Alonda Hartford
(949) 497-7750 Ext 363
Room #
[email protected]
[email protected]
Required Text: issued by the school
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Ed 9
Optional Text Supplements: purchased on own if desired
Barron’s Anatomy Flashcards
Anatomy coloring book, Lawrence M. Elson
Your own set of colored pencils- highly recommended
This course offers an in-depth study of the specific structures, functions and processes involved in
the various systems of the human body. Each body system will be studied in terms of organizational
levels, starting at the cellular/tissue level and proceeding through to an analysis of the specific
organ systems. Interdependence between systems will be emphasized, as well as, the concept of
maintaining homeostasis within and between systems. You will be exposed to a wide variety of lab
experiences and the course will be enriched with learning models, interactive software, and field
experiences when possible. Medical issues will be investigated using science principles to focus the
discussions. You will be required to dissect a cat or other representative vertebrate as a learning
model and lab practicum will serve as an integral assessment for the course.
Goals: You will…
1. be able to enhance your understanding of the interrelationship of form and function in the
human body (structure and function), the hierarchy of structural organization, and homeostatic
2. be able to identify and properly use scientific nomenclature for anatomical details relevant to all
body systems.
3. be able to analyze physiological processes relevant to each system in terms of proper and
improper functioning.
4. be able to apply your understanding of the human body to the study of clinical applications.
5. be able to analyze diseases related to each human system and discuss possible treatments and
preventative steps
6. be exposed to various medical careers relating to each area of study.
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7. be able to enhance your understanding of the human body systems using dissection of a small
mammal as a model
8. be able to develop their conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and analytical skills
necessary to deal critically with the rapidly changing field of human anatomy and physiology.
Class Materials:
Bring to class everyday:
- notebook: three-ring binder with dividers, plenty of loose-leaf paper
- pen/pencil
- colored pencils (optional but useful)
Mind sets:
- given at the beginning of class
- may be graded as quiz if review of material
- Homework is assessed using the following methods:
• % correct – used if assignment is a review/reinforcement of covered material
and mastery is expected
• % completion – used if assignment introduces a new topic or is used as practice
of a new skill
-All homework is to be completed by the BEGINNING of the next class period, unless noted
otherwise by the teacher.
Lab Reports/Case studies:
- Certain lab activities and case studies will require a formal written report.
- The specified lab format and grading criteria will be taught and reviewed before each
lab is due.
- Written reports are approximately 100 points each.
- Announced and unannounced quizzes will be given at teacher discretion.
- Quiz point values will vary between 5-25 points.
Chapter/Unit Exams:
- Always announced
- Align with learning objectives covered in class and state content standards
- Exams are corrected and answers are reviewed with class. Student reflections are
required after the review of each exam.
- Exam point values vary between 50-100 points.
Extra Credit:
- Challenge questions on exams.
- Cooperative learning activities.
Semester Finals:
- Administered in accordance with school/district policies. Approx. 200-250 points
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Make-up Work – your life will be easier if you don’t miss class!
If absent from class for an excused absence: when you return do the following before class begins:
1. Go to the “what you missed” area to obtain handouts and review class log for the class
agenda. Attach the “Absent work” slip to new homework. Newly acquired homework
must be completed and turned in before the next class period.
2. See teacher right away to turn in homework that was due while you were out and/or to
set up a time to make up tests, labs or any other missed work.
3. All work that was due on the day of your absence is due immediately upon your return.
4. If you are absent on the day of an exam:
• An alternative exam will be given upon your return – essay exams that align
with the same learning objectives and standards may be administered as the
alternative exam.
• The date and time for the make-up exam will be determined by the teacher
with input from the student – this date is final. Failure to make-up the exam on
the established date will result in a zero on the exam.
5. If you are absent on the day of a lab:
• An alternative assignment may be given due to availability of supplies and time
required for set-up. The alternative assignment will align with the same learning
objectives covered during the lab.
