Name: __________________
Quiz: Horticulture Skills Standards
Instructions:
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Multiple Choice:
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)
Plants release _________________ during photosynthesis, but they consume it during
respiration.
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbon dioxide
oxygen
carbon monoxide
nitrogen
Answer #1 b
2)
The male part of the flower is called the ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
stamen
anther
pistil
style
Answer #2 a
3)
Who is the person responsible for the care of the interior plantscapes after their
installation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
architect
construction engineer
grower
plant maintenance technician
Answer #3 d
4)
What is a woody plant, usually single-stemmed, and at least 12 feet in height?
a. a tree
b. a shrub
c. a ground cover
d. all the above
Answer #4 a
5)
Bedding plants respond well to _________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
fertilizers every two weeks
constant liquid feeding
high fertilization just before sale
no fertilizers for the first 6 weeks
Answer #5 b
6)
What is the spray or aerosol product, which is applied to the leaves of a plant to reduce
transpiration?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pesticide
antitranspirant
antiperspirant
milky surfactant
Answer #6 b
7)
Plant growth regulators __________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
are all man-made
regulate plant growth
promote only root and shoot growth
are synthetic
Answer #7 b
8)
What are naphthaleneacetic adic (NAA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA)?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ethylene
cytokinins
tropisms
synthetic growth regulators
Answer #8 d
9)
What is a pest control technique that includes proper maintenance programs, sanitation,
and resistant varieties?
a. biological pest control
b. cultural pest control
c. chemical pest control
d. genetic pest control
Answer #9 b
10)
What is an advantage provided by mulches?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#10
11)
promotes water loss
inhibits weed growth
helps soil temperature to go up and down
repels pests
c
What are the records that keep track of where the money goes and comes from and are
usually referred to as invoices?
a.
b.
c.
d.
inventory of stock
sales, shipping, and delivery receipts
local, federal and state business forms
pesticide records
Answer
#11
b
12)
What are some factors that improve a plant's ability to tolerate drought?
a.
b.
c.
d.
waxy leaf surfaces and hairy leaves
excessive water around the roots
reduced oxygen levels
undeveloped root system
Answer
#12
a
13)
How are most fruit trees propagated?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cuttings
seeding
grafting
tissue culture
Answer
#13
c
14)
A soilless growing media is ________________________.
a. used only for hydroponics
b. a growing media that has no soil
c. more likely to have worms, bacteria, and nematodes than a soil mix
d. rarely used today
Answer
#14
b
15)
What is an advantage to using computer spreadsheets for a landscape maintenance
business?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Savings in time required to calculate costs.
Training may be required to operate software.
Initial investment in new equipment and software may be substantial.
Continued investment required to keep up to date.
Answer
#15
a
16)
Poinsettias are typically propagated by ___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#16
17)
cuttings 3 to 4 inches in length, usually in late July
seed
hardwood cuttings 6-8 inches in length, taken in October
leaf cuttings
a
What is a document that must be filed with the county to register the business name and
prevent another business from using that name in the county?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a demographic study
a retail license
a resale license
a fictitious name statement
Answer
#17
d
18)
Which of the following is not a primary macronutrient?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nitrogen
calcium
phosphorus
potassium
Answer
#18
b
19)
Elements that are needed in the largest amounts by plants are called ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
micronutrients
macronutrients
trace elements
deficient nutrients
Answer
#19
b
20)
Most flowers reach market from the time they are harvested in ___________ days?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0-1
2-4
4-8
8-12
Answer
#20
b
21)
The _________ is a little plant that grows and develops into the mature plant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#21
22)
fruit
endosperm
embryo
seed coat
c
Greenhouse producers specializing in hanging baskets and patio pots may expect
___________ profits per item than the wholesaler selling flats of bedding plants.
a.
b.
c.
d.
equal
lower
greater
none of the above
Answer
#22
c
23)
What are the aspects of air that can have a harmful effect on plants?
a. photosynthesis and respiration
b. lack of air exchange due to saturated soil, high humidity, particulates in the air,
smog, acid rain
c. fungi and bacteria
d. carbon dioxide
Answer
#23
b
24)
There are twelve basic textural classes that can be determined after a soil test using a
_______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
textural square
ribbon test
textural triangle
texture test
Answer
#24
c
25)
___________ turfgrass grows best in temperatures of 50–75°F.
a.
b.
c.
d.
short
cool-season
short-season
warm-season
Answer
#25
b
26)
Which tree ordinance deals primarily with the planting and removal of trees within public
rights-of-way?
a.
b.
c.
d.
street tree ordinances
tree protection ordinances
view ordinances
disease ordinances
Answer
#26
a
27)
The _________ is the largest user of the nation's fresh water.
a.
b.
c.
d.
environment
agriculture industry
wildlife population
threatened species
Answer
#27
b
28)
Also known as geotropism, what is a plant response to gravity?
a. phototropism
b. gravitropism
c. thigmotropism
d. etiolation
Answer
#28
b
29)
What is an effect of water deficiency?
a.
b.
c.
d.
stunted mature plants
efficient use of irrigation
reduced dust in the field
increased crop yields
Answer
#29
a
30)
There are 16 plant _________ that are necessary for normal growth and production.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#30
31)
fertilizers
fillers
roots
nutrients
d
The use of one color and all its light and dark variations in an arrangement is an example
of which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
monochromatic color scheme
analogous color scheme
polychromatic color scheme
monotonous color scheme
Answer
#31
a
32)
What is a plant's ability to tolerate cold temperatures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#32
b
thermoperiod
hardiness
stratification
vernalization
33)
Which is usually the predominant nutrient in organic fertilizers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
phosphorus
potassium
nitrogen
bone meal
Answer
#33
c
34)
When plants or soil are lacking one or more nutrients, ________ can be added to increase
available nutrients.
a.
b.
c.
d.
fertilizers
fillers
oxygen
soil
Answer
#34
a
35)
Changes that affect the chemical makeup of rock and help to break it down is referred to
as chemical _________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
climate
outwash
weathering
oxidation
Answer
#35
c
36)
What are some major pest problems with chrysanthemums?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ants, lacewings, praying mantis, and spider mites
aphids, whiteflies, leaf miners, and spider mites
spiders, scorpions, aphids, and whiteflies
ladybugs, bees, leaf miners, and aphids
Answer
#36
b
37)
What is the resulting offspring of parents that are genetically different?
a. chromosomes
b. hybrid
c. haploid
d. zygote
Answer
#37
b
38)
________ is the common practice to keep equipment in good working condition.
a.
b.
c.
d.
General maintenance
Daily repair
Hourly upkeep
Preventative maintenance
Answer
#38
d
39)
Which are growth hormones used with tissue culture techniques?
a.
b.
c.
d.
callus
sterile agar medium
cytokinins and auxins
explants and plantlets
Answer
#39
c
40)
What do growers depend on to determine the lime and fertilizer needs for crops?
a.
b.
c.
d.
luxury consumption
nutrients
tissue testing
soil testing
Answer
#40
d
41)
A plant’s ability to withstand cold temperature is called __________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
heat tolerance
toughness
adaptive
hardiness
Answer
#41
d
42)
Which statement describes a conservation practice that helps protect the environment?
a. Proper selection and use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers can reduce nonpoint water pollution.
b. More tillage to get rid of all weeds.
c. Pesticide applications are increased with biotechnology.
d. Genetic pollution will develop resistance to toxins in plants.
Answer
#42
a
43)
Which of the following pH ranges do most landscape plants perform best?
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.0 – 4.5
5.6 – 7.0
6.8 – 9.2
above 10
Answer
#43
b
44)
What are floral materials that last for a significantly longer time than fresh materials called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
permanent materials
greens
everlasting plant materials
plastic
Answer
#44
c
45)
What is considered to be a fair profit?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#45
46)
b
The tissue in the stem that conducts water and minerals throughout the plant is called the
____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#46
2 percent
20 percent
100 percent
200 percent
a
xylem
phloem
capillary
cambium
47)
Reproductive cells of plants have a single set of chromosomes and are said to be
_____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
diploid
polyploid
tetraploid
haploid
Answer
#47
d
48)
How are those flowers that have distinctive shapes like lilies or tropical
flowers classified?
a.
b.
c.
d.
line flowers
form flowers
mass flowers
filler flowers
Answer
#48
b
49)
What is the continued effort to preserve the existing landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
landscape design
landscape construction
landscape maintenance
landscape contracting
Answer
#49
c
50)
Bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolons and tubers are referred to as _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#50
51)
specialized stems
roots
food storage bins
propagation material
a
_________ have all three of the primary elements but not necessarily all 13 mineral
nutrients are included.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Single-grade fertilizers
Mixed fertilizers
Complete fertilizers
Bulk blending
Answer
#51
52)
c
Profitable production of mums depends on the control of production costs and
maximization of sales opportunities. Direct costs usually approach _________ per
plant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
$1
$10
$15
$30
Answer
#52
a
53)
What is the amount of goods and services a business offers for sale at any given time?
a.
b.
c.
d.
budget
sales forecast
supply
financial statement
Answer
#53
c
54)
What is the CEC?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The measure of acidity or alkalinity of the soil.
The total number of exchangeable cations a soil can hold.
A substance that releases hydrogen ions.
An element with an electrical charge.
Answer
#54
b
55)
What is the term for the use of non-living materials in a landscape, such as, patios, fences,
and pools?
a.
b.
c.
d.
patioscape
featurescape
hardscape
stonescape
Answer
#55
c
56)
Who would be responsible for the total greenhouse operation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
greenhouse manager
production manager
propagator
grower
Answer
#56
a
57)
Which type of turfgrass grows best in temperatures of 60–75°F and may become dormant
if allowed to dry out during the summer?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#57
58)
c
Metal ___________ rakes have short rigid teeth and are used for heavy duty raking,
leveling, and grading.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#58
59)
warm-season turfgrass
ornamental grass
cool-season turfgrass
transition zone turfgrass
garden
grading
leaf
thatch
a
Strawberries must produce at least 5,000 quarts per acre to break even. Successful
producers regularly produce 9,000 to 15,000 quarts per acre, thus making strawberries
highly profitable.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1000 quarts
5000 quarts
15,000 quarts
20,000 quarts
Answer
#59
b
60)
Most tree roots are found ________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#60
c
below the top two feet of soil
extending deep into the ground
in the top two feet of soil and extend one and a half times the width of the tree
in the top 4 inches of soil
61)
Federal regulations require all commercial applicators to furnish a copy of either the state
or federally required records to the customer within ________ of the application.
a.
b.
c.
d.
14 days
30 days
2 years
1 year
Answer
#61
b
62)
What is sterile agar medium?
a. A gel that contains water, sugars, nutrients, and hormones to support and promote
plant growth
b. The method of asexual propagation that involves the growing of small pieces of
plant tissue
c. Small pieces of plant material used in tissue culture
d. Plant hormone responsible for cell division and differentiation
Answer
#62
63)
a
Nursery plants not grown in containers, may lose up to _________ percent of their feeder
roots in the transplanting process.
a.
b.
c.
d.
5
25
50
95
Answer
#63
c
64)
What is an undesirable trait of a nursery worker?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#64
65)
Likes plants and working with plants.
Willingness to work hard.
Enjoys working outdoors.
Enjoys working with computers.
d
What is a cutting tool with short, serrated edges designed for cutting thick
or woody stems and flowers that have been wired?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#65
66)
b
Creating goods and offering services to meet the needs or demands of consumers
is known as __________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#66
scissors
florist shears
pruning shears
knife
consumer
entrepreneurship
entrepreneur
risk
b
67)
An 18-46-0 fertilizer contains what percent nitrogen?
a. 0
b. 18
c. 46
d. 64
Answer
#67
b
68)
Which are factors influencing fertilizer selection?
a.
b.
c.
d.
materials must be the same particle size and be chemically compatible
crop to be fed, time of year, application method, cost
form of the fertilizer
nitrates and ammonium nitrogen
Answer
#68
b
69)
Writing on the landscape plan should be ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#69
c
in lower case
in red
simple, neat, and easy to read
minimal
70)
How are strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries harvested?
a.
b.
c.
d.
by hand
by mechanical picker
by mechanical shakers
high velocity spray
Answer
#70
a
71)
A turfgrass _________________ consists of more than two different species of seeds such
as Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass.
a.
b.
c.
d.
seed mixture
seed sort
seed blend
none of the above
Answer
#71
a
72)
The organelle in a plant cell in which cellular respiration occurs is called a
_________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#72
73)
chloroplast
chlorophyll
mitochondria
nucleus
c
What is a business’ written statement of future financial plans, which includes the
forecasted income, expenses, and estimated profits of a business?
a.
b.
c.
d.
budget
sales forecast
supply
financial statement
Answer
#73
a
74)
How are perennials propagated?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sexually
asexually
reproductively
sexually and asexually
Answer
#74
d
75)
The covering of a greenhouse is referred to as ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
poly
polyethylene
glass
glazing
Answer
#75
d
76)
What is the most commonly used water culture system in commercial operations?
a.
b.
c.
d.
aeroponics
nutrient film technique
aeronautics
aggregate culture
Answer
#76
b
77)
What is a strong upright, which supports a fence?
a.
b.
c.
d.
post
bay
infill
gate
Answer
#77
a
78)
When a plant loses all its leaves in the fall it is said to be _______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
evergreen
coniferous
deciduous
dying
Answer
#78
c
79)
Which of the following is not a secondary macronutrient?
a.
b.
c.
d.
calcium
magnesium
potassium
sulfur
Answer
#79
c
80)
What is a truck used for hauling material that can be hydraulically dumped?
a.
b.
c.
d.
dump truck
front-end loader
bulldozer
grader
Answer
#80
a
81)
Which of the following is a commonly used component of a soilless growing media?
a.
b.
c.
d.
peat moss
silt
clay
sand
Answer
#81
a
82)
What is an exhibit of merchandise?
a.
b.
c.
d.
prop
sign
display
advertisement
Answer
#82
c
83)
Herbs and vegetables may be sold fresh, dried, or as live plants to what customers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
upscale restaurants
caterers
large grocery chains
all of the above
Answer
#83
d
84)
Weeds can destroy the appearance of the landscape and ___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
kill trees and shrubs
rob water and necessary nutrients from landscape plants
produce edible fruits
reduce the amount of mowing
Answer
#84
b
85)
As a rule, turfgrass should receive _____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
about an inch of water a week.
about 3 inches of water a week
light, daily waterings
heavy waterings daily
Answer
#85
a
86)
What is a technique used in defoliation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#86
87)
herbicide sprays
mechanical beaters
icing of leaves
helium gas
b
What is an enclosure consisting of posts and rails and usually made of wood, plastic, or
metal?
a.
b.
c.
d.
screen
fence
wall
privacy
Answer
#87
b
88)
There are ____________ primary types of soil structures.
a.
b.
c.
d.
two
four
six
eight
Answer
#88
d
89)
What is the term for vegetables that need to be planted on or after the frost-free date?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#89
b
cool-season
warm-season
day neutral
long-day
90)
The area of horticulture associated with cut flowers, potted plants, and annual
bedding plants is _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Landscaping
Floriculture
Viticulture
Botany
Answer
#90
b
91)
As many as 85% of a pick-your-own strawberry operation’s customers will live within a
_____ mile radius of the farm.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
1000
100
10
Answer
#91
d
92)
What is the amount of money received after deducting all project costs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
overhead cost
profit
contingency cost
job cost
Answer
#92
b
93)
When do plants show optimum growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
When night temperatures are warmer than day temperatures
During hot summer days and nights
When night temperatures are 10 to 15 degrees cooler than day temperatures
When high temperatures can speed the rate of respiration
Answer
#93
c
94)
What did the 1990 Farm Bill require?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Pesticide regulations for commercial applicators
Good business management for pesticide users.
Pesticide dealers must record each RUP sale for two years.
All private applicators must maintain records of restricted-use pesticide
applications.
Answer
#94
d
95)
What is tissue culture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#95
96)
propagating plants sexually
practice of growing plant cells on artificial media
foliage plants, pot plants and cut flowers
small pieces of plant tissue
b
If, when troubleshooting an engine that is not running, and determining the presence of a
strong spark, which of the following situations may be occuring?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The engine is out of time due to a sheared or partially sheared flywheel key.
The key is not turned on.
The battery is dead.
The flywheel is rusty.
Answer
#96
a
97)
Which describes soil organic matter?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Plant, animal, and microbial residues in various stages of decay
Depth of soil material favorable for plant root penetration
Many groups of organisms that live in the soil
Nitrogen balance that is vital in soil fertility and crop production
Answer
#97
a
98)
What physical features are used to differentiate between soils?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#98
d
darkness and lightness of the soil color
bright, dull and mottle-colored subsoil
parent material, age and slope
texture, structure, depth and color
99)
How are growing degree days (GDD) used in crop production?
a. To estimate growth and development of plants based on temperature
requirements
b. To increase photosynthesis and respiration
c. To identify plant heat-zones
d. To predict temperatures and climate
Answer
#99
a
100)
The lubrication system __________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
keeps the engine clean
should consist of 50 percent anti-freeze and 50 percent water
helps carry away heat and reduces friction, which creates heat
muffles noise but also helps carry heat away from the engine
Answer
#100
c
101)
In cross-pollination what occurs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#101
102)
d
The amount of agricultural limestone needed to establish the desired pH range for the
cropping system being used is known as the __________ requirement.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#102
103)
Pollen is used on the same plant.
Pollen attracts birds, bats and insects.
Germination occurs.
Pollen from a plant pollinates a flower on a different plant.
acid
alkaline
pH
lime
d
Pesticides are classified according to __________, which refers to the degree of poison in
a material.
a. general-use pesticides
b. restricted-use pesticides
c. pesticide licenses
d. toxicity
Answer
#103
d
104)
Which of the following is a type of water erosion?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#104
105)
c
What growth hormone plays a role in keeping seeds dormant, is involved leaf drop in the
fall, and prepares buds for winter dormancy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#105
106)
wind erosion
glacial erosion
sheet erosion
surface creep
auxin
cytokinin
ethylene
abscisic acid
d
_________________________________ are made up of living, biotic, and abiotic, or
nonliving things.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Atmospheres
Inorganic materials
Environments
Plants
Answer
#106
c
107)
Healthy roots typically appear ______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
black or brown and smell sour
white or creamy and smell fresh
green and smell like compost
purple and smell like grapes
Answer
#107
b
108)
Which is an approved method of controlling insects on fruits and vegetables?
a. reducing beneficial insect populations
b. growing the same crops in the same space every year
c. using resistant or tolerant varieties
d. never using pesticides that have an LD50
Answer
#108
c
109)
What is a popular framework because it is long lasting and considered to be low
maintenance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#109
110)
wood
aluminum and aluminum/steel combination
galvanized steel
angle iron
b
What are easel designs that are designed as special shapes, such as wreaths, crosses,
hearts, pillows or organizational emblems?
a.
b.
c.
d.
flat sprays
set pieces
casket inset pieces
sympathy tributes
Answer
#110
b
111)
The most common outdoor flooring materials include which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pavers, euonymus, and English ivy
shrubs, perennials, and concrete
annuals, bedding plants, and wood decks
lawns, concrete, pavers, and wood decks
Answer
#111
d
112)
What is a problem associated with the storage of nursery stock?
a.
b.
c.
d.
roots that are kept moist
sprouting of new leaves
mold or fungal growth
fruit development
Answer
#112
c
113)
What is the life cycle of a perennial?
a.
b.
c.
d.
one year
two years
more than two years
they never die
Answer
#113
c
114)
What is the term used for the external presence of insects or mites?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#114
115)
infestation
infection
crawlers
illness
a
What is the process by which a plant turns light energy into chemical energy in the form of
sugar?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cellular respiration
fertilization
photosynthesis
pollination
Answer
#115
b
116)
What is a practice used to monitor the progress of an Easter lily crop?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#116
117)
scale counting
day counting
night counting
leaf counting
d
Which watering system is commonly used in the propagation phase of production because
it reduces water stress on cuttings.
a.
b.
c.
d.
drip irrigation
capillary mats
overhead sprinklers
intermittent mist systems
Answer
#117
d
118)
What are the two most popular Easter lily varieties grown today?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#118
119)
a
What is the propagation method in which plant roots or the entire plant is cut to make two
or more plants from the original plant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#119
120)
Nellie White and Ace
Freedom and Annette Hegg
Neon and Inermis
Peace and Calla
layering
separation
division
grafting
c
Bending a branch to the ground, wounding it, and covering it with 2-3 inches of soil is an
example of which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
simple layering
trench layering
mound layering
air layering
Answer
#120
a
121)
Pollination takes place when _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a pollen grain fertilizes the egg
a pollen grain lands on the stigma
a sperm cell fuses with the egg
pollen is released from the anther
Answer
#121
b
122)
Grafting consists of which two pieces?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#122
c
root and stem
pollen and egg
scion and stock or rootstock
root and bud
123)
Most photosynthesis takes place in the________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
cuticle
epidermis
palisade mesophyll
spongy mesophyll
Answer
#123
c
124)
What is the part of a poinsettia that appears deep red, pink, white, speckled, or yellow?
a.
b.
c.
d.
petals
sepals
leaves
bracts
Answer
#124
d
125)
What is the most common type of boutonniere in the marketplace?
a.
b.
c.
d.
two flower
multi- flower
single flower
nestled flower
Answer
#125
c
126)
What is the term used for plants that provide food for a pest?
a.
b.
c.
d.
hosts
pathogens
weeds
accommodating
Answer
#126
a
127)
What is continued contact with the customer to ensure they are happy with the service
they are receiving called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#127
d
closing
opening
probing
follow-up
128)
What happens when a plant is thermoperiodic?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Changes in daily temperatures influence plant responses.
Plants are tolerant of frost.
Plants require warmer temperatures for best growth.
Plant seeds have undergone a cold period.
Answer
#128
a
129)
What is lining out?
a. transferring or moving plants from one location to another
b. chilling seeds before germination
c. the process of transplanting seedlings or cuttings into the field to grow to a
saleable size
d. seeing that all trees are planted in a straight row
Answer
#129
c
130)
A safer, less expensive, and widely adaptable lighting is made possible with
__________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
high voltage lighting systems
medium voltage lighting systems
low voltage lighting systems
high voltage fixtures
Answer
#130
c
131)
What is the amount of money that goes in and out of a business?
a.
b.
c.
d.
net worth
balance sheet
profit and loss statement
cash flow
Answer
#131
d
132)
Which is the best definition for grafting?
a. the process of connecting two plant parts together in such a way that they will
unite and grow as a single plant
b. plant parts are simply removed and planted
c.
plant roots or the entire plant is cut to make two or more plants from the original
plant
d. propagation method in which roots form on the stem of the plant while it is still
attached to the parent plant
Answer
#132
a
133)
What does a plant that has been grafted consist of?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the scion and understock
simple layering
softwood cuttings
tissue culture
Answer
#133
a
134)
What has made the international floral market possible?
a.
b.
c.
d.
worldwide peace
air traffic linking the world
automated production systems
low prices
Answer
#134
b
135)
Which of the following is a guideline for growing foliage plants indoors?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Keep the air dry to reduce diseases.
Drop the temperature at night to below 55 F.
Always pot plants in a much larger container to avoid circling roots.
Provide optimum lighting for the plant species.
Answer
#135
d
136)
What is the design element that refers to the surface quality of the plant material?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#136
137)
line
color
scale
texture
d
What plants are planted in the spring, bloom throughout the summer, and die with the
coming of the frost?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bulbs
annuals
woody perennials
biennials
Answer
#137
b
138)
A pick machine __________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#138
139)
is used to harvest flowers
is used to harvest fruit for drying
attaches a metal pick to the stem
is used for drying flowers
c
Upon harvesting, cut flowers are separated into groups based quality, uniformity, and size,
a process known as ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
bunching
grouping
picking
grading
Answer
#139
d
140)
What are the two common root systems?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#140
141)
fibrous and taproot
aerial and subterranean
deep and shallow
primary and secondary
a
What is the term used to describe the preparation of flowers and greens for arranging by
allowing adequate solution uptake?
a.
b.
c.
d.
toughening
preparing
conditioning
packing
Answer
#141
c
142)
What are two examples of native vegetation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
prairie soils and timber soils
plants and insects
earthworms and squirrels
microbes and crawfish
Answer
#142
a
143)
What is the supplying of water to land through artificial means?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sprinkling
evapotranspiration
irrigation
natural rainfall
Answer
#143
c
144)
Why is it important for landscapers to be able to read a landscape plan?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to see how big plants will get
in order to properly place landscape plants and materials
to understand where the good views exist
to determine proper planting depths
Answer
#144
b
145)
What is a typical service florists provide with weddings?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#145
146)
a
The Easter lily forcer dips the bulbs prior to planting to control losses to which pest or
disease?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#146
transporting the ceremony flowers to the reception
selecting appropriate music
choosing the right champagne to go with the flowers
all the above
d
Rhizochtonia
Pythium
bulb aphids
bulb mites
147)
Light green or yellowing leaves is a symptom of which deficiency in plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
primary nutrients
nitrogen
phosphorus
potassium
Answer
#147
b
148)
What is extremely important in order to make decisions about the design of a centerpiece
for a particular event?
a.
b.
c.
d.
gathering necessary information regarding the event
determining what flowers are left in the cooler
wearing nice clothes
knowing how much floral wire is needed
Answer
#148
a
149)
Why are polyethylene tubes often attached to the heater units?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#149
150)
to help evenly distribute the airflow
to cool the house
to raise the temperatures
to provide some added shade
a
________________________ occurs when the wind lifts medium-sized soil particles into
the air.
a.
b.
c.
d.
saltation
sediment
suspension
rill erosion
Answer
#150
a
151)
What are three disease-causing organisms?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#151
b
insects, weeds, bacteria
bacteria, fungi, viruses
fungi, viruses, weeds
weeds, fungi, insects
152)
Holiday cacti are _________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
short day plants
long day plants
day neutral plants
medium day plants
Answer
#152
a
153)
The production and use of plants to beautify the environment is
_________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Landscape horticulture
Floriculture
Olericulture
Ecology
Answer
#153
a
154)
Kalanchoes are _________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
short day plants
long day plants
day neutral plants
medium day plants
Answer
#154
a
155)
What are the requirements for seed germination?
a.
b.
c.
d.
water, oxygen, optimum temperatures, and possibly light or dark conditions
water, carbon dioxide, optimum temperatures, and possibly light or dark conditions
soil, oxygen, optimum temperatures, and darkness
water, fertilizer, carbon dioxide, and optimum temperatures
Answer
#155
a
156)
What is the term used to describe a plant’s response to daylength?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#156
a
photoperiod
day-neutral
short-day
long-day
157)
What name is used for a flower garden placed in the center of a yard with the tall plants in
the center of the garden and the shorter plants toward the outer edges?
a.
b.
c.
d.
island garden
cut flower garden
English garden
border garden
Answer
#157
a
158)
Tropical plants are preferred for interior plantscapes largely because
___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#158
159)
They have lower light requirements.
They thrive in dry situations.
They seldom die.
They are easily moved.
a
What is a brief statement that describes the purpose of a business and the
customers it serves?
a.
b.
c.
d.
business plan
marketing plan
management
mission statement
Answer
#159
d
160)
A weed can be defined as _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a plant growing out of place
an ugly plant
dandelions
a plant growing in the landscape
Answer
#160
a
161)
A response in which a plant’s stem bends toward a light source is known as
____________________.
a. thigmotropism
b. phototropism
c. geotropism
d. gravitropism
Answer
#161
b
162)
All of the small fruits, except blueberries, grow satisfactorily in a soil pH range of
____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.2 to 5.2
5.5 to 7.5
7.1 to 8.1
1 to 14
Answer
#162
b
163)
What is involved in preventative maintenance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
using equipment as little as possible
performing periodic practices to keep equipment in good working order
engine re-building
all the above
Answer
#163
b
164)
What tool has a rotating chain with cutting teeth and is used to cut wood?
a.
b.
c.
d.
chain saw
power hedge shears
rototiller
pruning saw
Answer
#164
a
165)
What is the term used for the arrangement of soil particles into clusters or aggregates of
various shapes and sizes?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#165
166)
soil structure
soil texture
soil color
soil loam
a
What is a form of up lighting that uses small lights to highlight a particular plant, small
garden element, or work of art?
a.
b.
c.
d.
accent lighting
spot lighting
shadow lighting
mirror lighting
Answer
#166
a
167)
A ___________________ is an area between two major climatic regions and can have
cold winters and hot summers.
a.
b.
c.
d.
transition zone
translucent zone
transitory zone
transient zone
Answer
#167
a
168)
What is a common technique use in naturalistic designs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
crossing
wilding
grouping
dividing
Answer
#168
c
169)
Which of the following is a desired function of growing media?
a.
b.
c.
d.
poor drainage
limited air exchange
nutrient free
a firmness that supports a plant’s growth
Answer
#169
d
170)
What is added to a growing media to improve the quality and growth of plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil
soil filler
soil amendment
soil pH
Answer
#170
c
171)
What is a cubic yard?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a linear measurement of 3 feet
an area measurement 3 feet by 3 feet
a volume measurement 3 feet by 3 feet by 3 feet
all the above
Answer
#171
c
172)
Fifty percent of a typical soil consists of _____________ and _________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#172
173)
dirt, organic matter
sand, silt
water, air
dirt, inorganic matter
c
What is the process in which a growing media is heated to 180 degrees F for 30 minutes to
kill bacteria, weed seeds, and insects?
a.
b.
c.
d.
stratification
scarification
sterilization
pasteurization
Answer
#173
d
174)
What is tissue culture?
a. the process of connecting two plant parts together in such a way that they will
unite and grow as a single plant
b. growing fertilized seeds into mature plants
c. dividing plant roots or the entire plant into two or more plants by cutting the original
plant
d. growing plant cells or small pieces of plant tissue on an artificial medium
Answer
#174
d
175)
What is the single most important factor in successful tissue culture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#175
a
sterile techniques
high heat
evenly moist conditions
the use of cytokinins in the medium
176)
Grafting is commonly used with __________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#176
177)
vegetable plants
bedding plants
ornamental shrubs
fruit trees
c
A place, which specializes in starting plants, shrubs, and ornamental trees, which can later
be transplanted to landscape areas, is called a _____________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Orchard
Vineyard
Nursery
Farm
Answer
#177
c
178)
What identifies the amount, source, time of application, and placement of each nutrient
needed to produce the crop grown in a given field each year?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fertilizer grade
Bulk blending
Fertilizer analysis
Nutrient management plan
Answer
#178
d
179)
What are the elements needed by plants in smaller amounts, but still essential for growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
micronutrients
macronutrients
trace elements
primary nutrients
Answer
#179
a
180)
In the first of four stages of tissue culture ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#180
b
the egg is fertilized by the sperm
a callus forms
auxins promote root formation
plantlets are ready for removal
181)
The growth and use of plants for their beauty is known as _______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Olericulture
Pomology
Ornamental horticulture
Viticulture
Answer
#181
c
182)
What are the functions of the root?
a. use light energy to make food
b. anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients, store food
c. support the leaves and flowers; store food; move water, minerals and sugars
throughout the plant; and produce food
d. sexual reproduction of the plant
Answer
#182
183)
b
Most growers purchase, pot, and grow small-branched azalea plants known as
_____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
seedlings
whips
plugs
liners
Answer
#183
d
184)
What is a management practice in horticulture help minimize soil erosion?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#184
185)
d
The growing of flowering or foliage crops to maturity and sale is known as
___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#185
using terraces or a ridge or row of earth mounds placed across a slope
planting small strips grass to slow the flow of water
mulching to hold water and reduce the impact of water flow
all of the above
a
Floral production
Nursery production
Aquaculture production
Mass production
186)
What is the process of pricing products and services?
a.
b.
c.
d.
profit margin pricing
direct markup pricing
profit margin
pricing strategy
Answer
#186
d
187)
What is a common task performed by a nursery worker?
a.
b.
c.
d.
watering and fertilizing
surveying
disbudding
designing
Answer
#187
a
188)
What is the term used to describe a vertical cross-section of soil?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#188
189)
slope
soil structure
soil texture
soil profile
d
A _____________ rake has short metal blades. It is used to remove thatch that has built
up in a lawn.
a.
b.
c.
d.
garden
grading
leaf
thatch
Answer
#189
d
190)
What is the function of the flower?
a. use light energy to make food
b. anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients, store food
c. support the leaves and flowers; store food; move water, minerals and sugars
throughout the plant; and produce food
d. sexual reproduction of the plant
Answer
#190
191)
d
Flowers eventually deteriorate and die through a process called
_______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
senescence
wilting
transpiration
respiration
Answer
#191
a
192)
What is a job title for people responsible for the general upkeep of the landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
landscape designer
landscape maintenance technician
landscape construction crew leader
landscape renovator
Answer
#192
b
193)
Which of the following types of stem cuttings is made from stems 3-4 inches long that will
not become woody?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#193
194)
herbaceous cuttings
hardwood cuttings
semi-hardwood cuttings
softwood cuttings
a
What is the name given to the seed dormancy mechanism that requires a seed to undergo
cold temperatures before it will germinate?
a.
b.
c.
d.
scarification
stratification
fertilization
pollination
Answer
#194
b
195)
Cuttings taken from new growth in spring or early summer are said to be
___________________.
a. herbaceous cuttings
b. hardwood cuttings
c. semi-hardwood cuttings
d. softwood cuttings
Answer
#195
d
196)
An overabundance of nutrients in lakes or streams caused by excessive fertilizer run off is
known as ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
eutrophication
the nitrogen cycle
unavoidable damage
the nutrient cycle
Answer
#196
a
197)
Which of the following is part of a proper turfgrass maintenance program?
a.
b.
c.
d.
irrigating
managing pests
aerating
all of the above
Answer
#197
d
198)
What is a written description of what a project will include?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bid
estimate
contracted price
specifications
Answer
#198
d
199)
What are the functions of a stem?
a. use light energy to make food
b. anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients, store food
c. support the leaves and flowers; store food; move water, minerals and sugars
throughout the plant; and produce food
d. sexual reproduction of the plant
Answer
#199
c
200)
What are gas powered or electric and have a chain that cuts continuously?
a. pruning saw
b. carpenter saw
c. lopper
d. chainsaw
Answer
#200
d
201)
What is light quantity?
a.
b.
c.
d.
higher levels of blue wavelengths
etiolation
light duration
intensity of light
Answer
#201
d
202)
Which of the following is NOT a way to reduce erosion?
a.
b.
c.
d.
tillage of steep hillsides
terracing
grass waterways
conservation tillage
Answer
#202
a
203)
Plants that respond to the periods of light are _________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
photoperiodic
fluorescent
photoreceptors
phytochrome
Answer
#203
a
204)
What is a serious pollution that threatens plants in and away from urban areas?
a.
b.
c.
d.
fungi and bacteria
mildew
acid rain
pH levels
Answer
#204
c
205)
________ of a gasoline engine is the presence of an excessive amount of fuel in the
carburetor.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Choking
Backfiring
Flooding
Missing
Answer
#205
c
206)
Most bedding plants are grown from ___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
seed
tissue culture
cuttings
division
Answer
#206
a
207)
Actions that occur unintentionally are ______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
hazards
accidents
dangers
warnings
Answer
#207
b
208)
What is the first root to emerge from a germinating seed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
secondary root
apical meristem
primary root
root hair
Answer
#208
c
209)
What is action threshold?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#209
a
the predetermined level at which pest control is needed
an evaluation of all possible control measures
the reason that pests can develop resistance to certain control measures
pest control within the constraints of economic, social, and environmental
conditions
210)
Which of the following gases is used in very high amounts during photosynthesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#210
oxygen
nitrogen
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
c
211)
Which state accounts for the greatest production of foliage plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Texas
California
Florida
Hawaii
Answer
#211
c
212)
Which of the following is a mechanical method of weed control?
a.
b.
c.
d.
use of pre-emergence herbicides
hoeing or hand pulling
use of herbicides
use of post-emergence herbicides
Answer
#212
b
213)
When does shattering of collected floral materials most often occur?
a.
b.
c.
d.
when the materials are harvested in the fall
when the materials are harvested too late
when the materials are harvested too early
when materials are harvested in the spring
Answer
#213
b
214)
What is the process in which a seed changes into a developing seedling?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#214
b
pollination
germination
transpiration
translocation
215)
Rhythm in a floral design can be accomplished by _____________________.
a. crossing floral stems
b. placing lighter flowers near the center and heavier flowers near the container edge
c. repeating materials at regular intervals from the top to the bottom of an
arrangement
d. avoiding the repetition on any materials
Answer
#215
c
216)
Crocuses and dwarf iris force _____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#216
217)
very slowly
very quickly
very reluctantly
in two to three months
b
The practice of monitoring plants regularly to determine current levels of pest activity is
known as ______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
IPM
scouting
BMP
biological control
Answer
#217
b
218)
What would be considered a biotic disease?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#218
219)
a pathogen
a noninfectious disorder
an infectious and transmissible disorder
an environmental disorder
c
Pruning a shrub back to 2-4 inch stubs and piling soil on top of the plant until new shoots
have developed roots and can be divided is an example of which laying practice?
a. simple layering
b. trench layering
c. mound layering
d. air layering
Answer
#219
c
220)
Who is an agent that buys flowers and sells them to wholesalers and retailers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
wholesale florist
grower
broker
buyer
Answer
#220
c
221)
Wiring and taping wedding bouquets ___________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#221
222)
results in very sturdy and durable bouquets
is done without much labor
typically leads to lost flowers when handled
are much more attractive than those in a floral foam holder
a
What is one component of visual merchandising that attract attention, create interest, and
motivate the customer to want to buy the items viewed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
advertising
up-selling
displays
marketing
Answer
#222
c
223)
What are companies that ship products to companies in other countries?
a.
b.
c.
d.
importers
exporters
supporters
conglomerates
Answer
#223
b
224)
Biological benefits of horticulture include ______________________.
a. the use of plant parts to help produce erosion
b. speed water runoff
c. create dust
d. provide wildlife habitat
Answer
#224
d
225)
The wedding consultation is conducted ______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
between the florist and wholesaler
to determine wedding floral needs
between the minister/priest and florist
to build a wedding portfolio
Answer
#225
b
226)
At what temperature should most flowers be stored in a cooler?
a.
b.
c.
d.
28-32 F
34-38 F
40-50F
60-70F
Answer
#226
b
227)
What is the cutting that includes a leaf, the petiole, and a short piece of stem with a bud?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#227
228)
leaf-bud cutting
stem cutting
leaf cutting
semi-hardwood cutting
a
_______________ are riskier for marketing produce, yet they have potential for increased
profits.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Predetermined markets
Farmer's markets
Roadside stands
both b and c
Answer
#228
d
229)
How are chrysanthemums propagated?
a.
b.
c.
d.
seed
leaf cuttings
stem cuttings
air layering
Answer
#229
c
230)
Why are chrysanthemums disbudded?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#230
231)
to improve overall quality and produce larger flowers
to force the development of lateral buds
to prevent flowering
to produce more compact, attractive plants
a
Growers adjust day and night temperatures to control stretching of the plants, a practice
known as ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
thermo-control
JIFF
temperature manipulation
DIF
Answer
#231
d
232)
Why does the florist need to determine the unit cost of goods?
a. The unit costs of goods will be used in determining the cost and price of an
arrangement.
b. The unit costs of goods will be used in determining the how many flowers are
required to complete a design.
c. The unit costs of goods will give the employees something to do.
d. The unit costs of goods is the same as the retail cost, so it is an easy way to
determine the final price.
Answer
#232
a
233)
A structure used as a storage area, a potting area, an office, and/or a shipping area is
known as a _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#233
a
headhouse
greenhouse
outhouse
hoop house
234)
What is the propagation method in which roots form on the stem of the plant while it is still
attached to the parent plant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
layering
separation
division
grafting
Answer
#234
a
235)
Why are poinsettias often pinched?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to encourage breaks
to delay flowering
to increase plant height
to promote root growth
Answer
#235
a
236)
In what type of greenhouse conditions do Cyclamen grow best?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a hot greenhouse
a retractable roof greenhouse
a cool greenhouse
a poly covered greenhouse
Answer
#236
c
237)
Which of the following factors determine the financial returns from a greenhouse crop?
a.
b.
c.
d.
heating/cooling costs
chemical costs
labor costs
all of the above
Answer
#237
d
238)
Chrysanthemums are ____________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#238
d
photoperiodic
thermoperiodic
parasitic
both photoperiodic and thermoperiodic
239)
What is a structure enclosed by glass or plastic that allows light transmission for the
growth of plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
headhouse
greenhouse
outhouse
hoop house
Answer
#239
b
240)
What is the process of a plant becoming accustomed to less humid, darker, and cooler
environments than those found in the greenhouse?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#240
241)
d
Easter lilies require a cold period in order to flower that is known as
__________________________.
a.
b.
c.
a.
Answer
#241
242)
hardiness
vernalization
stratification
acclimatization
stratification
vernalization
freezing
scarification
b
What growth hormone is produced in the apical meristem of stems and flows downward,
causes plant cells to elongate and divide, and inhibits growth of lateral buds?
a.
b.
c.
d.
auxin
gibberellins
ethylene
abscisic acid
Answer
#242
a
243)
The leaf stem is called a __________________________.
a. midrib
b. leaf blade
c. vein
d. petiole
Answer
#243
d
244)
What greenhouse design allows the roof to be opened and closed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
lean –to
even-span
retractable roof
hoop house
Answer
#244
c
245)
Which country is considered the leader in the floriculture industry?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#245
246)
United States
Columbia
Netherlands (Holland)
South Africa
c
To achieve proportion, the height of an arrangement should be _________ times the
height of its container’s greatest dimension.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1½
3
6
9
Answer
#246
a
247)
Runoff can result in __________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#247
248)
glacial erosion
accelerated erosion
water erosion
wind erosion
c
The direction a person’s life takes as related to their choice of work is called a
____________________.
a. compass
b. career
c. job
d. task
Answer
#248
b
249)
The typical planting station today is ____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#249
250)
movable and only the top 1/3 is filled with growing media
permanent and filled with growing media
movable and filled with growing media
permanent and only the top 1/3 is filled with growing media
c
What are animals with three distinct body parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs
of legs, and either two, one, or no pairs of wings?
a.
b.
c.
d.
insects
mites
spiders
nematodes
Answer
#250
a
251)
What is a tool used to measure plants tree trunk diameter?
a.
b.
c.
d.
spade
hand pruners
dimensioner
caliper
Answer
#251
d
252)
_________ are trace elements required in small amounts.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Deficiencies
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Primary nutrients
Answer
#252
c
253)
At what night temperature should daffodils be forced?
a. 40 F
b. 50 F
c. 60 F
d. 70 F
Answer
#253
c
254)
A good alternative to hand drawn landscape designs is ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#254
255)
b
Describing a product in order to entice the customer to buy it is known as which of the
following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#255
256)
placing plants on the site where they look good
CAD (computer aided drafting)
store bought generic plans
doing what the neighbor has done
advertising
marketing
merchandising
image
a
What is a method of floral preservation that involves bunching of the collected material and
suspending them upside down?
a.
b.
c.
d.
covering
glycerinizing
pressing
hanging
Answer
#256
d
257)
How much cold treatment does an amaryllis need to produce flowers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#257
258)
none
3-4 weeks
15-16 weeks
30-31 weeks
a
Rounding a product’s price downward, for instance to $12.99 from $13.00, is an example
of which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nest baskets
tie-in pricing
odd end pricing
multiple unit pricing
Answer
#258
c
259)
Before digging or trenching _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#259
260)
soil should be tested
utilities should be marked
existing trees should be removed
trees should be pruned to account for the root loss
b
Who would be given charge of the day-to-day tasks involved in producing one or more
crops?
a.
b.
c.
d.
greenhouse manager
production manager
marketing manager
grower
Answer
#260
d
261)
What is an advantage of containerized nursery stock?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Larger plants can be harvested.
Plants can become pot bound.
Soil dries out quickly.
A greater number of plants can be grown in a smaller area.
Answer
#261
d
262)
In soil formation, what is the most desirable single soil parent material?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#262
d
alluvium
bedrock
organic matter
loess
263)
What term fits the definition of a short, flattened stem that bears fleshy, food-storage
leaves?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bulb
corm
tuber
rhizome
Answer
#263
a
264)
What is a container with a rounded base which fits the curving contour of a
casket lid?
a.
b.
c.
d.
casket saddle
horse saddle
casket bridge
flat vase
Answer
#264
a
265)
Flowers have been used in honoring the dead since ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ancient Egyptian times
Victorian times
World War II
Civil War times
Answer
#265
a
266)
One rose for $2.00 or three for $5.00 would be an example of this concept
a.
b.
c.
d.
leader pricing
tie-in pricing
odd end pricing
multiple unit pricing
Answer
#266
d
267)
Where is a corsage worn?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#267
a
on the left shoulder
on the right shoulder
in the hair
always on the wrist
268)
What is a common term used for the center of interest in a design?
a.
b.
c.
d.
hot spot
focal point
zoom site
middle range
Answer
#268
b
269)
What is ratio mark-up?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a method to determine the unit price of goods
a method for pricing design work
a method used in buying flowers
a method used to determine fair wages
Answer
#269
b
270)
What are chemical elements essential for plant growth and development?
a.
b.
c.
d.
fertilizers
nitrates
nutrients
soluble salts
Answer
#270
c
271)
Why are accessories sometimes added to centerpieces?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to draw attention from the flowers
to create a “busy” looking design
to create a certain atmosphere or interest
to give the designer something to do
Answer
#271
c
272)
Irrigation of interior plantings is increasingly accomplished by ____________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
c
hand watering
irrigation booms and capillary mats
subirrigation and drip irrigation systems
ebb and flood systems
#272
273)
Cotyledons do which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#273
274)
d
An observation for the site analysis plan that includes notes on people at the house from
the street and people looking from the inside of the house would be classified as
_________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#274
275)
276)
An observation for the site analysis plan that includes notes on people at the house from
the street and people looking from the inside of the house would be classified as
_________________.
privacy
microclimate
macroclimate
views
d
A dozen roses arranged in a vase with baby’s breath or red and white carnations and
mums in an arrangement with a plush animal or chocolates as
an accessory is often associated with which holiday?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#276
privacy
microclimate
macroclimate
views
d
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#275
form the first roots of the plant
develop into the true stems
from the first true leaves
provide food for the developing embryo
a
Valentine’s Day
St. Patrick’s Day
Halloween
Columbus Day
277)
Which propagation method has grown tremendously in the foliage plant industry?
a.
b.
c.
d.
tissue culture
sexual propagation
layering
genetic engineering
Answer
#277
a
278)
What is the number one cooling system used in greenhouses today?
a.
b.
c.
d.
central air conditioning
fog systems
swamp coolers
fan and pad cooling systems
Answer
#278
d
279)
How do tropical plants differ from most plants native to North America?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#279
280)
They are prettier.
They like dry interior conditions.
They do not go dormant.
They provide fruit.
c
Which of the following environmental control systems is considered to be low cost and
easy to install?
a.
b.
c.
d.
thermostat
analog controls
computer controls
computerized environmental management systems
Answer
#280
a
281)
What are the colors of light that have the greatest influence on the rate of photosynthesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#281
b
green and yellow
red and blue
green and red
yellow and violet
282)
A design is said to have _________________ balance when it has the same physical
balance on both sides of its central axis.
a.
b.
c.
d.
asymmetrical
unequal
counter
symmetrical
Answer
#282
d
283)
What is the area that includes such activities as playing ball, barbecuing, entertaining on
decks or patios, and sunbathing?
a.
b.
c.
d.
public area
outdoor living area
service area
entertainment area
Answer
#283
b
284)
How are chrysanthemums classified?
a.
b.
c.
d.
by response group, plant height, and flower forms
by leaf shape
by life expectancy and origin
by branching habit and ease of propagation
Answer
#284
a
285)
What do commercial floral preservatives contain?
a. a sugar as a supplemental food source, an acidifier to decrease the chance of
stem clogging, and a bactericide to kill bacteria in a vase or stem
b. a complex carbohydrate for energy, a acidifier to decrease the chance of stem
clogging, and a fungicide to kill fungi
c. proteins for cellular health, lime to raise water pH, and bactericide to kill bacteria in
the water
d. essential elements for plant growth, lime to raise water pH, and fungicide to kill
bacteria
Answer
#285
a
286)
What is the term used to describe when topsoil is removed at an excessive rate, usually
resulting from human activity?
a.
b.
c.
d.
natural erosion
accelerated erosion
water erosion
wind erosion
Answer
#286
b
287)
What is the term used for walls that help to screen views and define space in a landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
outdoor floor
outdoor ceiling
enclosures
brick or stone
Answer
#287
c
288)
What is needed to force perennials to flower for improved sales?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#288
289)
d
Pond water circulation rate should be once every one to two hours, less if
there is a filter device in use (once every four to six hours) for which of the following
reason?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#289
290)
It improves oxygen content of the water.
It reduces water quality.
It increases the collection of debris on the water surface.
It keeps snail populations in check.
a
What is given if there is more than one company that is competing for the client’s
business?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#290
no special treatments
heavy fertilization as the plants are sprouting
limited watering
day length, temperature, and juvenility may play a role in forcing depending on the
species
a
bid
estimate
contracted price
specifications
291)
Hydroponics is defined as _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
growing plants with their roots in a medium other than soil
growing plants with their roots in only water
growing plants under high intensity lights
growing plants in a soilless mix
Answer
#291
a
292)
What is an important factor when nursery stock is placed in cold/refrigerated storage?
a. Plants should be stored shortly after new growth has appeared.
b. Plant tissue must be mature before storing, and leaves should be removed before
storage.
c. Plants should be stored in temperatures no lower than 45 F.
d. Only large trees can tolerate cold storage.
Answer
#292
b
293)
What is the most reliable method of watering greenhouse plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
spaghetti tubing
ebb and flood systems
irrigation booms
hand watering
Answer
#293
d
294)
What is the use of floral tape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to secure floral foam to the container
to hold flower bunches together during shipping
to cover wires and stems in corsage making
to label products for sale
Answer
#294
c
295)
Table centerpieces should be_______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
attractive from one side
attractive from all views
high to block unwanted views
in a vase
Answer
#295
b
296)
What is a pest control technique that includes the use of living organisms that are
predators to control pests?
a.
b.
c.
d.
biological pest control
cultural pest control
chemical pest control
genetic pest control
Answer
#296
a
297)
Most field grown shade trees are harvested in ____________ year(s).
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
2-3
3-8
8-12
Answer
#297
c
298)
What should be noted on a site analysis plan?
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil and drainage conditions
types of trees that should be planted
the temperature at the time of visit
where the patio should be located
Answer
#298
a
299)
What are small plants grown in small amounts of medium in divided trays?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#299
300)
seedlings
whips
plugs
liners
c
What is probably the largest and most important business purchase when establishing a
nursery?
a.
b.
c.
d.
land
labor
transportation
utilities
Answer
#300
a
301)
Rabbits, deer, and mice can cause damage by chewing the bark of the plant disrupting
moisture and energy flow within the plant, a condition known as _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
girdling
teething
blockage
energy interruption
Answer
#301
a
302)
When installing a pool liner be sure to _______________________________.
a. expose portions of it to UV light
b. remove any rocks, debris, or roots; smooth out lumps and holes by tamping in
loose soil; and add a 2 inch layer of fine, damp sand over all surfaces
c. put the liner in a chilled area to keep it from expanding
d. place it a bit off-center
Answer
#302
b
303)
What is a use for the hardiness zone map?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#303
304)
a
What would contain a list of information including the client’s name, the scale used in the
drawing, the date, and the designer’s name?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#304
305)
a symbol
the title block
a plant list
a list of notes
b
What is the spongy fibrous material spun from molten volcanic rock and used as a
hydroponics substrate called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#305
It helps in plant selection.
It helps to locate plants.
It helps to locate the nursery.
It helps to decorate the office
c
perlite
vermiculite
rockwool
peat moss
306)
What is a small groove cut all the way across on the underside of the channel
which breaks the surface tension of water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#306
307)
a gunite
a EPDM liner
a canyon
a reglet
d
What term describes the pleasing relationship between size and shape among objects and
parts of objects?
a.
b.
c.
d.
proportion
balance
rhythm
dominance
Answer
#307
a
308)
How is balance important to a landscape design?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It provides a sense of stability or equilibrium to a design.
It offers a change or break from the norm.
It is the point in a design that grabs the viewer’s eye.
It ensures a formal appearance.
Answer
#308
a
309)
What term is used that refers to sicknesses caused by disease organisms?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#309
310)
b
When planting B&B trees and shrubs, always dig the planting hole ____________ wider
than the soil ball to allow space for future root growth.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
infestation
infection
invasion
influx
a
at least 12"
at least 3”
at least 6”
at least 24”
#310
311)
What size ribbon is use for most corsage work?
a.
b.
c.
d.
#3
#9
#24
#40
Answer
#311
a
312)
Reception flowers should _____________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
differ in style from those in the church
be elaborate
be much the same style as those in the church
be in vases
Answer
#312
c
313)
What is the steepness, length, shape, and direction of a slope?
a.
b.
c.
d.
erosion of soil
moisture in the soil
topography of soil
rainwater runoff
Answer
#313
c
314)
Which of the following is an environmental cause of stress on plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#314
315)
design flaws
light
humans
noise
b
Which wiring method involves placing a wire through the calyx and bending the wire
parallel to the stem?
a.
b.
c.
d.
daisy hook
hairpin
wrap around
pierce
Answer
#315
c
316)
Why is repetition important?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It provides a sense of stability or equilibrium to a design.
It offers a change or break from the norm.
It is the point in a design that grabs the viewer’s eye.
When objects are repeated, they simplify and unify a composition.
Answer
#316
d
317)
What are contingency costs?
a. insurance against unforeseen problems like uncooperative weather, that would
detain the completion of the landscape
b. the costs of operating the business
c. a written statement of the costs of installing a landscape plan
d. the money left after all the costs of the operation is complete
Answer
#317
a
318)
On what does a designer record careful on site observations?
a.
b.
c.
d.
base plan
family inventory sheet
site analysis sheet
resume
Answer
#318
c
319)
What is the portion of the landscape property that is seen by the neighbors called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
public area
outdoor living area
service area
entertainment area
Answer
#319
a
320)
How would business costs including plant materials, pots, chemicals, and
growing media be classified?
a. direct materials cost
b. labor cost
c. overhead costs
d. marketing costs
Answer
#320
a
321)
Why must flowers be bought and shipped very quickly?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are perishable.
To make money before the buyer changes his mind
Some are poisonous.
There is little room for storage.
Answer
#321
a
322)
What is profit?
a. insurance against unforeseen problems like uncooperative weather, that would
detain the completion of the landscape
b. the costs of operating the business
c. a written statement of the costs of installing a landscape plan
d. the money left after all the costs of the operation is complete
Answer
#322
d
323)
What should be noted on a site analysis plan?
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil and drainage conditions
types of trees that should be planted
the temperature at the time of visit
where the patio should be located
Answer
#323
a
324)
Shrubs should be drawn on a landscape plan at _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
half their mature size
their size at the time of planting
their mature size
about 2 times their mature size
Answer
#324
c
325)
What is the lighting of an object, area, or surface from above?
a. silhouette lighting
b. accent lighting
c. up lighting
d. down lighting
Answer
#325
d
326)
When an object is in scale, it is said to ______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
grab the viewer’s eye
have an asymmetrical appearance
be in proportion to its surroundings
unify a composition
Answer
#326
c
327)
What term is used for the hardening or setting of concrete?
a.
b.
c.
d.
screeding
forming
curing
firming
Answer
#327
c
328)
What is the 3-dimensional outline of the arrangement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
shape
design element
form
line
Answer
#328
c
329)
How should foliage plants be fertilized indoors?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#329
330)
never
sparingly, perhaps every 4-6 weeks
constant feed with every watering
only with slow release fertilizers
b
What is a single electric switch in an irrigation controller that runs a solenoid valve on or
off, controlling the flow of water to a single sprinkler circuit?
a. a irrigation controller
b. a breaker
c. a fuse
d. a station
Answer
#330
d
331)
Technically, patios are made from which material?
a.
b.
c.
d.
concrete
concrete, or brick
concrete, brick, or flagstone
a wide range of materials including concrete, brick, flagstone, and wood
Answer
#331
d
332)
Whether the wedding will be formal or informal determines ______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the style of wedding flowers
the cost of the wedding flowers
whether roses will be used
whether centerpieces are necessary
Answer
#332
a
333)
What is the function of a backflow prevention device?
a. It prevents contamination of drinking water by not allowing the irrigation water to
flow backward into the water supply
b. It ensures a steady flow rate.
c. It keeps the irrigation system safe from dirty water.
d. It regulates the re-cycling of water in ornamental pools
Answer
#333
a
334)
What is the term used for adding color to a landscape plan?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#334
335)
rendering
sprucing up
presenting
enhancing
a
A grid or a framework of materials that provide support for the flowers is commonly used
with what type of arrangement?
a. vase
b. circular centerpiece
c. corsage
d. bud vase
Answer
#335
a
336)
Plants, which live for three or more years are referred to as ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
annuals
biennials
perennials
herbaceous
Answer
#336
c
337)
When is the best time to prune deciduous trees?
a.
b.
c.
d.
late winter and early spring
late spring and early summer
late summer and early fall
late fall and early winter
Answer
#337
a
338)
What is a mistake made in prairie landscaping?
a. placing plants too far apart
b. eliminating all weeds
c. planting too many of one species
d. mixing tall and short plants that create a rough appearance
Answer
#338
d
339)
When should removal of thatch be done?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#339
b
in mid-summer
during the dormant season before the prairie plants initiates growth
twice a year, once in spring and once in fall
never
340)
The two names used to identify plants based on binomial nomenclature are
__________________ and __________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#340
341)
b
Some jobs and occupations related to golf course maintenance and design
include:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#341
342)
Phylum and kingdom
Genus and species
Order and family
Class and variety
farm manager and spray technician
superintendent, assistant superintendent, and course architect
grower, production superintendent, and marketing manager
writer, researcher, propagator, and educational director
b
The system of soil classification used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey has
________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
two categories including kingdom, and phylum
six categories including order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series
four categories including order, family, genus, and species
five categories including sols, intergrades, extragrades, phases, and typic subgroups
Answer
#342
b
343)
What is land on which soil is worked and crops are planted, cared for, and harvested?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#343
344)
acreage
forage
rangeland
cropland
d
What are soil groups within one class, designated by adding a small letter e, w, s, or c to
the class numeral, which indicates the kind of limitation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
capability classes
capability subclasses
farmland use classes
land use subclasses
Answer
#344
b
345)
What four needs does soil supply to an individual plant?
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water, and support
water, sand, silt, and clay
anchorage, water, oxygen, and nutrients
organic matter, anchorage, carbon dioxide, and nutrients
Answer
#345
c
346)
What is the importance of soil as a life-supporting layer?
a. Oxygen, temperature, water, carbon and all other nutrients that living things need are
exchanged in the soil.
b. Plant roots need oxygen to grow.
c. Carbon is the element most essential to all life.
d. Some nutrients are released from rocks in the earth’s crust when rock is broken down
by weather, plants, and other factors.
Answer
#346
347)
a
What term is defined as a cypress wood, bark or straw ground cover that helps to prevent
frost heaving during winter, conserves moisture, and reduces weed competition.
a.
b.
c.
d.
mulching
staking
pruning
de-thatching
Answer
#347
a
348)
Which of the following is a benefit of urban forest and urban trees?
a. Trees can raise the level of sound pollution near places of work and residence
improving quality of life.
b. Trees have a warming effect on hot summer days.
c. An acre of trees produces enough carbon dioxide everyday for 18 people.
d. Although difficult to measure, trees have a positive psychological affect on humans.
Answer
#348
c
349)
Once prairie plants are well established they require _________________.
a. daily watering
b. weekly watering
c. watering during times of drought
d. no additional water
Answer
#349
c
350)
Which of the following is an objective for an urban forestry management program?
a. inventorying trees as to species, size, age, and value
b. care and maintenance of existing trees
c. removal of trees due to death, decline, or safety considerations and installation of trees
to maintain the urban forest
d. all the above
Answer
#350
351)
d
What concept involves cuts made that slow the growth of a branch, and is accomplished
by removing lateral branches and/or reducing the length of the parent branch causing the
branch to become less dominant?
a.
b.
c.
d.
compartmentalization
subordination
thinning back
heading
Answer
#351
b
352)
What is the difference between farm land-use and political land-use planning
a. Farmland-use planning deals with questions of political priorities, while political landuse pertains to zoning.
b. Political land-use planning refers to the development of a cropping and livestock
production system and farmland-use pertains to zoning.
c. Farmland-use planning refers to the development of a cropping and livestock
production system, while political land-use planning deals with questions of
political priorities.
d. There is no difference.
Answer
#352
c
353)
Why should care be taken not to cut into the branch bark ridge or collar?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It would weaken the structural strength of the tree.
A callus would fail to form.
These structures contain chemicals that inhibit the spread of disease.
The limb could fall awkwardly placing the worker in danger
Answer
#353
c
354)
Which of the following is an advantage to hydroponic culture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#354
355)
The initial investment in a commercial hydroponic system is high.
Some diseases can spread rapidly throughout the system.
Flower pollination can be difficult in greenhouses.
Hydroponic systems allow for every plant’s optimal nutrient needs to be addressed
d
Seed plants whose seeds develop within a fruiting body are known as
______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
gymnosperms
monocots
dicots
angiosperms
Answer
#355
d
356)
What must hydroponic systems supply to plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#356
357)
soil, water, light, and air
support, water, nutrients, and air
aggregates, water, and nutrients
pollinators, water, heat, and air
b
______________________________________ is the first step in describing what a
person wants to do with their life.
a.
b.
c.
d.
education
training
goal setting
instruction
Answer
#357
c
358)
What is the process by which a plant releases stored chemical energy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cellular respiration
fertilization
photosynthesis
pollination
Answer
#358
a
359)
Asexual propagation involves ____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
pollination
reproduction of plants using only vegetative parts
new genetic combinations in the offspring
fertilization of an egg by sperm
Answer
#359
b
360)
What factor determines the color of surface soils?
a.
b.
c.
d.
humus
the amount of organic matter
prairie grass
hardwood forests
Answer
#360
b
361)
What is the most efficient method to remove thatch?
a.
b.
c.
d.
prescribed burning
mowing
hand cutting
herbicides
Answer
#361
a
362)
What is the propagation method in which plant parts are simply removed and planted.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#362
363)
layering
separation
division
grafting
b
What is a form of asexual propagation when a portion of the stem is cut and placed in
growing media to produce roots?
a. budding
b. grafting
c. leaf cutting
d. stem cutting
Answer
#363
d
364)
The way water flows through the environment is known as the ___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#364
365)
Evaporate
Precipitate
Transpirate
Hydrologic cycle
d
Those practices that combine scientific research with practical knowledge to optimize
yields and increase crop quality while maintaining environmental integrity are known
as_____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
best management practices
action threshold
integrated pest management
economic or aesthetic injury
Answer
#365
a
366)
Which components of air are critical for photosynthesis and respiration?
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbon dioxide and oxygen
healthy roots
water vapor
pollutants
Answer
#366
a
367)
What are some factors that can make the management of trees difficult in urban forestry?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#367
368)
air pollution
expansive growing space
loose, well-drained soils
all the above
a
The two important segments of the ornamental horticulture industry are_______________
and _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Olericulture and floriculture
Pomology and landscape horticulture
Floriculture and landscape horticulture
Olericulture and pomology
Answer
#368
c
369)
Irrigation should be used before the __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ribbon test
soil moisture content
water damage
wilting point
Answer
#369
d
370)
Danger where risk is present is a _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#370
371)
caution
warning
hazard
accident
c
Soil water that tightly clings to the soil particles and is usually not available to plants is
referred to as ___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
gravitational moisture
hydroscopic moisture
capillary moisture
soil moisture tension
Answer
#371
b
372)
Landscape maintenance work involves ______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#372
a
mowing, pruning, weed control, and fertilization
mass production of seeds and plants
growing floral plants and materials
preparing sites for landscaping
373)
The amount of moisture the soil can hold for plants is referred to as
__________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
aeration
porosity
moisture holding capacity
available water holding capacity
Answer
#373
d
374)
When pollen from a plant pollinates a flower of the same plant it is __________________.
a. self-pollination
b. cross-pollination
c. fertilization
Answer
#374
375)
a
The culture of plants for food, comfort, and beautification purposes is known
as_______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Horticulture
Botany
Technology
Biology
Answer
#375
a
376)
What is the term used for the selective removal or reduction of certain plant parts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
limbing
bucking
pruning
lopping
Answer
#376
c
377)
In what ways are soils classified?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#377
c
sand, silt, and clay
organic matter –rich and organic matter-poor
texture, depth, color, structure, consistency, and permeability
well drained or soggy and heavy or light
378)
The goal of a pest management program is to keep pest populations below
the point at which plant losses due to the pests are equal to the cost of control, also
known as __________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#378
379)
best management practices
action threshold
integrated pest management
economic or aesthetic injury
d
How would pasteurizing growing media, disinfecting containers, tools
and benches, and removing dead leaves, flowers, and stems be classified as an integrated
pest management practice?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pest entry prevention
crop inspection
weed control
sanitation practices
Answer
#379
d
380)
The primary auxin is ___________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
apical dominance
naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)
indoleacetic acid (IAA)
indolebutyric acid (IBA)
Answer
#380
c
381)
The release of water from plants as a result of photosynthesis is known as
_______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
respiration
evaporation
transpiration
condensation
Answer
#381
c
382)
The culture or care of trees is known as ______________________.
a. entomology
b. ecology
c. arboriculture
d. horticulture
Answer
#382
c
383)
Personal protective equipment, or PPE, ___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
are hot and uncomfortable
consist of devices worn to help protect people from injury
are hazardous
prevent accidents
Answer
#383
b
384)
What are the nonagricultural uses of soil?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#384
385)
d
What are the broadest groups on a soils map, designated by Roman numerals I through
VIII, with the numbers indicating progressively greater limitations and narrower choices for
practical use of the land?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#385
386)
recreational uses
engineering projects
disposal of wastes
all the above
capability classes
capability subclasses
farmland use classes
land use subclasses
a
The popularity of horticulture has resulted in ______________________,
_______________________, and _________________________________.
a. a decrease of jobs, a decrease in food for humans and animals, and an decrease
in aesthetic pleasure
b. an increase in jobs, increase in food for humans and animals, and an decrease in
aesthetic pleasure
c. an increase in jobs, increase in food for humans and animals, and an increase in
aesthetic pleasure
d. an decrease in jobs, increase in food for humans and animals, and a decrease in
aesthetic pleasure
Answer
#386
c
387)
What is an advantage of automated greenhouse systems?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They greatly reduce labor costs.
They are useful in small greenhouse operations.
They lack sophistication.
There is no evidence of any advantages.
Answer
#387
a
388)
What are the two insect groups that cause the most damage to trees?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#388
389)
b
Which of the following greenhouse heating systems delivers even heat through a network
of pipes?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#389
390)
crawling insects and scooting insects
chewing insects and sucking insects
ants and termites
mites and nematodes
hot water
steam
infrared
unit heaters
a
How would a greenhouse business that produces a variety of crops sold directly to the
public through their own retail outlet be classified?
a.
b.
c.
d.
specialty grower
wholesale grower
retail grower
nursery
Answer
#390
c
391)
What is the number one pest problem on poinsettias?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#391
b
aphids
white fly
thrips
ladybugs
392)
Most asexually propagated material responds best to which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a dense moist, wet medium
a loose, moist, sterile medium and humid conditions
a loose, moist, highly fertile medium and humid conditions
a dense, moist, sterile medium and dry air
Answer
#392
b
393)
Before opening or handling any chemical, __________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
it is important to hold your nose
it is important to think about killing all of the pests
it is important to wash your hands
it is important to first read the label
Answer
#393
d
394)
What is a rule of thumb for dividing perennials?
a. Divide spring flowering perennials in late summer or autumn and summer
flowering perennials in early spring.
b. Divide spring flowering perennials in early spring and summer flowering perennials
in late summer or autumn.
c. Divide both spring flowering perennials and summer flower perennials in July.
d. Divide both spring flowering perennials and summer flower perennials in
November.
Answer
#394
a
395)
What is the term used for an organism that causes disease?
a.
b.
c.
d.
weed
insect
arachnid
pathogen
Answer
#395
d
396)
What are two purposes behind packaging plant materials?
a. protecting the design from floral cooler temperatures, and providing shop image
promotion
b. protecting the design from outside weather, and providing shop image promotion
and advertising
protecting the design from outside weather, and protecting the design from
airborne bacteria and fungal spores
d. protecting the design from rough handling, and protecting the shop image
c.
Answer
#396
a
397)
What is water vapor in the air that affects plant growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
acid rain
frequent rain
particulates
humidity
Answer
#397
d
398)
What is shelf life?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the period a plant maintains health while on display for sale
the period a greenhouse bench lasts before it rots or rusts
the period of seasonal sales
the period a pesticide lasts before it is put on the shelf
Answer
#398
a
399)
What is the rule of thumb for the depth at which seeds should be planted?
a.
b.
c.
d.
on the surface of the medium
one inch deep
one times the greatest diameter of the seed
three times the greatest diameter of the seed
Answer
#399
d
400)
What is the soil pH of most productive soils?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#400
a
4.0 to 9.0
1.0
0
14
401)
Pruning is sometimes done as a means of controlling diseases by
_______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#401
402)
allowing light penetration and air circulation
decreasing water stress
encouraging disease resistance
promoting grass growth
a
The machine that removes small plants from plug trays and transplants them
directly to pots is called which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
automated seeder
automated pot filler
automated transplanter
automated plugger
Answer
#402
c
403)
How are Easter lilies propagated?
a.
b.
c.
d.
asexually by stem and leaf-bud cuttings
sexually by seed
asexually by bulblets and scalettes
sexually by bulblets
Answer
#403
c
404)
What skills should a grower possess?
a.
b.
c.
d.
an ability to be quiet
an ability to work alone
an understanding of the crops being grown and how to care for them
an understanding of grading plants, storing the plants, packaging and shipping the
plants, and ordering materials to perform these tasks
Answer
#404
c
405)
Poinsettias are ____________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#405
d
photoperiodic
thermoperiodic
parasitic
both photoperiodic and thermoperiodic
406)
Why is it important to avoid wetting the leaves of African violets when watering?
a. It is avoided to reduce foliar diseases that are a real problem
b. Cold water on the leaves causes enzymes to coagulate creating unsightly white
spots on the leaves.
c. African violets perform poorly in high humidity.
d. It is a waste of water.
Answer
#406
b
407)
The area of horticulture that involves the production of vegetable food crops is
___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#407
408)
Botany
Vegology
Olericulture
Floriculture
c
A piece of equipment used to transplant medium size trees is referred to as a
___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ball maker
tree digger
trencher
mechanical tree spade
Answer
#408
d
409)
__________ is the best time to establish the cool-season turfgrasses.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Spring
Summer
Fall
Winter
Answer
#409
c
410)
What is the selective removal or reduction of certain plant parts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
rejuvenation
renewal
pruning
shearing
Answer
#410
c
411)
Which way of doing business involves a business owned by one person?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sole-proprietorship
proprietor
partnership
corporation
Answer
#411
a
412)
What is the hydrologic cycle?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a universal solvent
a good coolant for organisms
a bipolar molecule with positive and negative charges
exchange of water between earth and its atmosphere as a result of evaporation
and condensation
Answer
#412
d
413)
Grape growers must identify markets for their grapes, especially if they are selling table
grapes, which are _______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
uncommon
used in wine making
perishable
none of the above
Answer
#413
c
414)
What word is used to describe the presence of oxygen?
a.
b.
c.
d.
aeration
hydroponics
pore spaces
percolation
Answer
#414
a
415)
Why is phytochrome important for plants to respond to light?
a. It gives off red and orange wavelengths.
b. It gives off red and blue wavelengths.
c. It is a blue-green pigment that absorbs the light wavelengths.
d. It places plants in groups based on responses to light duration.
Answer
#415
416)
c
______________ are the most reliable sources of marketing produce, but may offer the
lowest prices.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Predetermined markets
Farmer's markets
Roadside stands
none of the above
Answer
#416
a
417)
A leaf consisting of a single blade and petiole is considered a ___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#417
418)
compound leaf
whorled leaf
simple leaf
alternate leaf
c
A flower that has sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils is said to be a
_____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
perfect flower
imperfect flower
complete flower
incomplete flower
Answer
#418
c
419)
Excessive water in the root zone can limit available oxygen resulting in
________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#419
a
root death
rapid growth
healthy plants
fresh smelling, white roots
420)
A pest management strategy that uses a combination of management practices to reduce
pest damage with the least disruption to the environment is a good definition for which of
the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
best management practices
action threshold
integrated pest management
economic or aesthetic injury
Answer
#420
c
421)
What is an automated system of moving greenhouse plants that is growing in popularity?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#421
422)
bucket brigade type of work conducted by many workers
tray mechanization
wheel barrow types of carts
computerized robots
b
In tissue culture, the pieces of plants grown on an artificial medium in sterile conditions are
called ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
micropropogation
parent plants
explants
plantlet
Answer
#422
c
423)
Sexual reproduction involves which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
genetically identical offspring
offspring called clones
new genetic combinations in the offspring
reproduction without the need of egg or sperm cells
Answer
#423
c
424)
What is the value of energy curtains?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They maintain temperatures and reduce heating and cooling costs.
They provide light that will simulate a short-day effect.
They maintain cool temperatures year-round.
There really is no particular value.
Answer
#424
425)
a
One measure to prevent disease problems in the landscape is to
____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#425
426)
plant disease resistant trees and shrubs
water the foliage of trees and shrubs
use insecticides when necessary
plant containerized nursery stock
a
Which of the following inputs would be considered a minimal cost in producing a
greenhouse crop?
a.
b.
c.
d.
labor costs
heating/cooling costs
seed costs
none of the above
Answer
#426
c
427)
What root structure greatly increases the surface area of the root?
a.
b.
c.
d.
epidermis
tap root
root cap
root hair
Answer
#427
d
428)
The color of subsoil is determined by the status of _________ found in the soil.
a.
b.
c.
d.
moisture
drainage
iron compounds
oxygen
Answer
#428
c
429)
As plants continue to reproduce, what do they pass onto their offspring, which enables
them to survive?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#429
430)
genes
eggs
pollen
sperm
a
Plants, which produced and stored food during the first growing season, flower only during
their second season, then die are classified as ____________________
a.
b.
c.
d.
annuals
biennials
perennials
herbaceous
Answer
#430
b
431)
Why would grass clippings be left on the grass surface rather than being bagged?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They can be attractive when in abundance.
They reduce the likelihood of disease.
They can return about 25% of nitrogen to the lawn.
They add to the thatch layer.
Answer
#431
c
432)
What can be used to test engine horsepower?
a.
b.
c.
d.
dynamometer
compression gauge
spark tester
multi meter
Answer
#432
a
433)
A fertilizer that dissolves over a period of time and slowly releases
nutrients is considered a _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#433
d
granular fertilizer
liquid fertilizer
foliar fertilizer
slow release fertilizer
434)
Unlike estimates, a ___________________________ cannot be changed.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#434
435)
a
____________ costs are incurred from growing the crop and the total costs
increases as production increases. They may include the plants, pots, fertilizer,
chemicals, labor, and growing media.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#435
436)
bid
estimate sheet
contingency cost
specification
fixed
indirect
demand
direct
d
__________ is the amount required to replace the amount that will be removed by the crop
to be grown.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Maintenance
Buildup
Pre-emergence
Top dressing
Answer
#436
a
437)
What is the process of water soaking into the soil?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#437
438)
percolation
permeation
infiltration
leaching
c
______________________ rakes are lightweight magnesium rakes up to
42 inches wide. They have short, rigid teeth and are used for smoothing
and final grading prior to seeding a lawn and for lightly raking in the seed
after it is sown.
a. garden
b. grading
c. leaf
d. thatch
Answer
#438
439)
b
What is a tractor drive that powers pull behind equipment such as a fertilizer
spreader?
a.
b.
c.
d.
hydraulic cylinders
power take off (PTO) shaft
backhoe
diesel motor
Answer
#439
b
440)
What is generally the most expensive advertising medium?
a.
b.
c.
d.
television
radio
newspapers
word of mouth
Answer
#440
a
441)
What is the name of a hydraulically driven rotating chain with blades that is used to
dig a narrow channel for the placement of concrete footings or electric wiring?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#441
442)
b
In planting fruit trees, what is the purpose of leaving a saucer shaped surface with a collar
built around the edge of the saucer?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#442
post hole digger
trencher
forklift
shredder
b
It looks good.
It serves as a catch basin when watering the tree.
It keeps mulch from blowing away.
It promotes rapid root growth.
443)
A turfgrass _______________ consists of more than two varieties or cultivars of seeds
within the same species.
a.
b.
c.
d.
seed mixture
seed sort
seed blend
none of the above
Answer
#443
c
444)
The pathogens or disease causing organisms that cause the greatest number of diseases
of turfgrasses are ____________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
bacteria
fungi
protozoa
virus
Answer
#444
b
445)
Which elements are called primary macronutrients?
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbohydrates and proteins
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
fats and nucleic acids
Calcium, magnesium and sulfur
Answer
#445
b
446)
The soil for Christmas tree production should be __________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#446
447)
wet and slightly acidic
wet and slightly basic
well-drained and slightly acidic
well-drained and slightly basic
c
_________________ herbicides are used to control annual weeds and are
applied before the weed seeds germinate.
a. pre-emergence
b. post-emergence
c. selective
d. non-selective
Answer
#447
a
448)
What is irrigation scheduling?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#448
449)
Collecting information on soil moisture without going into the field.
Providing the right amount of water at the right time.
Applying chemicals like fertilizers or herbicides.
Watering from below, using capillary rise from a zone of saturating soil lower in soil
profile.
b
When removing a wagon tire and working on the wheel bearings, make sure that the
wagon axle is supported by a _________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
cherry picker
handy man jack
hydraulic jack
jackstand
Answer
#449
d
450)
What environmental conditions are necessary for seed germination?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#450
451)
b
____________ costs are the costs incurred whether or not the crop is produced.
These include depreciation, insurance, interest, repairs, and taxes.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#451
cold and dry temperatures
moisture, air, warm temperatures, light or darkness
proper humidity and temperature during storage
hard and thick seed coat
a
fixed
demand
direct
supply
452)
What are some factors of climate that act to break down the rock and minerals during the
development of soils?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#452
453)
d
Grapes like bright sunshine, warmth, __________________, freedom from frost, and
_______________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#453
454)
mineral matter
glaciers
humid and arid regions
rainfall, freezing, thawing, wind and sunlight
poor air circulation / well-drained soil
good air circulation / well-drained soil
poor air circulation / poorly-drained soil
good air circulation / poorly-drained soil
b
Which soil horizon fits the following description? “An organic layer made up of partially
decayed plant and animal debris that generally occurs in undisturbed soil such as in a
forest.”
a.
b.
c.
d.
“O” horizon
“A” horizon
“B” horizon
“R” horizon
Answer
#454
a
455)
What is overhead cost?
a. costs directly related to the production of a product or service
b. how much money the business actually spent on producing the product or
service sold
c. the fixed costs of running a business
d. the amount of money a customer pays for a product or service
Answer
#455
c
456)
Moisture holding capacity is determined primarily by __________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
slope
soil structure
soil texture
soil profile
Answer
#456
c
457)
The fertilizer analysis states the ___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#457
458)
percentage of primary nutrients
percentage of macronutrients
pounds of micronutrients
pounds of macronutrients
a
The greater the light intensity, up to a saturation point, the greater the production of food
through _________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
etiolation
fluorescent lights
photoreceptors
photosynthesis
Answer
#458
d
459)
Budding differs from grafting in that _________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a leaf is used as the stock
a bud is used as the scion
a bud is used as the stock
a leaf is used as the scion
Answer
#459
b
460)
Which is a benefit of irrigation?
a. Protects plants from extreme cold temperatures, such as preventing frost damage
in fruit and vegetable crops.
b. Lower crop yields and loss of potential profit.
c. Increased dust from fields and other surfaces.
d. Limits plant growth by applying fertilizer, growth regulators, and other materials
with water.
Answer
#460
a
461)
Which macronutrients are not considered in a fertility program because they are part of the
air around the plant?
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
calcium, magnesium, sulfur
boron, manganese, zinc
Answer
#461
a
462)
Why is tissue culture more advantageous than other methods of propagation?
a. Large numbers of plants are produced from a single plant in a small space and
short periods of time.
b. Viruses and other systemic diseases are cultivated in the plant tissues.
c. Plants with a variety of flowers are produced.
d. Sterile conditions are not required on an artificial medium.
Answer
#462
a
463)
For a graft to be successful, what must occur?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The cambiums at the graft union must line up.
The graft union must be kept dry.
The plants used must be unrelated.
The process must be done under aseptic conditions.
Answer
#463
a
464)
Monocot plants have _______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#464
465)
netted vein patterns
parallel vein patterns
dichotomous venation
palmately netted veins
b
Which pesticide license is required by individuals who purchase, use, or supervise the use
of pesticides classified for general or restricted use for hire?
a. Commercial Applicator and Operator
b. Private Applicator
c. Pesticide Dealer
d. Public Applicator and Operator
Answer
#465
466)
a
What are those nutrients that are needed in smaller amounts by plants, but are still
essential to plant growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nutrient excess
macronutrients
micronutrients
nutrient deficiency
Answer
#466
c
467)
What are the three primary macronutrients that are the main components of fertilizers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
calcium, magnesium and sulfur
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
iron, copper and zinc
Answer
#467
a
468)
What are the computer, disk drive, monitor, keyboard, CD-ROM, printer, and
microprocessor?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#468
469)
software
application programs
hardware
operating systems
c
Also known as Variable Rate Technology (VRT), which method uses computer technology
to alter the rate of fertilizer applications as the application passes across the field?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sidedressing
site-specific application
fertigation
foliar feeding
Answer
#469
b
470)
What is a neutral pH reading?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0
1
7
14
Answer
#470
c
471)
What is a function of advertising?
a.
b.
c.
d.
greeting customers with a smile
to create awareness of the business itself
analyzing data related to products and consumers
pricing products and services
Answer
#471
b
472)
Soil health and fertility can be improved by _______________________ .
a.
b.
c.
d.
watering
rototilling
installing drain tile
adding organic matter such as peat moss or compost
Answer
#472
d
473)
When is root pruning commonly conducted in the nursery?
a.
b.
c.
d.
twice a year
never as it places stress on the plants
the year before plants are harvested
after transplanting
Answer
#473
c
474)
What is an approximate cost for the work to be done that is presented to the client?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bid
estimate
contracted price
specifications
Answer
#474
475)
b
What is a safety device, which disconnects an electrical circuit when it detects moisture or
a short?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#475
476)
a power pack
a fixture switch
a photocell
a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
d
An observation for the site analysis plan that includes notes on people at the house from
the street and people looking from the inside of the house would be classified as
_________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
privacy
microclimate
macroclimate
views
Answer
#476
d
477)
What is a nursery that sells to a retail or broker nursery?
a.
b.
c.
d.
retail nursery
wholesale nursery
mail order nursery
re-wholesaler
Answer
#477
b
478)
What is the term used for ornamental lighting designed to enhance the landscape after
dark?
a.
b.
c.
d.
electrical lighting
night landscaping
down lighting
silhouette lighting
Answer
#478
b
479)
Before sale florists typically decorate potted plants with _________________________ .
a.
b.
c.
d.
lightweight foil or poly foil
reflective foil
aluminum foil
fencing foil
Answer
#479
a
480)
Colors such as red, yellow, and orange are said to _____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
be cool colors
be warm colors
appear more distant or recede from the viewer
be restful and relaxing
Answer
#480
b
481)
What are those plants added to a plant station that are temporarily installed to add color?
a.
b.
c.
d.
tropical plants
color plants
house plants
potted flowering plants
Answer
#481
b
482)
What should be done with containerized plants that have root circling?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They should be discarded?
They should be planted as is.
The roots should be cut and spread out before planting.
They should be planted a little deeper than normal.
Answer
#482
c
483)
What is the process in which a plant becomes accustomed to a new environment?
a.
b.
c.
d.
stratification
hardiness
acclimatization
accustomizing
Answer
#483
c
484)
What is a fibrous material made from palm trees used for a natural ribbon appearance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Easter basket bedding
floral foam
wicker for baskets
raffia
Answer
#484
d
485)
Most residential landscape plans are drawn at ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1/8” equals a foot
1/2 “ equals a foot
3/4 “ equals a foot
1” equals a foot
Answer
#485
a
486)
When planting annual flowers, which of the following should be kept in mind?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are plants that live for two or more growing seasons.
Since the plants are small, the planting bed does not need to be prepared.
Flower bed design is more effective as it becomes more complex.
Installing plants in groups of the same species and color is visually more appealing
than one or two plants haphazardly placed within the design.
Answer
#486
d
487)
What is the term used for circular or square pieces of sod (between 2 to 4 inches in size)
inserted into an established turf or on a prepared seedbed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sprigging
seeding
sodding
plugging
Answer
#487
d
488)
What is important when installing mortarless block walls.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#488
c
placing the blocks on a good solid clay base
installing deadmen at regular intervals
check frequently to see that each block is level
Install 3 foot lengths of steel reinforcing bars
489)
What are areas in an arrangement devoid of flowers called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
space
empty
open
a no-no
Answer
#489
a
490)
When establishing a lawn _____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
kill or remove all perennial weeds
create a slope of 10-20% for drainage
adjust the soil pH to 8.0
use landscape fabric
Answer
#490
a
491)
Who has charge of a group of workers and/or a specific crop and may be responsible for
the training of the crew?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#491
492)
c
A person employed in the landscape industry who is very knowledgeable
in plant identification, plant growth, and the principles of design and who usually works on
residential projects or small scale public projects.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#492
493)
landscape designer
landscape architect
architect
horticulturist
a
What is a sketch of rough ovals and circles on a drawing that shows the placement of
activities in a yard?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
supervisor
crew member
crew leader
vice president
b
family inventory survey
goose-egg plan
site analysis sheet
bed patterns
#493
494)
Engines should be cleaned and run until the fuel is burned, all filters serviced, oil
changed, spark plug serviced or replaced, and cylinder coated with oil for which of
the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
short-term storage
long-term storage
after each use
before each use
Answer
#494
b
495)
How is marketing defined?
a.
b.
c.
d.
incentives passed from the retailer to the consumer in the form of savings
communicating with customers about your products or services using mass media
providing customers with the horticulture products and services they want
presenting both the product and company favorably
Answer
#495
c
496)
What is the term used for the amount of water delivered to the landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
water pattern
precipitation rate
flooding
irrigation
Answer
#496
b
497)
What is a list of all the details needed to install the landscape plan accurately?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bid
estimate
contracted price
specifications
Answer
#497
d
498)
How many weeks of cold treatment do most tulips need in order to flower?
a. 1-2
b. 5-6
c. 15-16
d. 30-31
Answer
#498
499)
c
What is one of the most common drying agents, also called desiccants, used to draw the
moisture out of flowers and leaves?
a.
b.
c.
d.
silica sand
fixatives
talcum powder
sap
Answer
#499
a
500)
What does an ideal seedbed provide?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#500
501)
a
What is covering soil with a hard surfacing material to prevent soil erosion, soil compaction
from traffic, and to improve walking ease called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#501
502)
a desirable medium for seed germination
firm soil for walking upon
tight pore spaces that limit water and air movement
dense soil for root development
paving
surfacing
sodding
flooring
a
What is the art and science of selecting plants and placing them in an attractive and
functional setting outdoors?
a.
b.
c.
d.
horticulture
ornamental horticulture
landscaping
floriculture
Answer
#502
c
503)
When do tree fruits, with the exception of pears, develop maximum flavor and quality?
a.
b.
c.
d.
before the fruit has fuller matured
when allowed to mature on the tree
the longer the storage the better the flavor and quality
when picked before the squirrels and “worms” can get to them
Answer
#503
b
504)
Why is soil compaction a problem in the landscape?
a. It can make it tough for roots to grow due to the lack of oxygen exchange and
hardness of the soil.
b. It really is never a major problem.
c. It provides an unstable based for paving materials.
d. It allows water to leach right through to the bedrock.
