A Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology
Lesson and Web Quest Activity Unit
For English Language Learners
By Andrew Creamer
Sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Outreach and Harvard University
http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/biodic/homepage2.html Image by Louis De Vos
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Overview: This is a packet of activities, PowerPoint, and Web Quest Internet web links
that are oriented toward stem cell vocabulary and content acquisition for biology students
who are learning English. The activities include links to a variety of stem cell research
and science websites, animations and video to support the students’ comprehension of
contextualized content vocabulary and use of organizational and study skills through the
topic of stem cells.
Objectives: The crux of sheltered-English content instruction is “edit the task and not the
text” and to accommodate and value the output capable from each individual student
based upon the language and content goals set for the individual student. Therefore,
students will have a variety of tasks to observe, listen, identify, differentiate, describe,
summarize, compare and contrast, synthesize, defend and explain the vocabulary, issues
and science content supported by a variety of visual and audio animation and other
media. The role of teachers utilizing sheltered-English instruction is to guide what input
and output the students are able to achieve based upon the student’s language and content
goals and prior schooling experience and to, in some cases, help students navigate the
sites. The activities are flexible and goals may be adjusted to meet the students in their
learning. Each activity is supplemented with an authentic or visual support piece. The
activities and lessons are optimally intended for class situations where the teacher uses a
computer connected to the World Wide Web enabling him or her to project the lessons in
the classroom so that students may complete activities with guidance or independently as
well as explore the sites together. More proficient students may also work individually in
a computer lab with a teacher’s guidance and support.
Standards: See attached National and Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.
Activity I. Prior Knowledge
Students will reflect upon what they may know or may have heard. Some may know very
little, if anything and may have been misinformed. Students are encouraged to collaborate
with students to make guesses or predictions. Guiding questions include: What does
“stem” mean? Where have you heard this term before? What do we already know about
stem cells? Watch the embryo development video and stem cell animation together as an
introduction and discuss what the students got out of it.
Activity II. What did you learn? What are the students’ interests?
This is a time to gather a variety of responses. Not every student will have received the
same input and all answers should be validated as the journey of understanding begins to
clarify the topic. In the middle columns the classic KWL has students speak about what
they want to know or areas where they want to dig deeper.
Activity III. Making distinctions between somatic cells and stem cells
Using a semantic feature analysis chart, students may be able to identify details from the
online-tutorial.
Activity IV. Making distinctions between embryonic and adult stem cells
Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast adult and embryonic stem cells and identify
details from the text and on-line tutorials.
V. Making students responsible for vocabulary
Using an on-line glossary for support, students synthesize definitions, based upon the
tutorials and media they have seen, the characteristics and description of a non-example.
The goal is to have students work with the vocabulary.
VI. - VII. Students draw and diagram stem cells and use vocabulary in a context
Use key words to describe the characteristics of stem cells.
IX. Misconceptions
What are people confused about? What are some of the misinformation available?
Using the fact and misconception power point and the links, have students judge the
misconceptions based upon given information.
X. Facts and Opinions
Extend the activity to support the student’s ability to support their beliefs with the
literature and information available. What is fact and what is fear? Why are people
afraid?
XI. Hopes for Stem Cells
Students see the benefits of stem cell research by seeing a variety of organisms and their
regenerative capabilities. Students describe what they see and have an opportunity to
evaluate the value of this knowledge.
XII. - XIV Therapeutic use for stem cell
What are the roles of stem cell in cloning, what are experimental procedures and goals for
stem cells that may help humans?
XV-XVI. Developing an argument and opinion
Students synthesize information and facts and discern the values and debates surrounding
stem cell research. The goal is to identify concerns on both sides of the debate regardless
of their position. The students make their own value judgment on the value of embryonic
stem cell research.
Stem Cells
Name:
I. Prior Knowledge
What do you know about stem cells? What do you think you know? Ask
your neighbor sitting on your right what they know about stem cells.
What about your neighbor sitting on your left? Write your responses in
the web below.
STEM CELLS
Now watch the following videos and read the information about the formation and
uses of these special cells and use the information to fill in any empty boxes above.
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/embryoshape/index.html or
watch an embryo grow
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/whatissc/ or view the Stem Cell Guy
http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/illustration.html
Stem Cells
Name:
II. Identifying your interests
Write 5 things you learned column K. Write three questions or items
that you would like to know more about in column W. At the end of
class you will complete column L.
K
Stem cells
W
Stem cells
L
Stem cells
What do I think I know?
What do I want to know?
What did I learn?