• The date and time for the make-up lab or alternative lab assignment will be
determined by the teacher with input from the student – this date is final. Failure
to make-up the lab or lab assignment will result in a zero for the lab activity.
Classroom Rules:
Policies and procedures for the class will be established in a collaborative effort by teacher and
students. Students will agree in writing to abide by the classroom policies or face established
consequences as specified in the behavioral agreement.
• No cell phones or personal electronics to be used during class. Cell Phones will be checked-in
and checked-out every class period.
• No unauthorized dissections
Golden Rule!
Steps for Success:
• Attend and actively participate in class activities and discussions
• Take good notes and stay organized
• Complete all assignments on time
• Ask questions to ensure understanding
• Use SDL (student directed learning) and see me for extra help if needed
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Instructional Units
Introduction to the Human Body
Define Anatomy and Physiology
Describe each of the levels of structural organization that make up the human body
List and define the necessary life functions in humans
Define homeostasis and disease
Describe how negative and positive feedback mechanisms help to maintain homeostasis.
Give physiological examples.
Cellular Physiology
Cell structures and functions
Maintaining homeostasis
Cell to cell communication
Integumentary System
Explain how the skin is considered an organ and describe its functions
Describe the histological characteristics of the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
List and describe the different cell types of the epidermis
Skeletal System
Discuss the functions of bone
Describe the chemical composition of bone
Differentiate between osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
Describe the structure of a long bone
Compare the histological characteristics of spongy bone and compact bone
Nervous System
Neuron anatomy
Neural classification
Neurophysiology – sodium/potassium pumps
Peripheral and Central nervous systems
Autonomic nervous system
Muscular System
List the major functions of the muscular system
Describe the gross and microscopic structure of skeletal muscle
Explain the structure of a sarcomere
Examine the events involving neuromuscular transmission of the action potential
Describe the specific actions of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase
Define motor neuron, motor unit, and recruitment
Define muscle tone and discuss the cause and function
Endocrine System
State the major functions of the endocrine system
List and locate the major endocrine organs in the human body
Define hormone, target organs, and hormone receptors
Describe the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
List the hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary and their functions
List the hormones stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary and their functions
List the hormones produced by the adrenal glands (cortex and medulla) and their functions
Cardiovascular System
List the functions of blood, blood cell types
Review the anatomy of the human heart
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Review the route of blood flow through the systemic and pulmonary circuits
Define heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output; discuss their relationship
List and describe the factors affecting heart rate
Describe the three layers (tunics) that typically form the wall of a blood vessel
Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and
Respiratory System
Review the structure and function of the organs of the respiratory system
Describe Boyle’s Law and explain how it relates to lung function
Describe the events that lead to inspiration and expiration (pressure and volume changes)
Describe the structure and function of the respiratory membrane
Describe partial pressure in a gas mixture
Describe how oxygen is transported in the blood and explain the influence of PO2 on hemoglobin
Digestive System
List the functions of the digestive system
Describe the general histology of the gastrointestinal tract
Describe digestion in the mouth (mechanical and chemical)
Describe the structure and function of the esophagus
Describe the structure and functions of the stomach
List the cell types in the stomach
Identify the regions and function of the small intestine
List the functions of the liver and gall bladder
State the roles of pancreatic juice and bile in digestion
Describe the structure and functions of the large intestine
Renal Physiology
Describe the structure of the kidney and of the nephron
Describe path of blood supply to the nephrons
Describe the process of urine formation through glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and
tubular secretion
List the hormones involved in sodium, potassium and water balance and explain their functions
Discuss the roles of the kidneys in acid-base balance and fluid and electrolyte balance
Reproductive System
Discuss the determination of genetic sex and prenatal development of male and female structures
Define puberty and secondary sexual characteristics
Describe the functions of LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin in the male
Describe the process of oogenesis and compare it to spermatogenesis
Describe the functions of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone and inhibin in the female
Outline the major events of each phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle and correlate them with
the events of the ovarian cycle
Describe the effects of aging on the reproductive systems
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Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus