SOCIALISING
347
1.to amuse – rozbawi If you are amused by something, it makes you want to laugh or
smile.
2.To entertain -zabawiać If a performer, performance, or activity entertains you, it
amuses you, interests you, or gives you pleasure.
3.To enjoy – być zabawianym przez coś / czerpać z czegoś przyjemność If you enjoy
something, you find pleasure and satisfaction in doing it or experiencing it.
4.To socialize -socjalizować When people, especially children, are socialized, they are
made to behave in a way which is acceptable in their culture or society. (TECHNICAL)
348
1.subscription –składka, rata A subscription is an amount of money that you pay
regularly in order to belong to an organization, to help a charity or campaign, or to receive
copies of a magazine or newspaper.
2.relatives – członkowie rodziny (krewni) Your relatives are the members of your
family.
3.eligible - do wzięcia / nadający się / stanu wolnego - An eligible man or woman is
not yet married and is thought by many people to be a suitable partner. / Someone who is
eligible to do something is qualified or able to do it, for example because they are old
enough.
4.Failure - niepowodzenie is a lack of success in doing or achieving something,
especially in relation to a particular activity.
5.Refuse - odmawiać if you e.g. cannot come somewhere you refuse an invitation
6.A permission - pozwolenie is a formal, written statement from an official group or
place allowing you to do something.
7.The chairman (przewodniczący) of a committee, organization, or company is the head
of it.
8.ease - z łatwością If you do something with ease, you do it easily, without difficulty or
effort.
9.execute - przeprowadzać / zrealizować When someone executes a work of art, they
make or produce it, using an idea as a basis.
10.extend - rozszerzać / powiększać If you extend something, you make it last longer
than before or end at a later date. / If you extend something, you make it longer or bigger.
11. apologies - przeprosiny An apology is something that you say or write in order to tell
someone that you are sorry that you have hurt them or caused trouble for them.
12.The first (pierwszy) thing, person, event, or period of time is the one that happens or
comes before all the others of the same kind.
349
1.Swing hustać się / wahać If something swings or if you swing it, it moves repeatedly
backwards and forwards or from side to side from a fixed point.
2.Proceeds działać If an activity, process, or event proceeds, it goes on and does not
stop.
3.A long-standing -długotrwały situation has existed for a long time.
4.A requisite - rekwizyt is something which is necessary for a particular purpose.
(FORMAL)
5.voluntary wolontariusz / wolontariat A voluntary worker is someone who does work
without being paid for it, because they want to do it.
1
6.small mały A small person, thing, or amount of something is not large in physical size.
7.Told (<= tell) powiedzieć If you tell someone something, you give them information.
8.feeble słaby If you describe someone or something as feeble, you mean that they are
weak.
9.hectic szaleńczy situation is one that is very busy and involves a lot of rushed activity.
10.on behalf of - w czyims imieniu If you do something on someone's behalf, you do it
for that person as their representative. The form in someone's behalf is also used, mainly
in American English.
350
1.To annotate - zanotować – to add short notes to explain certain parts of a book, etc.
2.To autograph - podpisywać– to sign with one’s own name to show that one is a writer
of a book, etc.
3.To compose – komponować to write music, poetry, etc.
4.To inscribe – dedykować to write a name in a book, especially when giving it as a
present
5.To jot– zapisać to write rough notes quickly, without preparation
6.To note –zanotować to write in a short form
7.To print – wydrukować / napisac drukowanymi literami to write using square,
unjoined letters; also used in books
8.To scrawl – “bazgrolić”, niestarannie zapisać to write in an irregular , awkward, or
unskillful way, usually covering more space then necessary
9.To scribble – niedbale zapisac to write cerelessly or in a hurry so that it is hard to read
10.To sign – podpisać to write one’s name specially, on letters, official forms, etc.
11.To spell - przeliterować to form words correctly from letters
12.To transcribe – to put sth into a written form, e.g. a speech
13.To type – pisać na maszynie to write using typewriter
351 definicje => patrz zad. 350
Jotted (jot-zapisać0If you jot something short such as an address somewhere, you write
it down so that you will remember it.
Scribbled (scribble-niedbale zapisać)If you scribble something, you write it quickly and
roughly.
Scrawled (scrawl- bazgrolić)If you scrawl something, you write it in a careless and untidy
way.
Spelt/spelled (<=spell-przeliterować) When you spell a word, you write or speak each
letter in the word in the correct order.
Inscribed (inscribne-dedykować)If you inscribe words on an object, you write or carve
the words on the object.
352 KINDS OF BOOKS
1.Atlas – maps
2.Autobiography – the story of one’s own life written by oneself
3.Dictionary – meanings of words
4.Directory – książka telefoniczna a list of names, addresses and telephone numbers
in alphabetical order
5.Encyclopedia – information about subjects in alphabetical order
6.Gazetteer – wykaz nazw a list of names of places printed at the end of an atlas
7.Guidebook – przewodnik tourist information about a country
8.Manual – instrukcja obsługi instructions on how to use or repair a machine
9.Textbook – podrecznik basic coursebook at school or university
2
10.Thesaurus – słownik wyrazów bliskoznacznych list of words grouped according to
their similarity in meaning
11.Who’s Who – Kto jest kim a list of important, famous people and brief details of their
lives
353
1.Fiction fikcja refers to books and stories about imaginary people and events, rather
than books about real people or events.
2.Print drukowac If someone prints something such as a book or newspaper, they
produce it in large quantities using a machine.
3.Fine w porządku / dobrej jakości You use fine to describe something that you admire
and think is very good. / Fine objects or clothing are of good quality, delicate, and
expensive.
4.A pseudonym pseudonim is a name which someone, usually a writer, uses instead of
his or her real name.
5.Review recenzja If someone reviews something such as a new book or film, they write
a report or give a talk on television or radio in which they express their opinion of it.
