective if the
data are available to make more detailed
scheduling. Moreover, it can also more
easily monitoring the implementation of
the work.
3. Productivity of work in a project heavily
influenced by age of economical
equipment. Therefore, it is recommended
that if the age of heavy equipment that is
used in a type of work has exceeded the
age of economical and heavy equipment
should not be used again for the time and
results of the work can be controlled by
either reducing factors unnecessary costs.
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The result of observation and analysis of data
and inconclusive that:
1. The productivity of the equipment
affected by heavy equipment production
capacity on any type of work. The larger
the capacity of the production of a tool
then the coefficient means the less so that
the cost is getting smaller. This is because
the tools used in each type of job work
effectively.
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