A Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Lesson and Web Quest Activity Unit For English Language Learners By Andrew Creamer Sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Outreach and Harvard University http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/biodic/homepage2.html Image by Louis De Vos QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Overview: This is a packet of activities, PowerPoint, and Web Quest Internet web links that are oriented toward stem cell vocabulary and content acquisition for biology students who are learning English. The activities include links to a variety of stem cell research and science websites, animations and video to support the students’ comprehension of contextualized content vocabulary and use of organizational and study skills through the topic of stem cells. Objectives: The crux of sheltered-English content instruction is “edit the task and not the text” and to accommodate and value the output capable from each individual student based upon the language and content goals set for the individual student. Therefore, students will have a variety of tasks to observe, listen, identify, differentiate, describe, summarize, compare and contrast, synthesize, defend and explain the vocabulary, issues and science content supported by a variety of visual and audio animation and other media. The role of teachers utilizing sheltered-English instruction is to guide what input and output the students are able to achieve based upon the student’s language and content goals and prior schooling experience and to, in some cases, help students navigate the sites. The activities are flexible and goals may be adjusted to meet the students in their learning. Each activity is supplemented with an authentic or visual support piece. The activities and lessons are optimally intended for class situations where the teacher uses a computer connected to the World Wide Web enabling him or her to project the lessons in the classroom so that students may complete activities with guidance or independently as well as explore the sites together. More proficient students may also work individually in a computer lab with a teacher’s guidance and support. Standards: See attached National and Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. Activity I. Prior Knowledge Students will reflect upon what they may know or may have heard. Some may know very little, if anything and may have been misinformed. Students are encouraged to collaborate with students to make guesses or predictions. Guiding questions include: What does “stem” mean? Where have you heard this term before? What do we already know about stem cells? Watch the embryo development video and stem cell animation together as an introduction and discuss what the students got out of it. Activity II. What did you learn? What are the students’ interests? This is a time to gather a variety of responses. Not every student will have received the same input and all answers should be validated as the journey of understanding begins to clarify the topic. In the middle columns the classic KWL has students speak about what they want to know or areas where they want to dig deeper. Activity III. Making distinctions between somatic cells and stem cells Using a semantic feature analysis chart, students may be able to identify details from the online-tutorial. Activity IV. Making distinctions between embryonic and adult stem cells Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast adult and embryonic stem cells and identify details from the text and on-line tutorials. V. Making students responsible for vocabulary Using an on-line glossary for support, students synthesize definitions, based upon the tutorials and media they have seen, the characteristics and description of a non-example. The goal is to have students work with the vocabulary. VI. - VII. Students draw and diagram stem cells and use vocabulary in a context Use key words to describe the characteristics of stem cells. IX. Misconceptions What are people confused about? What are some of the misinformation available? Using the fact and misconception power point and the links, have students judge the misconceptions based upon given information. X. Facts and Opinions Extend the activity to support the student’s ability to support their beliefs with the literature and information available. What is fact and what is fear? Why are people afraid? XI. Hopes for Stem Cells Students see the benefits of stem cell research by seeing a variety of organisms and their regenerative capabilities. Students describe what they see and have an opportunity to evaluate the value of this knowledge. XII. - XIV Therapeutic use for stem cell What are the roles of stem cell in cloning, what are experimental procedures and goals for stem cells that may help humans? XV-XVI. Developing an argument and opinion Students synthesize information and facts and discern the values and debates surrounding stem cell research. The goal is to identify concerns on both sides of the debate regardless of their position. The students make their own value judgment on the value of embryonic stem cell research. Stem Cells Name: I. Prior Knowledge What do you know about stem cells? What do you think you know? Ask your neighbor sitting on your right what they know about stem cells. What about your neighbor sitting on your left? Write your responses in the web below. STEM CELLS Now watch the following videos and read the information about the formation and uses of these special cells and use the information to fill in any empty boxes above. http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/embryoshape/index.html or watch an embryo grow http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/whatissc/ or view the Stem Cell Guy http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/illustration.html Stem Cells Name: II. Identifying your interests Write 5 things you learned column K. Write three questions or items that you would like to know more about in column W. At the end of class you will complete column L. K Stem cells W Stem cells L Stem cells What do I think I know? What do I want to know? What did I learn? Stem Cells Name: III. Identify differences between stem cells and non-stem cells Watch the video tutorials below and answer the questions about the characteristics of stem cells. http://www.lifesciences.umich.edu/research/featured/tutorial.html or click learning