6.Cover - przedstawiac coś / okładka If journalists, newspapers, or television companies
cover an event, they report on it. / The cover of a book or a magazine is the outside part
of it.
7.A story ( historia / opowiadanie) is a description of imaginary people and events,
which is written or told in order to entertain.
8.An edition ( edycja) is a particular version of a book, magazine, or newspaper that is
printed at one time. / An edition is a single television or radio program that is one of a
series about a particular subject.
9.Common (pospolity / zwykły) If something is common, it is found in large numbers or
it happens often. / Common is used to indicate that someone or something is of the
ordinary kind and not special in any way.
10.Fictional account - fikcyjna relacja / raport Fictional characters or events occur only
in stories, plays, or films and never actually existed or happened. / An account is a written
or spoken report of something that has happened.
11.An example of (przykład) something is a particular situation, object, or person which
shows that what is being claimed is true.
12.A catalogue (katalog) is a list of things such as the goods you can buy from a
particular , the objects in a museum, or the books in a library.
13.Life - życie is the quality which people, animals, and plants have when they are not
dead, and which objects and substances do not have.
14.Shortage - brak If there is a shortage of something, there is not enough of it.
15.Letters (litery) are written symbols which represent one of the sounds in a language. /
If you write a letter to someone, you write a message on paper and send it to them,
usually by post.
16.Justice (sprawiedliwość) is the legal system that a country uses in order to deal with
people who break the law. / Justice is fairness in the way that people are treated.
17.A dramatist (dramaturg) is someone who writes plays.
18.Heart - serce Your heart is the organ in your chest that pumps the blood around your
body. People also use heart to refer to the area of their chest that is closest to their heart. /
The heart of something is the most central and important part of it.
354 1) printed matter (drukowane):
Atlas-atlas a bound collection of maps.
Brochure-broszura A small booklet or pamphlet, often containing promotional material or
product information.
3
Catalogue-katalog A list or itemized display, as of titles, course offerings, or articles for
exhibition or sale, usually including descriptive information or illustrations.
Dictionary-słownik a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually
arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations,
etymologies, inflected forms, etc.,
directory –książka telefoniczna a book containing an alphabetical index of the names and
addresses of persons in a city, district, organization, etc., or of a particular category of
people.
encyclopedia-encyklopedia a book or set of books containing articles on various topics,
usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less
commonly, all aspects of one subject.
hardback- książka w sztywnej oprawie having a hard back or cover; "hardback books"
leaflet- ulotka a small flat or folded sheet of printed matter, as an advertisement or notice,
usually intended for free distribution.
lexicon- leksykon, słownik a wordbook or dictionary
limerick-limeryk a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth
lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a
rhymed couplet.
pamphlet-pamflet, broszura An unbound printed work, usually with a paper cover.
paperback- książka w miejkiej oprawie a book bound in a flexible paper cover, often a
lower-priced edition of a hardcover book.
thesaurus-słownik wyrazów bliskoznacznych a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms.
2) handwritten matter (pisane ręcznie): to write (something) by hand.
draft (szkic, brudnopis), a drawing, sketch, or design.
manuscript (manuskrypt) , the original text of an author's work, handwritten or now usually typed,
that is submitted to a publisher.
scroll (spirala)
3) reference books (materiały źródłowe):
atlas, a bound collection of maps.
Catalogue-katalog A list or itemized display, as of titles, course offerings, or articles for
exhibition or sale, usually including descriptive information or illustrations.
Dictionary-słownik a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually
arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations,
etymologies, inflected forms, etc.,
directory –książka telefoniczna a book containing an alphabetical index of the names and
addresses of persons in a city, district, organization, etc., or of a particular category of
people.
encyclopedia-encyklopedia a book or set of books containing articles on various topics,
usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less
commonly, all aspects of one subject.
lexicon- leksykon, słownik a wordbook or dictionary
thesaurus-słownik wyrazów bliskoznacznych a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms.
4) kinds of poems:
Ballad- ballada a simple narrative poem of folk origin, composed in short stanzas and adapted for
singing.
couplet (dwuwiersz), a pair of successive lines of verse, esp. a pair that rhyme and are of the same
length.
elegy (elegia), a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, esp. a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
limerick (fraszka), a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines
rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet.
lyric (utwór liryczny), having the form and musical quality of a song, and esp. the character of a
songlike outpouring of the poet's own thoughts and feelings, as distinguished from epic and dramatic poetry.
nursery rhyme (wierszyk dla dzieci), short, simple poem or song for very young children
4
ode-oda , a lyric poem typically of elaborate or irregular metrical form and expressive of exalted or
enthusiastic emotion
sonnet-sonet a poem, properly expressive of a single, complete thought, idea, or sentiment, of 14 lines,
usually in iambic pentameter, with rhymes arranged according to one of certain definite schemes, being in
the strict or Italian form divided into a major group of 8 lines (the octave) followed by a minor group of 6 lines
(the sestet), and in a common English form into 3 quatrains followed by a couplet.
355
1.Appendix – aneks, dodatek the end of a book, giving additional information
2.Bibliography – bibliografia a list of all the writings used in the preparation of a book
3.Binding oprawa (książki) – the cover of a book
4.Blurb notka reklamowa o wydawnictwie – a short description by the publisher of the
contents of a book, printed on its paper cover
5.Chapter – rozdział one of the main divisions of a book, usually having a number or a
title
6.Contents zawartość/ treść książki – a list of what is contained in the book
7.Cross-reference odnośnik, odsyłacz – a note directing the reader from one place in a
book to another place in the same book
8.Epilogue – epilog a part of a story, play, etc. that is added after the end, usually a kind
of summing up
9.Foreword –słowo wstepne a preface, especially in which someone who knows the
writer and his work says sth about them
10.Index –spis, catalog, indeks - a list at the back of the book giving, in alphabetical
order, names, subjects, etc. mentioned in it and the pages where they can be found
11.Instalment – rata / część one part of a book, which is read on the radio in regular
parts until the story is completed
12.Preface – przedmowa / słowo wstepne an introduction to a book prologue – an
introduction to a play, long poem
356
1.Bound ograniczenie If you are bound by something such as a rule, agreement, or
restriction, you are forced or required to act in a certain way. / A bound is a long or high
jump. / If you say that something is bound to happen, you mean that you are sure it will
happen, because it is a natural consequence of something that is already known or exists.