Answer
#504
a
505)
What is the term for edible fruit that is produced on a small perennial plant?
a.
b.
c.
d.
brambles
large fruit
berries
small fruit
Answer
#505
d
506)
Which of the following helps to form the framework for a design and outlines the location of
all shrubs, flowers, and groundcovers within the design?
a.
b.
c.
d.
family inventory survey
goose-egg plan
site analysis sheet
bed patterns
Answer
#506
d
507)
What factors in the physical environment inhibit or stimulate plant growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
temperature
soil
water
all the above
Answer
#507
d
508)
What term describes the removal of spent flowers to improve the appearance of the
flowers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#508
509)
deadheading
disbudding
center bud removal
rejuvenation pruning
a
What is the term for a traditional floral shop that offers a wide variety of services and
products to meet the consumer’s needs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
full-service
large-volume florist
party/wedding florist
carriage trade shop
Answer
#509
a
510)
What is the function of a backflow prevention device?
a. It prevents contamination of drinking water by not allowing the irrigation water to
flow backward into the water supply
b. It ensures a steady flow rate.
c. It keeps the irrigation system safe from dirty water.
d. It regulates the re-cycling of water in ornamental pools
Answer
#510
511)
a
What is a group of plants within a species with a very distinguishing characteristic, and the
only way to keep this characteristic in the offspring is to asexually propagate the plant from
cuttings or grafting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
genus
species
variety
cultivar
Answer
#511
d
512)
What is an evergreen plant with wide, thick leaves?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#512
d
deciduous
coniferous
succulent
broadleaf evergreen
513)
What is the complete removal of all shrub stems to 4 to 6 inch stubs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
rejuvenation
renewal
heading back
shearing
Answer
#513
a
514)
What are aquatic plants, which live completely in the water or are just barely emergent?
a.
b.
c.
d.
marginal plants
floating plants
oxygenators
sedges
Answer
#514
c
515)
What is crop rotation?
a. the practice of growing rapidly maturing crops in the same row or between rows of
late maturing crops
b. getting two crops from one garden row in the same growing season
c. the practice of planting garden areas separated by a strip of sod
d. not planting the same vegetables in a given spot two years in a row
Answer
#515
516)
d
Small holes which allow ground- or rainwater to drain through a retaining wall
_____________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#516
517)
should be avoided
are pointless
are called weep holes
are evidence of inferior construction
c
Weed control in the home garden is typically done by hoeing, pulling weeds
by hand, rototilling, and mulching, measures known as ____________________.
a. biological control
b. mechanical control
c. chemical control
d. cultural control
Answer
#517
b
518)
What is the term for the average date of the last 32° freeze in the spring?
a.
b.
c.
d.
hardiness date
tender time
frost-free date
growing degree day
Answer
#518
c
519)
What is a large arrangement placed in the center of a closed full couch casket?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#519
520)
half-couch casket spray
full-couch casket spray
quarter-couch casket spray
flat spray
b
Which style of bed patterns reflect the architect of the home and often lend a symmetrical
appearance to the site?
a.
b.
c.
d.
90 degrees to the house
45 degrees to the house
curved lines
arc and tangent lines
Answer
#520
a
521)
Static water pressure refers to ____________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the psi in a closed system with no water moving
the psi at any given point in a system as a given amount of water moves past
the odor from stagnant water
the working pressure at the point-of-connection
Answer
#521
a
522)
Why is staking not necessary for smaller trees?
a. Recent research has found that if they die, it’s no big loss.
b. Recent research shows that unstaked plants grow roots for stability in response to
wind, so staking actually weakens the support system of the tree.
Recent research indicates they don’t have sufficient leaf growth that would cause
them to topple.
d. Recent research has shown staking causes damage to the bark.
c.
Answer
#522
b
523)
What is a turfgrass blend?
a. a combination of different turfgrass species
b. a combination of different cultivars of the same species chosen for their uniform
appearance and growing habit
c. a combination of different turfgrass genus chosen for outstanding performance
d. a combination annual turfgrasses
Answer
#523
a
524)
The quality of vegetables ________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
improves after picking
does not improve after picking
gets better as they ripen on the kitchen counter
in terms of nutrition and flavor seem to improve with proper storage
Answer
#524
b
525)
What is a scaled drawing of a home with doors, windows, existing hardscapes, property
lines and easements?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#525
526)
a
What name is used for a flower garden placed along a fence or a wall
in the yard?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#526
base plan
family inventory sheet
site analysis sheet
resume
d
island garden
cut flower garden
English garden
border garden
527)
What is the proper spacing of small fruits?
a.
b.
c.
d.
24 inches apart in rows 3' 6" to 4' apart
24 inches apart in rows 3½ to 4 feet apart
six to eight feet apart in rows 8 to 10 feet apart
it varies with the type of small fruit
Answer
#527
b
528)
Sod should be ________________________________________________.
a. used as soon as possible after harvesting, ideally within 24 hours, otherwise rolled
sod will heat up, damaging or destroying the live grass.
b. used within a week even though its storage capacity is remarkable.
c. used on sites that are lumpy, so the clods will be hidden.
d. used because it is less expensive than seed
Answer
#528
a
529)
In cold climates post holes should ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
be hand dug
be just above the frost line
extend below the frost line
be 6 feet apart
Answer
#529
c
530)
_________________ herbicides control specific weeds, such as broadleaf weeds.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#530
531)
c
Flower shops purchased from a parent company and run according to their
instructions are known as ______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#531
pre-emergence
post-emergence
selective
non-selective
b
bucket shop
franchises
satellite shop
carriage trade shop
532)
Kentucky _______________ and Perennial Ryegrass are the two most commonly used
cool-season grasses on football fields.
a.
b.
c.
d.
fescue
bluegrass
bentgrass
bermudagrass
Answer
#532
b
533)
What is the harvesting of trees without taking soil from the field?
a.
b.
c.
d.
balled and burlapped
bare root
containerized
hydraulic tree spade removal
Answer
#533
b
534)
What is the point-of-purchase sales technique?
a. the method consists of placing an exhibit at or near the cash register, the point
where a product is purchased
b. giving a customer a good reason to buy an item
c. shopping with the item(s) to be purchase already known
d. an exhibit of merchandise within pointing distance
Answer
#534
a
535)
What is the cost summation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the sum of the labor, materials, overhead, and contingency costs of a project
unforeseen expenses related to a landscaping job
a written statement of the costs of installing a landscape plan
the money left after all the costs of the operation is complete
Answer
#535
a
536)
When is the best time to prune most deciduous trees?
a. late winter and early spring
b. late summer and early fall
c. early spring and early fall
d. late winter and late summer
Answer
#536
a
537)
The site selected for a water feature should be _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
under shade trees
on a slope
be located where it can be enjoyed from the house, patio or other vista
near deciduous trees and shrubs
Answer
#537
c
538)
What is the parent company or entity that sells the right to use its name and sells its
products?
a.
b.
c.
d.
franchisee
franchisor
partner
corporation
Answer
#538
b
539)
What are four components full-service flower shops should contain?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#539
540)
sales area, design area, wedding consultation area, and an office
sales area, greenhouse, wedding consultation, and an office
design area, greenhouse, lounge, and office
design area, greenhouse, wedding consultation area, and a lounge
a
Using the equation that follows, calculate how much 20-5-5 fertilizer would be needed on a
16,000 square foot lawn in order to apply one pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet.
lbs. nitrogen to use per 1,000 sq. ft.
% of nitrogen in the fertilizer
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#540
d
1
5
20
80
× 100
=
lbs. of fertilizer to apply per
1,000 sq. ft.
541)
What is the primary function of the leaf?
a. use light energy to make food
b. anchor the plant, absorb water and nutrients, store food
c. support the leaves and flowers; store food; move water, minerals and sugars
throughout the plant; and produce food
d. sexual reproduction of the plant
Answer
#541
a
542)
What does a landscape designer use to learn about a client’s family and their landscape
interests?
a.
b.
c.
d.
base plan
family inventory sheet
site analysis sheet
resume
Answer
#542
b
543)
What is a wooden surface, raised above ground level called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
exposed aggregate
a deck
hard paving
soft paving
Answer
#543
b
544)
When is the best time to water a vegetable garden?
a.
b.
c.
d.
early enough in the day so that moisture on the plants dries before sunset
in the evening when it is cool
everyday
during the hottest portion of the day
Answer
#544
a
545)
What is the purpose of labeling horticulture products?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Labels help identify and give information about the product.
Labels are permanent.
Labels make the customer think twice about purchasing a product.
Labels are always optional.
Answer
#545
a
546)
Vegetable plants require ________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#546
547)
a maximum of 8-10 hours direct sunlight
a minimum of 8-10 hours direct sunlight
filtered sunlight
partial shade
b
Which of the following should a landscaper do to create positive influence and build a
strong relationship with the customer?
a. The landscaper should complete the work whenever possible.
b. All bills and invoices should be left to a later time.
c. The landscaper should provide directions to the customer on how to care for the
plants in the landscape.
d. Don’t worry about disturbing or damaging non-landscaped areas and features.
Answer
#547
c
548)
What is the practice of investigating what a customer wants or needs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
probing
sale
portfolio
closing
Answer
#548
a
549)
What does “everbearing” mean?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#549
550)
The fruit is difficult to remove.
The plants produce fruit throughout the growing season.
The plants produce fruit in a one month period.
The plants are a burden to grow.
b
The combination of the four factors including product, place, price, and promotion used in
trying to reach target customers is known as a ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
marketing mix
advertising
merchandising
selling
Answer
#550
551)
a
Why would someone compare past and present performance of the same
company or compare business performance against the performance of other
businesses in the same industry?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#551
552)
a
What is the name given to a service, such as Teleflora of Florafax, that provides the local
florist the opportunity to do business outside their local market?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#552
553)
to measure the performance of a business
to determine whether a new product should be made
to calculate net income
to prepare a balance sheet
a fax service
an order service
a wire service
a design service
c
What is the hand picking during late May and in June of misshaped, damaged, diseased,
and excess fruit?
a.
b.
c.
d.
fruit thinning
modified-leader pruning system
open-center pruning system
thinning-out pruning
Answer
#553
a
554)
Using upright plants to provide accent within a design is an example of which of the
following physical features?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#554
d
color
texture
form
variety
555)
What is the name given to full size fruit trees reaching a height of 20
feet and taller?
a.
b.
c.
d.
dwarf
double-dwarf
semi-dwarf
standard
Answer
#555
d
556)
Which are the best plants for the landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
those that have good fruit effects
those that have four season appeal
those that have attractive flowers
those that have attractive fall color
Answer
#556
b
557)
To ensure clean air, the air cleaner should always be in place and properly
serviced by _____________________________________________________.
a. tapping the element against a solid surface
b. cleaning the foam in solvent or detergent followed by drying and re-adding
an oil film
c. using solvent to rinse the bowl and element and re-adding oil to the
recommended level
d. the method approved for the particular air filter
Answer
#557
d
558)
What is the building of the landscape called?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#558
559)
landscape design
landscape maintenance
landscape construction
landscape renovation
c
What is a piece of drafting equipment that allows you to draw your plan accurately or at
smaller dimensions that represent the landscape?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a circle template
a compass
a t-square
a scale
Answer
#559
560)
d
In cases of too much soil moisture, most plants will show symptoms
________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
similar to those under drought conditions
including turgid leaves
of extremely rapid growth
that require the application of fertilizer
Answer
#560
a
561)
Physical records of a horticulture business include _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the balance sheet
inventory records
income and expense summary
cash flow statement
Answer
#561
b
562)
Which of the following defines organizing as one of five main duties or functions of
business management?
a. the process of deciding how a business will operate and what it will
produce
b. the process of setting up a system of efficiency
c. leading and guiding employees to achieve the objectives of a small
business
d. recruitment, selection, and training of employees
Answer
#562
563)
b
Which of the following is a wooden or concrete block frame with a glass or polyethylene
cover that is heated by the sun?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cold frame
hotbed
shade house
head house
Answer
#563
a
564)
It is helpful to consider the outside landscape area
____________________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#564
for active use only
as something only to view
as outdoor rooms and an area to be divided based on the intended uses
as wild
c
565)
_________________ turfgrass grows best in temperatures of 70–95°F.
a. tall
b. cool-season
c. long season
d. warm-season
Answer
#565
d
566)
What is the study of production, distribution, and consumption of wealth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#566
567)
d
What is a scale drawing of the garden plot with vegetables, row lengths, and row widths
included?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#567
demographics
census
survey
economics
a garden plan
a sketch
a harvest calculator
a planting table
a
568)
What key factor must be addressed when managing athletic fields?
a. proper drainage
b. proper irrigation
c. proper turfgrass maintenance program
d. all of the above
Answer
#568
d
569)
Mowing at golf courses is done two or more times a week at varying angles to reduce
______________________ caused by equipment.
a.
b.
c.
d.
pollution
soil compaction
soil erosion
none of the above
Answer
#569
b
570)
___________________ herbicides kill all plants to which it is applied.
a.
b.
c.
d.
pre-emergence
post-emergence
selective
non-selective
Answer
#570
d
571)
What is a piece of equipment that uses round blades to loosen and pulverize the
soil and is especially useful in seedbed preparation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
field cultivator
harrow
disk
chisel plow
Answer
#571
c
572)
What are the three basic types of geometric floral designs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#572
573)
circular, rectilinear, square
horizontal, triangular, oval
rectilinear, horizontal, vertical
vertical, triangular, circular
d
Which type of turfgrass grows best in temperatures of 60–75°F and may become dormant if allowed
to dry out during the summer?
a.
b.
c.
d.
warm-season turfgrass
ornamental grass
cool-season turfgrass
transition zone turfgrass
Answer
#573
c
574)
What is a hand tool with large teeth and spacing for ease in cutting of larger limbs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#574
575)
hand pruner
lopper
chain saw
pruning saw
d
Which irrigation system involves flooding the soil surface with water released from canals
or piping systems?
a.
b.
c.
d.
border strip irrigation
sprinkler irrigation
surface irrigation
trickle or drip irrigation
Answer
#575
c
576)
What is included in an estimate?
a.
b.
c.
d.
cost of materials and labor
a fixed price set for a job to be done
written descriptions of what a project will include
a worksheet to be used to help the landscaper come up with a bid for the customer
Answer
#576
a
577)
Tulips and daffodils are examples of _______________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
bulbs
annuals
woody perennials
biennials
Answer
#577
a
578)
Which of the following is a good safety practice associated with power tools?
a. Plug electric tools in while checking and repairing.
b. Use tools that create a potential safety hazard such as electric tools with
damaged cords or tools with missing or defective guards/shields.
c. Operate electric tools in wet or damp areas.
d. Operate gasoline-powered tools only in well-ventilated areas.