how stem cells work nt iat an no ta lw ay s di vid e re Th is ce ll c by dif fe rc Th is sn ot Do e ce ll i ch an ge sp ro du ce d in to ce ea rly th e in Fo un d ot he of e lls lfr se alw ay s an ce ll c Th is ss pe cia liz Th is ce ll i su ns Th is ell m br ew en Non-stem cell ed liz ed pe cia Stem Cell ce ll i es Fe at ur Ce ll Cell Type s yo s ion Look at the two cell types below and read the features listed across the top. For each cell type, write a + if it is true or – if it is not. Stem Cell Name: IV. Compare and Contrast Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells Visit the site below to see which stem cells become other cells. Try it yourself! Read the statement below and complete the Venn diagram below. http://www.childrenshospital.org/research/Site2029/mainpageS2029P23sublevel39.html or click view differentiation of stem cells Embryonic Stem cells come from embryos. The embryos were fertilized in a laboratory and were donated for science. The embryo is a 4-5 day old undeveloped mass of human of cells that is grown in a laboratory inside of small plates of nutrients. These cells are important because they are easy to find, and unlike non-stem cells, can self-renew or keep dividing and never specialize. When they do specialize, they can develop into any cell of the body like a blood cell, nerve cell or muscle cell etc. These cells are used in the lab to re-grow or regenerate many types of tissues. Adult Stem cells (somatic stem cells) are stem cells that are in a post-embryo human. You do not have to be an adult to have them! You have adult stem cells in your body, but not in every tissue. They are a very small group of cells in the body that differentiate (specialize) mainly only into the tissues where you find them. For example, a lung stem cell will normally make lung cells and not muscle cells, and liver stem cells would normally make liver cells and not neurons. At the moment, adult stem cells are mysterious and can help heal or regenerate only a few types of cells and are more difficult for scientists to find in the body and use for regeneration. Both Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells are cells that can differentiate or develop into a body cell in the body. Scientists want to know how this works. Stem cells can always self-renew or divide and create more stem cells. Some body cells like blood cells and nerve cells cannot divide (go through mitosis) and cannot produce more without a stem cell. Stem cells can help your body heal and create new cells after an injury. Adult Stem Cell Both Embryonic Stem Cell Stem Cells Name: V. Making Vocabulary Comprehensible input Use your text or web browser to check out this website for a glossary of terms. Write a definition, example and a non-example for each term. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/glossary.asp or click glossary 1. Vocabulary word Stem Cell Definition Example Non-Example 2. Vocabulary word Embryonic Stem Cell Definition Example Non-Example 3. Vocabulary word Adult Stem Cell Definition Example Non-Example 4. Vocabulary word Embryo Definition Example Non-Example 5. Vocabulary word Differentiation Definition Example Non-Example 6. Vocabulary word Regeneration Definition Example Non-Example 7. Vocabulary word Plasticity Definition Example Non-Example 8. Vocabulary word Self-Renewal Definition Example Non-Example 9. Vocabulary word Totipotent Definition Example Non-Example 10. Vocabulary word Multipotent Definition Example Non-Example 11. Vocabulary word Germ Layers Definition Example Non-Example Stem Cells Diagram of Differentiation Name: VI. The life of a stem cell Draw a stem cell differentiate into a body cell that you have studied in class. Label the cells. Stem Cells Name: VII. Stem cell characteristics Use the terms below to fill in the answers below. pluripotent multipotent self-renewal totipotent differentiate plasticity regeneration QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. NIH, 2006 1. A stem cell that can differentiate into all body and extra-embryo cell types is called ______________. 2. A stem cell that can develop into more than one cell type is called ___________. 3. A stem cell that can develop into all the body cells is called ________________. 4. A stem cell’s potential to develop into another type of cell is called ________________. 5. A stem cell’s ability to create more stem cells without differentiating is called ________________. 6. The process of a stem cell specializing and developing into a cell of the body is called _____________________. 7. The process that organisms use to re-grow damaged, or injured cells and tissues, is called ____________________. Stem Cells Name: VIII. The germ layers Listen and watch the videos describing the development of embryonic stem cells. http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/development.mov or view the development of the embryo http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/cellfate.mov or view the germ layers Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm Color the endoderm red, the mesoderm blue and ectoderm green. Mesoderm Endoderm Ectoderm 1. This layer of cells develops the nervous system, brain and skin of the body. __________________ 2. This layer of cells develops the muscles, kidneys, heart and vessels of the body. __________________ 3. This layer of cells develops the inner organs of the digestive system and the lungs. __________________ Summarize what you know about embryo development. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Stem Cells Name: IX. Discrediting popular misconceptions View sites and the videos below about the stem cell debate. http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/facts.html#3 http://www.lifesciences.umich.edu/research/featured/Q&A.html or Q&A http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/stemweb/index.html or click view the science and arguments http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3209/04.html and consider the issues ___ An embryo blastocyst used in research is a microscopic mass of about 150 cells. ___ People opposed to embryo and stem cell use believe life begins once an egg is fertilized and is sacred regardless if it is an unrecognizable ball of 150 cells. ___ Embryos are made when couples use the laboratory to help make a baby and the labs combine sperm and egg together and transplant the fertilized egg into a uterus. ___ IVF only uses a few embryos for transplant and there are over 100,000 fertilized embryos that are unused and may be discarded. ___ Embryonic stem cells are taken from developed babies. ___ Embryonic stem cells are taken from a baby growing inside the mother’s uterus. ___ The embryos were stolen and used for research without the parents knowing. ___ If the embryos were not used for research, they would be discarded (thrown away). ___ If the embryos were not used for science, they would definitely grow into children. ___ Full-developed 9 month-old babies are used to harvest stem cells. ___ Embryonic stem cells will make a clone of you the same age as you are. ___ Clones are grown from a single cell to adult size in a lab and have no belly button. ___ Stem cells will grow a clone that you will use to take organs from when you’re sick. ___ Stem cells have the capability to repair injured and damaged tissues. ___ Only Adults have adult stem cells. Stem Cells Name: X. Identifying facts and opinions Now that you have seen some interesting arguments, what are some statements that you have read that are based in fact? Which statements are opinions? Why? Positions of proponents of embryonic stem cell research FACTS Positions of opponents of embryonic stem cell research OPINIONS WHY Stem Cells Name: XI. Hopes for stem cell research and regeneration Scientists want to know how to tell cells to become certain cells like heart muscle cells and use them safely. Scientists use animal models to study stem cell regeneration. Watch the video about a special invertebrate worms called Planaria and how it can help us learn about regeneration. http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/planaria_stemcell.mov or view it here and read http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/regen/index.html or read here. Now watch the two videos below about the Zebra fish and the Newt/Salamander and answer the questions below. http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/animations.html or click here 1. What is special about the Zebra fish? 2. What begins after the fish heart is injured? 3. Why is this important for humans to know? 4. What is special about the Salamander? 5. What happens after its limbs are cut off? 6. Why is this important for humans to know? 7. Would a human heart grow back after receiving the same injury like the fish? 8. Would a human limb regenerate after receiving the same injury as the salamander? Stem Cells Name: XII. Embryos and cloning Watch the video about somatic nuclear transfer (NST) and its use of embryonic cells. http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/scnt_es.mov or click here SNT was used to create Dolly the Sheep, the first cloned mammal using the nucleus of an adult sheep that was put into an embryo that had its own nucleus removed and was then implanted into a mother sheep to develop. After the video In order to make a somatic nuclear transfer clone, from what type of cell did the scientist get the nucleus? What did they do to this cell? Before they can put the nucleus into an egg cell, what has to be removed from the egg cell? What happens to the embryo once the new nucleus is implanted? What will happen if this embryo is implanted into a uterus? What does this teach us about stem cells? Stem Cells Name: XIII. Possible human uses for stem cells Why stem cells? The hope for future use of stem cell research is cell-based therapy. This diagram below shows stem cells injected into a heart that would help the cardiac muscle cells re-grow through regeneration. Read about current hopes for stem cell research at the sites below and watch the video. http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/stemcellvid/index.html or click on view Look at the diagram about using stem cells to help a heart after a heart attack. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. NIH, 2006 1. In the first column of the diagram above, how do the stem cells get into the heart? 2. What happens to the stem cells? What do we call this process? 3. The heart muscle cells died because the heart blood vessels were blocked and the tissues had no oxygen or blood supply. In the second column, what cells do scientists inject into the mouse’s tail? 4. What tissues are these cells regenerating? Stem cells Name: XIV. Uses today and tomorrow How are stem cells being used today? Look at the uses of stem cells today at the sites below. http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/therapies/index.html or click here http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/sctoday/ or click uses today What are three current successful uses for stem cells? 1. 2. 3. Future of research What are the hopes for stem cells in the future? Look at the site below and look for diseases or conditions that scientists are looking to cure by researching stem cells. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp or click stem cell challenges What are three current diseases that scientists hope treat in the future using stem cells? 1. 2. 3. Stem Cells Name: XV. What are the issues? You have now had an opportunity to examine the issues and information about stem cells. Both sides support adult stem cell use and research. The topic of embryonic stem cell use and research can be very personal because some people are suffering and dying from diseases that scientists hope treat or cure one day by researching embryonic stem cells. Other people have ethical or religious issues with embryonic stem cells because they believe the tiny ball of 150 cells is a murdering a living human organism and should not be used for research. Identify the positions by listing three pros and cons for each argument. Pros Why would we want to use embryonic stem cells? Cons Why would we NOT want to use embryonic stem cells? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. Now write a paragraph summarizing the issues below. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Stem Cells Name: XVI. What is your opinion? You have been elected to the United States Congress. You have to make a decision on whether or not to use federal tax dollars to support embryonic stem cell research to find cures to diseases. How would you vote and why? Please support your decision with at least four reasons for or against. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Summer 2007 Workshop in Biology and Multimedia for High School Teachers Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College.