2.contents-zawartość The material, including text and images, that constitutes a
publication or document.
3.page-strona one side of a leaf of something printed or written, as a book, manuscript, or letter.
4.chapter-rozdział a main division of a book, treatise, or the like, usually bearing a number or title.
5.preface-przedmowa A preliminary statement or essay introducing a book that explains its
scope, intention, or background and is usually written by the author.
6.instalment-część A chapter or part of a literary work presented serially.
7.bibliography-biografia complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common
principle, as authorship, subject, place of publication, or printer.
8.cross-references-odsyłacz A reference from one part of a book, index, catalog, or file to
another part containing related information.
357
1.Obscure mroczny , nieznany, niejasny If something or someone is obscure, they are
unknown, or are known by only a few people. / Something that is obscure is difficult to
understand or deal with, usually because it involves so many parts or details.
2.Overrated przereklamowany If you say that something or someone is overrated, you
mean that people have a higher opinion of them than they deserve.
5
3.Be on order - być na zamówienie Something that is on order at a shop or factory has
been asked for but has not yet been supplied.
4.Glance through - przejrzeć If you glance through or at a newspaper, report, or book,
you spend a short time looking at it without reading it very carefully.
5.Sensitive - wrażlwy If you are sensitive to other people's needs, problems, or feelings,
you show understanding and awareness of them.
6.Broad szeroki Something that is broad is wide.
7.Shattered skołatany / zdruzgotany If you are shattered by something, you are
extremely shocked and upset about it. / If you say you are shattered, you mean you are
extremely tired and have no energy left. (BRIT INFORMAL) / If something shatters or is
shattered, it breaks into a lot of small pieces.
8.Supplement dodatek / dodruk If you supplement something, you add something to it
in order to improve it. / A supplement is a separate part of a magazine or newspaper,
often dealing with a particular topic.
9.Recognition - rozpoznanie is the act of recognizing someone or identifying something
when you see it. / Recognition of something is an understanding and acceptance of it.
10.Noun: Ring pierścionek / verb: to ring dzwonic , telefonować A ring is a small
circle of metal or other substance that you wear on your finger as jewellery. / When you
ring someone, you telephone them. (mainly BRIT) / When you ring a bell or when a bell
rings, it makes a sound.
11.Erudition - wiedza is great academic knowledge. (FORMAL)
12.To enhance ulepszać / poprawiać something means to improve its value, quality, or
attractiveness.
13.A portable (przenośny) is something such as a television, radio, or computer which
can be easily carried or moved.
14.A collaborator – współpracownik is someone that you work with to produce a piece
of work, especially a book or some research.
15.Gwałtowny atak An onslaught on someone or something is a very violent, forceful
attack against them.
358
1.Napis A caption is the words printed underneath a picture or cartoon which explain
what it is about.
2.A copy (kopia) If you make a copy of something, you produce something that looks like
the original thing.
3..A reporter is someone who writes news articles or who broadcasts news reports.
4..A spokesman (przemówca) is a male spokesperson.
5.Subject to - być czyms doświadczanym To be subject to something means to be
affected by it or to be likely to be affected by it.
6.Up-to-date aktualizować / być na bieżąco If you are up-to-date about something, you
have the latest information about it.
7.Artykuł An article is a piece of writing that is published in a newspaper or magazine.
8.Editor An editor (editor) is the person who is in charge of a newspaper or magazine and
who decides what will be published in each edition of it. / An editor is a person who
checks and corrects texts before they are published.
9.An advertisement reklama / ogłoszenie is an announcement in a newspaper, on
television, or on a poster about something such as a product, event, or job. (WRITTEN)
10.The circulation - nakład / poczytność of a newspaper or magazine is the number of
copies that are sold each time it is produced.
11.The Latest - ostatni / najnowszy You use latest to describe something that is the
most recent thing of its kind.
12.Subscription - abonament / prenumerata television is television that you can watch
only if you pay a subscription. A subscription channel is a channel that you can watch
6
only if you pay a subscription. / A subscription is an amount of money that you pay
regularly in order to belong to an organization, to help a charity or campaign, or to receive
copies of a magazine or newspaper.
13.Entertainment rozrywka consists of performances of plays and films, and activities
such as reading and watching television, that give people pleasure.
14.A puzzle łamigłówka / zafrapowany (uczucie) is a question, game, or toy which you
have to think about carefully in order to answer it correctly or put it together properly. / If
something puzzles you, you do not understand it and feel confused.
15.Promote promować If people promote something, they help or encourage it to
happen, increase, or spread. / If a firm promotes a product, it tries to increase the sales or
popularity of that product.
359
1.Literary literacki words and expressions are often unusual in some way and are used
to create a special effect in a piece of writing such as a poem, speech, or novel.
2.Deliberate zamierzony / umyślny If you do something that is deliberate, you planned
or decided to do it beforehand, and so it happens on purpose rather than by chance.
3.Gist esencja / sedno The gist of a speech, conversation, or piece of writing is its
general meaning.
4.Leak przeciek (informacji) If a secret document or piece of information leaks or is
leaked, someone lets the public know about it.
5.Bias stronniczość is a tendency to prefer one person or thing to another, and to favour
that person or thing.
6.A slogan hasło is a short phrase that is easy to remember. Slogans are used in
advertisements and by political parties and other organizations who want people to
remember what they are saying or selling.
7.Scan When you scan written material, you look through it quickly in order to find
important or interesting information. / When you scan a place or group of people, you look
at it carefully, usually because you are looking for something or someone.
8.invasions inwazja / wtargnięcie If you refer to the arrival of a large number of people
or things as an invasion, you are emphasizing that they are unpleasant or difficult to deal
with. / If there is an invasion of a country, a foreign army enters it by force.
9.A vehicle pojazd is a machine such as a car, bus, or truck which has an engine and is
used to carry people from place to place.
10.Expose eksponować / ujawniac To expose something that is usually hidden means
to uncover it so that it can be seen.
360
1.Duties obowiazki Your duties are tasks which you have to do because they are part of
your job.
2.Ogłoszenia drobne Classified ads or classified advertisements are small
advertisements in a newspaper or magazine. They are usually from a person or small
company.
3.Court sąd To court a particular person, group, or country means to try to please them
or improve your relations with them, often so that they will do something that you want
them to do.
4.Social społeczny means relating to society or to the way society is organized.
5.Editorial redakcyjny means involved in preparing a newspaper, magazine, or book for
publication. / Editorial means involving the attitudes, opinions, and contents of something
such as a newspaper, magazine, or television programme.
6.House Hunter’s Guide
7.Obituary (Obituaries) nekrolog Someone's obituary is an account of their life and
character which is printed in a newspaper or broadcast soon after they die.
7
8.Overseas zamorski You use overseas to describe things that involve or are in foreign
countries, usually across a sea or an ocean.
361 Aisle - przejscie the way between the seats in the theatre
Box – a small room in a theatre, on either side, from which a small group of people can
watch the play
A play sztuka is a piece of writing which is performed in a theatre, on the radio, or on
television.
Box office – ticket office
Curtain kurtyna In a theatre, the curtain is the large piece of material that hangs in front
of the stage until a performance begins.
Footlights światła oświtlajace scenę In a theatre, the footlights are the row of lights
along the front of the stage.
Galeria A gallery is a place that has permanent exhibitions of works of art in it.
A spotlight - rampa ? / światła oswietlajace scene is a powerful light, for example in a
theatre, which can be directed so that it lights up a small area.
Stage – scena the raised area in a theatre where actors perform
Stalls –fotele parteru the seats on the ground floor
Wings kulisy w teatrze In a theatre, the wings are the sides of the stage which are
hidden from the audience by curtains or scenery.
Backstage – backstage Kuluary / za kulisami the area of the sight of the audience
Stage In a theatre, the stage is an area where actors or other entertainers perform.
A queue kolejka is a line of people or vehicles that are waiting for something.
Scenery sceneria / dekoracja In a theatre, the scenery consists of the structures and
painted backgrounds that show where the action in the play takes place.
A room miejsce / przestrzeń is one of the separate sections or parts of the inside of a
building. Rooms have their own walls, ceilings, floors, and doors, and are usually used for
particular activities. You can refer to all the people who are in a room as the room.
A daily - dziennik is a newspaper that is published every day of the week except Sunday.
Row – rząd a line of seats for people side by side
Foyer –hol (w teatrze) the hall at the entrance of the theatre
Amateur amator An amateur is someone who does something as a hobby and not as a
job.
A performance wystep / przedstawienie involves entertaining an audience by doing
something such as singing, dancing, or acting.
Sold wyprzedany (bilety na wstęp) out If you sell something that you own, you let
someone have it in return for money. When something is in a particular place and you take
it out, you remove it from that place.
Reserve rezerwować If you reserve something such as a table, ticket, or magazine, you
arrange for it to be kept specially for you, rather than sold or given to someone else.
Balcony – balkon the part of the theatre where people can sit above the ground level
Circle – górna częśc siedzen w teatrze ułożona w okrąg one of the upper parts of in a
theatre, in which the seats are arranged in part of a circle around the building
Gallery (or Gods) – galleria => the highest upper floor in a theatre
Orchestra pit – miejsce dla orkiestry poniżej sceny sunken area in front of the stage
where an orchestra may play
365 Appear “wychodzic” / ukazywac się When something such as a book appears, it is
published or becomes available for people to buy.
Memorable pozostajacy w pamięci Something that is memorable is worth remembering
or likely to be remembered, because it is special or very enjoyable.
Fame sława If you achieve fame, you become very well-known.
8
Line linijka A line of a poem, song, or play is a group of words that are spoken or sung
together. If an actor learns his or her lines for a play or film, they learn what they have to
say.
Reputation - reputacja Something's or someone's reputation is the opinion that people
have about how good they are. If they have a good reputation, people think they are good.
Prompter - sufler If you prompt someone when they stop speaking, you encourage or
help them to continue. If you prompt an actor, you tell them what their next line is when
they have forgotten what comes next.
Private prywatny (występ) individuals are acting only for themselves, and are not
representing any group, company, or organization.
Fit pasować, odpowiadć, nadawać się If something fits someone for a particular task or
role, it makes them good enough or suitable for it.
Single -pojedyńczo You use single to indicate that you are considering something on its
own and separately from other things like it.
Mistake pomyłka If you make a mistake, you do something which you did not intend to
do, or which produces a result that you do not want.
Understudy – dubler an actor who learns an important part in a play so as to be able to
take the place of the actor who plays that part if necessary
A part of - część something is one of the pieces, sections, or elements that it consists of.
Make-up - makijaż consists of things such as lipstick, eye shadow, and powder which
some women put on their faces to make themselves look more attractive or which actors
use to change or improve their appearance. / If you make up something such as a story or
excuse, you invent it, sometimes in order to deceive people.
A role – rola is one of the characters that an actor or singer can play in a film, play, or
opera.