Answer
#578
579)
d
__________________________ use a curved turning cylinder cutting against a
bed knife to cut the grass.
a.
b.
c.
d.
riding mowers
rotary mowers
self-propelled mowers
reel mowers
Answer
#579
d
580)
What are quality transplants
a.
b.
c.
d.
viable seeds
All-American selections
healthy, stocky, medium-sized, disease-free, and insect-free plants
grown from cuttings
Answer
#580
c
581)
What are the three essential elements of a marketing program?
a.
b.
c.
d.
budget, quantity, and supply
price, quality, and service
quantity, quality, and supply
budget, quantity, and service
Answer
#581
b
582)
Which soil horizon is often referred to as topsoil and is the surface layer where organic
matter accumulates?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#582
b
“O” horizon
“A” horizon
“B” horizon
“R” horizon
583)
Mowing frequency should be such that no more than ____________ of the grass blade
should be removed at any one cutting.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1/3
½
¾
7/8
Answer
#583
a
584)
What is an exchange of goods or services at a mutually agreed upon price?
a.
b.
c.
d.
probing
sale
portfolio
closing
Answer
#584
b
585)
What is a yellowing of leaves caused by the absence of chlorophyll?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the yellows
chlorosis
mosaic
xanthophylls
Answer
#585
b
586)
Which of the following would describe most perennials grown as floriculture crops?
a.
b.
c.
d.
annuals
herbaceous perennials
woody perennials
soft-wood perennials
Answer
#586
b
587)
_______________ may need to be applied to raise the pH of acidic soils.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#587
c
sulfur
water
lime
clay
588)
What is the equity of the business owners?
a.
b.
c.
d.
expenses
liabilities
capital
assets
Answer
#588
d
589)
What is the main purpose of packaging?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#589
590)
c
Gathering, recording, and analyzing data related to products and consumers is known as
___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#590
591)
592)
target market
market segment
market research
marketing plan
c
What is the process of selling a product and providing a service the consumer wants or
needs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#591
advertisement
promotion
protect the product
save costs
promotions
up-selling
marketing
advertising
c
The _____________ hoe is rectangular with only the bottom edge of the blade sharpeneIt
is used to break up the soil and to remove weeds in planted areas.
a.
b.
c.
d.
weeding
grading
garden
grubbing
Answer
#592
c
593)
Which of the following is a micronutrient?
a.
b.
c.
d.
sulfur
zinc
potassium
magnesium
Answer
#593
b
594)
What is a tool used to grind up branches and other plant material?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#594
595)
a
This is a sample multiple choice question formatted as suggested. The font name is
"Arial" and the font size is "10". Use the ordered list icon above to create your multiple
choice selections accordingly. You may also wish to experiment with tables and images to
further format and customize a question. In summary, you control the format of questions
by manipulating:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Answer
#595
596)
rototiller
shredder
chain saw
concrete mixer
font size
font type
images
bulleted lists
all of the above
e
What should be the number one skill or job priority of a landscape maintenance
technician?
a.
b.
c.
d.
reading a plan
plant identification and care
mowing techniques
safety
Answer
#596
d
597)
Which is considered the most efficient form of advertisement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
television
radio
newspapers
word of mouth
Answer
#597
d
598)
What is a tool used to remove cores of soil in compacted areas?
a.
b.
c.
d.
leaf blower
aerator
weedeater
grass edger
Answer
#598
b
599)
Which of the following refers to a form of advertising?
a.
b.
c.
d.
product
place
price
promotion
Answer
#599
d
600)
Which of the following branch structures is strong?
a.
b.
c.
d.
those with a V-shape crotch
those with a U-shape crotch
a scaffold branch
co-leaders
Answer
#600
b
601)
Christmas tree growers must determine if they will market their trees for retail or
wholesale. What is the advantage of selling trees at retail?
a.
b.
c.
d.
greater volume of sales
greater profit per unit
both a and b
none of the above
Answer
#601
602)
b
On the electromagnetic spectrum, which wavelengths have the greatest influence on plant
growth because they are readily absorbed by chlorophyll?
a.
b.
c.
d.
green wavelengths
red and blue wavelengths
incandescent lights
red and orange wavelengths
Answer
#602
b
603)
Secondary macronutrients used to a lesser degree are _______.
a.
b.
c.
d.
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
chlorine and copper
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
calcium, magnesium and sulfur
Answer
#603
d
604)
What four basic things do plants depend on soil to provide?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#604
605)
a
U-pick strawberries are usually priced lower than picked berries due to less _________ on
the part of the producer.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#605
606)
anchorage, water, oxygen, nutrients
bacteria, fungi, oxygen, nutrients
anchorage, water, bacteria, fungi
carbon dioxide, water, nutrients, fungi
marketing costs
storage costs
fertilizer costs
labor costs
d
On a nursery stock farm initial costs of a small container plant may be only $0.50, but the
major investment is in ___________ and ____________ to produce the tree over the three
to five years.
a.
b.
c.
d.
time, fertilizer
time, chemicals
time, labor
time, container
Answer
#606
c
607)
Why is soil fertility important for plant growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#607
608)
Because Fertilizer is not expensive.
Available nutrients are influenced by soil and water balance.
Soil fertility involves the ability to provide nutrients for plant growth.
Soil-plant relationships affect soil productivity.
c
Financial returns to nursery stock farms are generally referred to as ____________ due to
the fact that sales will not begin until the third to fifth year of production, and the breakeven point often occurs between the sixth and eigth years of production.
a.
b.
c.
d.
short-term
long-term
fast returns
none of the above
Answer
#608
b
609)
What are the sources of chemical air pollution?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#609
610)
vehicle exhaust, gases from factories, and burning of plant materials
smuts, rusts and mildew
anthracnose and fobar disease
particulates
a
There are nine color designations recognized by the national safety organization. Which of
the following examples is not the correct color designation?
a. Red=Danger
b. Orange=Safety
c. Yellow=Caution
d. Blue=Information
Answer
#610
b
611)
Water that moves downward through the soil is called _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#611
612)
gravitational moisture
hydroscopic moisture
capillary moisture
soil moisture tension
a
Temperature and ___________________ are the two key factors affecting the growth of a
turfgrass on a site.
a.
b.
c.
d.
fertility
soil structure
slope of the land
precipitation
Answer
#612
d
613)
How do plants respond to a shortage of water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#613
614)
c
Supervision and direction of operators by an applicator is interpreted to mean that the
applicator must be in ____________ contact with operators.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#614
Water is pulled up through the plant by transpiration.
Plants become solvent.
Plants will wilt.
Plants maintain turgor.
c
supervisory
random
daily
weekly
615)
On a nursery stock farm, containers for small plants may cost $3.00–$5.00, while
fertilizer and chemicals will add an additional ___________ to the overall input
costs for each plant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
$1
$10
$25
$50
Answer
#615
a
616)
What is the maintenance of an environment that is free of bacteria, fungi and viruses?
a.
b.
c.
d.
tissue culture
genetically engineered plant cells
sterile agar medium
sterile technique
Answer
#616
d
617)
Which of the following Nutrients are NOT found in the Fertilizer Grade?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#617
618)
a
Even growth of floriculture crops is more easily accomplished with
___________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#618
619)
Mangenese
Nitrogen
Potassium
Phosphorus
heavy, frequent watering
uniform growing medium
soil-based medium
leaching
b
Grasses have been broadly categorized as __________________ or _______________
grasses.
a. short, tall
b. cool-season, warm-season
c. fine texture, rough texture
d. short-season, long season
Answer
#619
b
620)
What is the nitrogen cycle?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#620
621)
The amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that are available in the soil
The process that converts nitrogen gas to forms that are usable to plants
The nutrients that are needed by plants in small quantities
The nitrogen gas found in the atmosphere
b
What is a method of reproduction in which parts of a plant are cut into sections that will
grow into new plants naturally?
a.
b.
c.
d.
air layering
simple layering
separation
division
Answer
#621
d
622)
Which secondary macronutrients are needed in moderate amounts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
calcium, magnesium, sulfur
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
copper, chlorine, iron
Answer
#622
a
623)
Which nonfertilizer nutrients are obtained from air and water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#623
a
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
phosphorus and potassium
nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine
calcium, magnesium and iron
624)
What term describes the ease at which water and air move through a soil?
a.
b.
c.
d.
percolation
permeability
infiltration
leaching
Answer
#624
b
625)
Why do Christmas tree producers generally grow three to five different species of
Christmas trees?
a.
b.
c.
d.
to spread their workload more evenly throughout the year
to provide consumers with a variety of choices
growing only one species may cause pest problems
all of the above
Answer
#625
d
626)
Why are plant growth regulators used in agricultural practices?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To improve the quality and quantity of plant yields.
To inhibit and retard plant growth.
To stretch and elongate stems of plants.
To promote cell division in the root and stem of plants.
Answer
#626
a
627)
What term fits the definition of the ability of the soil within the soil profile to retain water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
aeration
porosity
moisture holding capacity
available soil moisture
Answer
#627
c
628)
Why is temperature important to a plant's metabolism?
a. Temperature is not important to metabolism.
b. Some plants require a cold treatment for physiological processes to occur.
c. Some plants are more sensitive to heat than others.
d. The speed at which metabolism occurs is affected by temperature.
Answer
#628
d
629)
How is the pH value of soil important for plant nutrition?
a. The higher the pH value, the better the yield.
b. The nitrite ions convert to nitrate with nitrobacter bacteria.
c. The amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium available are dependent
upon the soil pH.
d. The pH measures the alkalinity and acidity of a substance.
Answer
#629
c
630)
An 18-46-0 fertilizer contains what percent potassium?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0
18
46
64
Answer
#630
a
631)
A good soil typically has about ___________ percent organic matter.
a.
b.
c.
d.
0
1
5
50
Answer
#631
c
632)
What are the three types of mineral matter found in soil?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#632
633)
water, air, inorganic matter
sand, silt, clay
water, air, organic matter
dirt, silt, clay
b
Which of the following is how much money a person pays to purchase a product or
service?
a.
b.
c.
d.
product
price
place
promotion
Answer
#633
b
634)
Portions of plant material removed from a parent plant for use in tissue culture are called
________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
callus
plantlets
explants
embryos
Answer
#634
c
635)
What is a resource provided by soil that helps support life?
a.
b.
c.
d.
dirt
rocks
water
carbon monoxide
Answer
#635
c
636)
A delivery person should be ____________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#636
637)
big
well-mannered and professional
casual in appearance
a grower or designer
b
A change over time to soils due to deep leaching or erosion from
the surface would be classified as which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
additions
losses
translocations
transformations
Answer
#637
d
638)
__________ rakes have long flexible tines and are used for raking grass
clippings and leaves.
a. garden
b. grading
c. leaf
d. thatch
Answer
#638
c
639)
What does the proportion of the three sizes of soil particles determine?
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil structure
soil texture
soil color
soil loam
Answer
#639
b
640)
Most turfgrasses grow best with a pH of ____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.0 to 5.0
5.0 to 6.0
6.0 to 7.0
7.0 to 8.0
Answer
#640
c
641)
Which of the following is one of the five steps of effective marketing?
a. Ignore weaknesses of the business.
b. Determine what the customer must buy.
c. Define the targeted customers or target market based on demographics, income,
age, and lifestyles.
d. Identify competing businesses.
Answer
#641
c
642)
Land that is _____________ should be selected for grape production to provide the
maximum frost-free time.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#642
b
low in valleys
high on hillsides
thin and rocky
none of the above
643)
Many organisms living in the soil, such as earthworms, ants, and moles, improve
____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil tilth
soil water holding capacity
soil by delaying the break own of organic matter
plant anchorage
Answer
#643
a
644)
Air and water move through a growing media’s _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
root channels
aggregates
pore spaces
densely packed clay particles
Answer
#644
c
645)
Which of the following is true about tissue culture?
a. Tissue culture techniques are used to grow genetically engineered plant cells.
b. Only a small number of plants can be propagated through tissue culture.
c. Virus diseases can never be eliminated from plant tissue using the tissue culture
method of propagation.
d. Tissue culture is a highly technical form of sexual reproduction.
Answer
#645
a
646)
What are the natural chemicals that plants produce to regulate growth?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#646
a
hormones
tropisms
synthetic growth regulators
gibberellins
647)
What is the wearing away of soil by wind or water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
water pollution
irrigation
erosion
soil sediments
Answer
#647
c
648)
Safety means.
a.
b.
c.
d.
preventing injury and loss
staying out of harms way
working slowly
reading all the instructions
Answer
#648
a
649)
A crucial skill for success in a horticulture career is _____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
an understanding of plant needs and plant growth
broad experience with marketing skills
an understanding of animals
mastery of legal aspects of a business
Answer
#649
a
650)
The growing point of the stem is called the ________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
node
terminal bud
apical meristem
internode
Answer
#650
c
651)
Which color of surface soil has the greatest amount of organic matter?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#651
c
very light
light
very dark
dark
652)
Which growing media used for cuttings is a good mix of moisture retention and aeration?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#652
653)
sand
sand and peat moss mixture
potting soil
vermiculite
b
The best example given of a horticulture practice that can damage the environment is
__________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the improper use of chemicals
following approved watering practices
properly installing plant materials
putting erosion control measures in place
Answer
#653
a
654)
What does the fertilized egg or zygote become?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#654
655)
c
The tissue in the stem that conducts sugars throughout the plant is called the
____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#655
656)
cotyledon
epicotyl
embryo
hypocotyl
xylem
phloem
capillary
cambium
b
Plants, which grow from a seed, then flower, then produce seeds in one season are called
___________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
annuals
biennials
perennials
herbaceous
Answer
#656
a
657)
What is a form used for calculating prices?
a.
b.
c.
d.
estimate sheet
contract
bid
proposal sheet
Answer
#657
a
658)
What refers to the goods or services that meet the needs of customers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
product
price
place
promotion
Answer
#658
a
659)
_________________ weeds complete their life cycle in one year.
a. annual
b. biennial
c. perennial
d. none of the above
Answer
#659
a
660)
What type of floral shop offers services to a limited group of elite customers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
bucket shop
franchises
satellite shop
carriage trade shop
Answer
#660
d
661)
Which of the following can be effective in controlling lawn weeds?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#661
b
keeping the lawn cut short
cutting the lawn higher
keeping lawns dry
keeping lawns wet
662)
What step in a landscape sale gives the designer the opportunity to introduce products or
services that meet the customer needs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
preparation
opening
probing
presentation
Answer
#662
d
663)
What occurs when an egg in the flower is fused with a sperm cell from pollen?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pollination
fertilization
procrastination
recombination
Answer
#663
b
664)
Which is the simplest way to fertilize before planting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#664
665)
bonding
pre-plant
broadcasting
soil injection
c
Which soil horizon consists of underlying bedrock, such as limestone, sandstone, or
granite?
a.
b.
c.
d.
“O” horizon
“A” horizon
“B” horizon
“R” horizon
Answer
#665
d
666)
Synthetic growth regulators are applied to floriculture crops to
_______________________.
a. make plants shorter, bushier, and more attractive or to speed rooting of cuttings
b. increase photosynthetic activity
c. improve uptake of water and minerals
d. lengthen the growing period until market
Answer
#666
667)
a
_________________________ is the area of horticulture that involves the production of
fruit and nut crops.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Pomology
Olericulture
Nuttles
Landscape horticulture
Answer
#667
a
668)
__________ includes the water that transpires from plants and evaporates from soil.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Evapotranspiration
Irrigation
Translocation
Transpiration
Answer
#668
a
669)
The organelle in a plant cell in which photosynthesis occurs is called a
_________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#669
670)
chloroplast
chlorophyll
mitochondria
nucleus
a
Leaf like structures that are often colorful and attract pollinators are
_________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
sepals
the calyx
petals
filament
Answer
#670
c
671)
The most popular turfgrass for athletic fields in the southern and transition
zones is _________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#671
672)
creeping bentgrass
barley
ryegrass
bermudagrass
d
Knowledge about flowers, foliage, and their proper care is important for a
_______________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
floral salesperson
mechanic
greenhouse accountant
garden center attorney
Answer
#672
a
673)
Water provides ________ that helps roots push through soil.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Answer
#673
b
cell division
internal pressure
energy
respiration
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quiz Horticulture Skills Standards Sample