Impressions wrażenia Your impression of a person or thing is what you think they are
like, usually after having seen or heard them. Your impression of a situation is what you
think is going on.
366 Cast – obsada a set of actors in a play
Ham – an actor who acts artificially, unnaturally
Hero –bohater the most important male part in a play
Heroine – bohaterka the most important female part in a play
Stand-in – zastąpienie aktora a person who takes the part of an actor at dangerous
points in a film
Star – gwiazda a famous actor or actress
Stunt man – kaskader a person who does dangerous acts in a film so that the actor does
not have to take risks
Troupe – trupa aktorska a company of dancers, members of a circus
Villain – czarny character the main bad character in a play
367
A) in a circus: audience, clown, fire-eater, midget, ringmaster, sword-swallower,
tightrope walker
B) in a theatre: audience, dancer, leading lady, understudy, usher
C) in a night club: comedian, compere, dancer, stripper
368 A rehearsal próba of a play, dance, or piece of music is a practice of it in preparation
for a performance.
faded wyblakły When a coloured object fades or when the light fades it, it gradually
becomes paler.
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put on a play To put something on people or things means to cause them to have it, or
to cause them to be affected by it. A play is a piece of writing which is performed in a
theatre, on the radio, or on television. The company put on a play about the homeless...
audience widzowie The audience at a play, concert, film, or public meeting is the group
of people watching or listening to it.
curtain calls In a theatre, when actors or performers take a curtain call, they come
forward to the front of the stage after a performance in order to receive the applause of the
audience.
A subsidy dotacja is money that is paid by a government or other authority in order to
help an industry or business, or to pay for a public service.
burst grzmot / pęknięcie / rozerwanie If something bursts or if you burst it, it suddenly
breaks open or splits open and the air or other substance inside it comes out.
An interval przerwa during a film, concert, show, or game is a short break between two of
the parts. (mainly BRIT; in AM, usually use intermission)
Public publiczny You can refer to people in general, or to all the people in a particular
country or community, as the public. / If a fact is made public or becomes public, it
becomes known to everyone rather than being kept secret.
strictly dokładnie / rygorystycznie You use strictly to emphasize that something is of
one particular type, or intended for one particular thing or person, rather than any other.
deceive oszukać If you deceive someone, you make them believe something that is not
true, usually in order to get some advantage for yourself.
wide-eyed - naiwny e.g. when you believe that something (especially good) is going
to happen to you and you are looking forward to it, even if probability is very low
(small?)
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An act sztuka in a show is a short performance which is one of several in the show.
Applause is the noise made by a group of people clapping their hands to show approval.
A playwright dramaturg is a person who writes plays. = dramatist
370
1.A violin skrzypce is a musical instrument. Violins are made of wood and have four
strings. You play the violin by holding it under your chin and moving a bow across the
strings.
2.A trumpet trąbka is a musical instrument of the brass family which plays quite high
notes.
3.A drum beben is a musical instrument consisting of a skin stretched tightly over a round
frame. You play a drum by beating it with sticks or with your hands.
4.A guitar gitara is a musical instrument with six strings and a long neck. You play the
guitar by plucking or strumming the strings.
5.A xylophone ksylofon is a musical instrument which consists of a row of wooden bars
of different lengths. You play the xylophone by hitting the bars with special hammers.
6.Bagpipes kobzy are a musical instrument that is traditionally played in Scotland. You
play the bagpipes by blowing air through a pipe into a bag, and then squeezing the bag to
force the air out through other pipes.
373
1. A gift prezent is something that you give someone as a present. / If someone has a gift
for doing something, they have a natural ability for doing it.
2.Entitled If the title of something such as a book, film, or painting is, for example,
`Sunrise', you can say that it is entitled `Sunrise'
3.Keep kontynuować If you keep doing something, you do it repeatedly or continue to do
it.
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4.Unfinished niedokonczony If you describe something such as a work of art or a piece
of work as unfinished, you mean that it is not complete, for example because it was
abandoned or there was no time to complete it.= incomplete
5.Surpass przewyższać, przerastać If one person or thing surpasses another, the first
is better than, or has more of a particular quality than, the second.
6.Strings struny, smyczki The strings on a musical instrument such as a violin or guitar
are the thin pieces of wire or nylon stretched across it that make sounds when the
instrument is played.
7.A tune – melodia is a series of musical notes that is pleasant and easy to remember.
8.Play by ear grac “ze słuchu” If you play by ear or play a piece of music by ear, you
play music by relying on your memory rather than by reading printed music. / If you play it
by ear, you decide what to say or do in a situation by responding to events rather than by
following a plan which you have decided on in advance.
9.Reception odbiór If you get good reception from your radio or television, the sound or
picture is clear because the signal is strong. If the reception is poor, the sound or picture
is unclear because the signal is weak. / The reception in a hotel is the desk or office that
books rooms for people and answers their questions. (mainly BRIT; in AM, use front
desk)
10.Read music “czytac muzykę,” If you can read music, you have the ability to look at
and understand the symbols that are used in written music to represent musical sounds.
11.A quintet - kwintet is a group of five singers or musicians singing or playing together. /
A quintet is a piece of music written for five instruments or five singers.
12.Gifted utalentowany Someone who is gifted has a natural ability to do something
well; is much more intelligent or talented than average.
13.A prodigy – cudowne dziecko is someone young who has a great natural ability for
something such as music, mathematics, or sport.
14.Take up poruszyc (temat) / rozpoczynać If you take up something such as a task or
a story, you begin doing it after it has been interrupted or after someone else has begun it.
/ If you take up an activity or a subject, you become interested in it and spend time doing
it, either as a hobby or as a career.
15.An item (detal, punkt) is a report or article in a newspaper or magazine, or on
television or radio.
Faultless Something that is faultless is perfect and has no mistakes at all.
16.The wind - instrumenty dente section of an orchestra or band is the group of people
who produce musical sounds by blowing into their instruments.
17. Bow ukłon When you bow to someone, you briefly bend your body towards them as
a formal way of greeting them or showing respect.
18.The keys klawisze pianina, fortepianu - of a piano or organ are the long narrow
pieces of wood or plastic that you press in order to play it. / In music, a key is a scale of
musical notes that starts on one specific note.
19.Technique technika is skill and ability in an artistic, sporting, or other practical activity
that you develop through training and practice.
20.Represent reprezentant (przedstawiciel) If you represent a person or group at an
official event, you go there on their behalf.
21.Fulfil wypełniac / spełniać If you fulfil something such as a promise, dream, or hope,
you do what you said or hoped you would do.
22.Respective indywidualny / poszczególny means relating or belonging separately to
the individual people you have just mentioned.
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1 .A conductor - dyrygent is a person who stands in front of an orchestra or choir and
directs its performance.
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2.A baton pałka / batuta is a light, thin stick used by a conductor to conduct an orchestra
or a choir.
3.A symphony symfonia is a piece of music written to be played by an orchestra.
Symphonies are usually made up of four separate sections called movements.
4.A recital relacja, recytowanie is a performance of music or poetry, usually given by
one person.
5.A composer kompozytor is a person who writes music, especially classical music.
6.An opera opera is a play with music in which all the words are sung.
7.Note nuta In music, a note is the sound of a particular pitch, or a written symbol
representing this sound.
377
1.. A disc jockey DJ / presenter is someone who plays and introduces CDs on the radio
or at a disco.
2.A single or a CD single pojedyńczy utwór is a CD which has a few short songs on it.
You can also refer to the main song on a CD as a single.
3.LP (or album) album/ płyta z wieloma utworami An LP is a record which usually has
about 25 minutes of music or speech on each side. LP is an abbreviation for `long-playing
record'. An album is a record with about 25 minutes of music on each side. You can also
refer to a collection of songs that is available on a record, cassette, or CD as an album.
4.An album album is a book in which you keep things such as photographs or stamps that
you have collected.
5.A jukebox szafa grająca is a machine that plays CDs in a place such as a pub or bar.
You put money in and choose the song you want to hear.
6.Rytm The beat of a piece of music is the main rhythm that it has.
7.Słowa piosenki The lyrics of a song are its words.
8.Tempo / prędkość The tempo of a piece of music is the speed at which it is played.
9.Hit - If a CD, film, or play is a hit, it is very popular and successful.
378
1 .To live (życ) means to be alive. If someone lives to a particular age, they stay alive
until they are that age.
2.Practice – praktykowac / ćwiczyć means doing something regularly in order to be able
to do it better. A practice is one of these periods of doing something.
3.Actual aktualny / rzeczywisty You use actual to emphasize that you are referring to
something real or genuine.
4.Competent fachowy / kompetentny Someone who is competent is efficient and
effective.
5.Sleeve pudełko na płytę / kasetę / też => rękaw A record sleeve is the stiff envelope
in which a record is kept. (mainly BRIT; in AM, usually use jacket) / The sleeve of a coat,
shirt, or other item of clothing are the parts that cover your arms.
6.A scene sceneria in a play, film, or book is part of it in which a series of events happen
in the same place.
7.Hum the tune nucic melodię When you hum a tune, you sing it with your lips closed.
8.Quartet A quartet is a group of four people who play musical instruments or sing
together.
9.Relayed przekaz
10.Scratched porysowany / zadraśnięty If a sharp object scratches someone or
something, it makes small shallow cuts on their skin or surface.
11.Amplify wzmacniać / rozszerzać If you amplify a sound, you make it louder, usually
by using electronic equipment.
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12.A commission zlecenie is a piece of work that someone is asked to do and is paid
for.
13.An autograph – autograf is the signature of someone famous which is specially
written for a fan to keep.
14.Zysk The benefit of something is the help that you get from it or the advantage that
results from it.
15.Blurred zamazany A blur is a shape or area which you cannot see clearly because it
has no distinct outline or because it is moving very fast.
16.Mat or gloss finish matowe albo “lsniace” wykończenie (=> typ zdjecia) A matt
colour, paint, or surface is dull rather than shiny. / A gloss is a bright shine on the surface
of something.
17.Enlarge powiekszać When you enlarge something or when it enlarges, it becomes
bigger.
18.Lens obiektyw, lupa In your eye, the lens is the part behind the pupil that focuses
light and helps you to see clearly. / A lens is a thin curved piece of glass or plastic used in
things such as cameras, telescopes, and pairs of glasses. You look through a lens in order
to make things look larger, smaller, or clearer.
19.Develop rozwijać / wywoływać (zdjecia) When something develops, it grows or
changes over a period of time and usually becomes more advanced, complete, or severe.
20.Sensitive film film do aparatu Something that is sensitive to a physical force,
substance, or treatment is easily affected by it and often harmed by it. A film is the narrow
roll of plastic that is used in a camera to take photographs.
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1 .Aperture przesłona / przysłona ? / otwór ( w obiektywie) In photography, the
aperture of a camera is the size of the hole through which light passes to reach the film.
2.A Venetian blind żaluzja is a window blind made of thin horizontal strips which can be
adjusted to let in more or less light.
3.A viewfinder wizjer / celownik is a small square of glass in a camera that you look
through in order to see what you are going to photograph.
4.Wind the film To wind a tape or film back or forward means to make it move towards
its starting or ending position
5.A holder podstawka (pod aparat) is a container in which you put an object, usually in
order to protect it or to keep it in place.
6.Developing rozwijanie / rozbudowywanie If you talk about developing countries or
the developing world, you mean the countries or the parts of the world that are poor and
have few industries.
7.A flashbulb żarówka błyskowa is a small bulb that can be fixed to a camera. It makes
a bright flash of light so that you can take photographs indoors.
8.Indoors wewnątrz If something happens indoors, it happens inside a building.
381
1 .Incidental incydentalny / przypadkowy If one thing is incidental to another, it is less
important than the other thing or is not a major part of it.
2.Recenzja / przegląd A review is a report in the media in which someone gives their
opinion of something such as a new book or film.
3.Tendencja / nurt A trend is a change or development towards something new or
different.
4.Litter bins Litter is rubbish that is left lying around outside. A bin is a container that you
put rubbish in.
5.Current bieżący means happening, being used, or being done at the present time.
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6.A catalogue katalog is a list of things such as the goods you can buy from a particular
company, the objects in a museum, or the books in a library.
7.Calculated rozmyslny / zamierzony / wyliczony You can describe a clever or
dishonest action as calculated when it is very carefully planned or arranged.
8.Unaccompanied – bez towarzystwa If someone is unaccompanied, they are alone. /
An unaccompanied voice or instrument sings or plays alone, with no other instruments
playing at the same time.
9.Suitable Odpowiedni Someone or something that is suitable for a particular purpose or
occasion is right or acceptable for it.
10.Flashback- retrospekcja (“conięcie akcji”) In a film, novel, or play, a flashback is a
scene that returns to events in the past.
11.Moving – poruszajacy If something is moving, it makes you feel strongly an emotion
such as sadness, pity, or sympathy.
383 Telewizor TV set A television or television set is a piece of electrical equipment
consisting of a box with a glass screen on it on which you can watch programmes with
pictures and sounds.
Ekran A screen is a flat vertical surface on which pictures or words are shown. Television
sets and computers have screens, and films are shown on a screen in cinemas.
Szafka A cabinet is a cupboard used for storing things such as medicine or alcoholic
drinks or for displaying decorative things in.
Mówca (ten, który mówi) / głośnik A speaker is a person who is speaking. / A speaker
is a piece of electrical equipment, for example part of a radio or set of equipment for
playing CDs or tapes, through which sound comes out.
Antena An aerial is a device or a piece of wire that receives television or radio signals and
is usually attached to a radio, television, car, or building.
384 dokument (program dokumentalny) A documentary is a television or radio
programme, or a film, which shows real events or provides information about a particular
subject.
Relacja / reportaż The coverage of something in the news is the reporting of it.
Komunikat / serwis informacyjny A bulletin is a short news report on the radio or
television. / A bulletin is a short official announcement made publicly to inform people
about an important matter. / A bulletin is a regular newspaper or leaflet that is produced
by an organization or group such as a school or church.
Zakres The range of something is the maximum area in which it can reach things or
detect things.
Zaopatrywać (np. w żywność) / zaspokajac (potrzeby) Cater If a person or company
caters for an occasion such as a wedding or a party, they provide food and drink for all
the people there. / In British English, to cater for something means to take it into account.
In American English, you say you cater to something.
Błysk A flash is a sudden burst of light or of something shiny or bright.
Odnawiać / zaczynać ponownie Renew If you renew an activity, you begin it again.
Slapstick komedia / dowcip is a simple type of comedy in which the actors behave in a
rough and foolish way.
Follow-up kontynuacja
Kanał A channel is a television station. / A channel is a band of radio waves on which
radio messages can be sent and received.
Wpływ Influence is the power to make other people agree with your opinions or do what
you want.
Ustawiać / regulować Adjust If you adjust something, you change it so that it is more
effective or appropriate.
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Muzyka, śmiech, brawa w tle Canned music, laughter, or applause on a television or
radio programme has been recorded beforehand and is added to the programme to make
it sound as if there is a live audience.
Teleturniej Quizzes A quiz is a game or competition in which someone tests your
knowledge by asking you questions.
Zakłócenie Interference When there is interference, a radio signal is affected by other
radio waves or electrical activity so that it cannot be received properly.
385 Fake - podrobiony If someone fakes something, they try to make it look valuable or
genuine, although in fact it is not.
Auction – aukcja An auction is a public sale where goods are sold to the person who
offers the highest price.
Wystawa An exhibition is a public event at which pictures, sculptures, or other objects of
interest are displayed, for example at a museum or art gallery.
Reprodukcja A reproduction is a copy of something such as a piece of furniture or a
work of art.
Discernible rozpoznawalny / dostrzegalny If something is discernible, you can see it
or recognize that it exists. (FORMAL)
Taken up (take up)
Przewodnik A guide is a book that gives you information or instructions to help you do or
understand something.
Światło Light is the brightness that lets you see things. Light comes from sources such as
the sun, moon, lamps, and fire.
Living Życie You use living when you are talking about the quality of people's daily lives.
Reduced If you reduce something, you make it smaller in size or amount, or less in
degree.
Wierzchołek / szczyt The top of something is its highest point or part.
Mediocre mierny / sredni / nieszczególny If you describe something as mediocre, you
mean that it is of average quality but you think it should be better.
Comply zastosować się / comply with podporządkować się If someone or something
complies with an order or set of rules, they are in accordance with what is required or
expected.
Wstępny A preliminary is the first part of a competition to see who will go on to the main
competition.
Wolny / ogólnie dostępny / za darmo => for free If something is free, you can have it
or use it without paying for it.
Frames ramy / oprawy The frame of a picture or mirror is the wood, metal, or plastic that
is fitted around it, especially when it is displayed or hung on a wall.
Attributed stworzony / napisany If a piece of writing, a work of art, or a remark is
attributed to someone, people say that they wrote it, created it, or said it. / An attribute is
a quality or feature that someone or something has.
Odnawianie Restoring When someone restores something such as an old building,
painting, or piece of furniture, they repair and clean it, so that it looks like it did when it was
new.
Reminiscent przypominający If you say that one thing is reminiscent of another, you
mean that it reminds you of it. (FORMAL)
Likeness podobieństwo If two things or people have a likeness to each other, they are
similar to each other. / A likeness of someone is a picture or sculpture of them.
Spare zapasowy / rezerwowy You use spare to describe something that is the same as
things that you are already using, but that you do not need yet and are keeping ready in
case another one is needed.
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Come across When a person or thing comes to a particular place, especially to a place
where you are, they move there. / If someone or something goes across a place or a
boundary, they go from one side of it to the other. 3
Intention intencja / zamierzenie An intention is an idea or plan of what you are going to
do.
386 Landscape – krajobraz The landscape is everything you can see when you look
across an area of land, including hills, rivers, buildings, trees, and plants.
Portret A portrait is a painting, drawing, or photograph of a particular person.
Still life If a situation that used to exist still exists, it has continued and exists now. Life is
the quality which people, animals, and plants have when they are not dead, and which
objects and substances do not have.
387 paleta (malarska) A palette is a flat piece of wood or plastic on which an artist mixes
paints.
Płótno A canvas is a piece of canvas or similar material on which an oil painting can be
done.
Sztaluga An easel is a wooden frame that supports a picture which an artist is painting or
drawing.
Pędzel / szczotka A brush is an object which has a large number of bristles or hairs fixed
to it. You use brushes for painting, for cleaning things, and for tidying your hair.
389 kwadrat (kwadratowy) A square is a shape with four sides that are all the same
length and four corners that are all right angles.
Prostokątny Rectangular Something that is rectangular is shaped like a rectangle.
Kolisty / okrągły Circular Something that is circular is shaped like a circle.
Trójkątny Triangular Something that is triangular is in the shape of a triangle.
Owalny / jajowaty Oval things have a shape that is like a circle but is wider in one
direction than the other.
390 rzeźba A sculpture is a work of art that is produced by carving or shaping stone,
wood, clay, or other materials.
Ulga / odciążenie Relief If you feel a sense of relief, you feel happy because something
unpleasant has not happened or is no longer happening.
Impresjonizm Impressionism is a style of painting developed in France between 1870
and 1900 which concentrated on showing the effects of light on things rather than on clear
and exact detail.
Wygrawerować / wyryć Engrave If you engrave something with a design or words, or if
you engrave a design or words on it, you cut the design or words into its surface.
Marble is a type of very hard rock which feels cold when you touch it and which shines
when it is cut and polished. Statues and parts of buildings are sometimes made of marble
Kamień Stone is a hard solid substance found in the ground and often used for building
houses.
391 piki (w kartach) Spades is one of the four suits in a pack of playing cards. Each card
in the suit is marked with one or more black symbols: ♠.
Kiery Hearts is one of the four suits in a pack of playing cards. Each card in the suit is
marked with one or more red symbols in the shape of a heart. ♥
Trefl Clubs is one of the four suits in a pack of playing cards. Each card in the suit is
marked with one or more black symbols: ♣.
Karo Diamonds is one of the four suits of cards in a pack of playing cards. Each card in
the suit is marked with one or more red symbols in the shape of a diamond. ♦
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392 King of spades A king is a playing card with a picture of a king on it.
Jack (or knave) of hearts A jack is a playing card whose value is between a ten and a
queen. A jack is usually represented by a picture of a young man.
Queen of diamonds A queen is a playing card with a picture of a queen on it.
Ace of clubs An ace is a playing card with a single symbol on it. In most card games, the
ace of a particular suit has either the highest or the lowest value of the cards in that suit.
393 Picture card karta z obrazkiem A card is a piece of stiff paper or thin cardboard on
which something is written or printed.
dżoker (w kartach) The joker in a pack of playing cards is the card which does not belong
to any of the four suits.
Atut / przebić ( w kartach ) Trump In a game of cards, a trump is a playing card which
belongs to the suit which has been chosen as trumps.
Dealing rozdawanie (deal – rozdawać karty) If you deal playing cards, you give them
out to the players in a game of cards.
Dice gra w kości If you dice food, you cut it into small cubes.
Kasyno A casino is a building or room where people play gambling games such as
roulette.
Gra w oko Blackjack or pontoon
394 Pack of cards talia / paczka kart A pack of things is a collection of them that is sold
or given together in a box or bag.
“Orzeł czy reszka” Heads or tails If you toss a coin and it comes down heads, you can
see the side of the coin which has a picture of a head on it. If you toss a coin and it comes
down tails, you can see the side of it that does not have a picture of a head on it.
Brakuje (czegoś) / też => tęsknić Missing If something is missing, it is not in its usual
place, and you cannot find it. / If you miss something, you fail to notice it.
Pula - Stakes If something is at stake, it is being risked and might be lost or damaged if
you are not successful.
Tasować Shuffle If you shuffle playing cards, you mix them up before you begin a game.
Hazard A gamble is a risky action or decision that you take in the hope of gaining money,
success, or an advantage over other people.
Zawodzić / nie działac jak nalezy - Unravel If something such as a plan or system
unravels, it breaks up or begins to fail.
Główna wygrana A jackpot is the most valuable prize in a game or lottery, especially
when the game involves increasing the value of the prize until someone wins it.
Taken up by Czas wolny Leisure is the time when you are not working and you can relax and do
things that you enjoy.
395 Queen In chess, the queen is the most powerful piece. It can be moved in any
direction.
King In chess, the king is the most important piece. When you are in a position to capture
your opponent's king, you win the game.
Castle or rock - wieża szachowa In chess, a castle is a piece that can be moved
forwards, backwards, or sideways.
Bishop goniec / laufer (w szachach) In chess a bishop is a piece that can be moved
diagonally across the board on squares that are the same colour.
Knight konik / skoczek (w szachach) In chess, a knight is a piece which is shaped like
a horse's head.
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Pawn pionek (w szachach) In chess, a pawn is the smallest and least valuable playing
piece. Each player has eight pawns at the start of the game.
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