Stem Cells
Name:
III. Identify differences between stem cells and non-stem cells
Watch the video tutorials below and answer the questions about the
characteristics of stem cells.
http://www.lifesciences.umich.edu/research/featured/tutorial.html or click learning how
stem cells work
nt
iat
an
no
ta
lw
ay
s
di
vid
e
re
Th
is
ce
ll c
by
dif
fe
rc
Th
is
sn
ot
Do
e
ce
ll i
ch
an
ge
sp
ro
du
ce
d
in
to
ce
ea
rly
th
e
in
Fo
un
d
ot
he
of
e
lls
lfr
se
alw
ay
s
an
ce
ll c
Th
is
ss
pe
cia
liz
Th
is
ce
ll i
su
ns
Th
is
ell
m
br
ew
en
Non-stem cell
ed
liz
ed
pe
cia
Stem Cell
ce
ll i
es
Fe
at
ur
Ce
ll
Cell Type
s
yo
s
ion
Look at the two cell types below and read the features listed across the top. For each
cell type, write a + if it is true or – if it is not.
Stem Cell
Name:
IV. Compare and Contrast Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells
Visit the site below to see which stem cells become other cells. Try it
yourself! Read the statement below and complete the Venn diagram
below.
http://www.childrenshospital.org/research/Site2029/mainpageS2029P23sublevel39.html
or click view differentiation of stem cells
Embryonic Stem cells come from embryos. The embryos were fertilized in a laboratory
and were donated for science. The embryo is a 4-5 day old undeveloped mass of human
of cells that is grown in a laboratory inside of small plates of nutrients. These cells are
important because they are easy to find, and unlike non-stem cells, can self-renew or
keep dividing and never specialize. When they do specialize, they can develop into any
cell of the body like a blood cell, nerve cell or muscle cell etc. These cells are used in
the lab to re-grow or regenerate many types of tissues.
Adult Stem cells (somatic stem cells) are stem cells that are in a post-embryo human.
You do not have to be an adult to have them! You have adult stem cells in your body, but
not in every tissue. They are a very small group of cells in the body that differentiate
(specialize) mainly only into the tissues where you find them. For example, a lung stem
cell will normally make lung cells and not muscle cells, and liver stem cells would
normally make liver cells and not neurons. At the moment, adult stem cells are
mysterious and can help heal or regenerate only a few types of cells and are more
difficult for scientists to find in the body and use for regeneration.
Both Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells are cells that can differentiate or develop into a
body cell in the body. Scientists want to know how this works. Stem cells can always
self-renew or divide and create more stem cells. Some body cells like blood cells and
nerve cells cannot divide (go through mitosis) and cannot produce more without a stem
cell. Stem cells can help your body heal and create new cells after an injury.
Adult Stem Cell
Both
Embryonic Stem Cell
Stem Cells
Name:
V. Making Vocabulary Comprehensible input
Use your text or web browser to check out this website for a glossary of terms.
Write a definition, example and a non-example for each term.
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/glossary.asp or click glossary
1. Vocabulary word
Stem Cell
Definition
Example
Non-Example
2. Vocabulary word
Embryonic Stem Cell
Definition
Example
Non-Example
3. Vocabulary word
Adult Stem Cell
Definition
Example
Non-Example
4. Vocabulary word
Embryo
Definition
Example
Non-Example
5. Vocabulary word
Differentiation
Definition
Example
Non-Example
6. Vocabulary word
Regeneration
Definition
Example
Non-Example
7. Vocabulary word
Plasticity
Definition
Example
Non-Example
8. Vocabulary word
Self-Renewal
Definition
Example
Non-Example
9. Vocabulary word
Totipotent
Definition
Example
Non-Example
10. Vocabulary word
Multipotent
Definition
Example
Non-Example
11. Vocabulary word
Germ Layers
Definition
Example
Non-Example
Stem Cells
Diagram of Differentiation
Name:
VI. The life of a stem cell
Draw a stem cell differentiate into a body cell that you have studied in
class. Label the cells.
Stem Cells
Name:
VII. Stem cell characteristics
Use the terms below to fill in the answers below.
pluripotent
multipotent
self-renewal
totipotent
differentiate
plasticity
regeneration
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
NIH, 2006
1. A stem cell that can differentiate into all body and extra-embryo cell
types is called ______________.
2. A stem cell that can develop into more than one cell type is called
___________.
3. A stem cell that can develop into all the body cells is called
________________.
4. A stem cell’s potential to develop into another type of cell is called
________________.
5. A stem cell’s ability to create more stem cells without differentiating is
called ________________.
6. The process of a stem cell specializing and developing into a cell of the
body is called _____________________.
7. The process that organisms use to re-grow damaged, or injured cells
and tissues, is called ____________________.
Stem Cells
Name:
VIII. The germ layers
Listen and watch the videos describing the development of embryonic stem cells.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/development.mov or view the development of the embryo
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/cellfate.mov or view the germ layers
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm
Color the endoderm red, the mesoderm blue and ectoderm green.
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Ectoderm
1. This layer of cells develops the nervous system, brain and skin of the
body. __________________
2. This layer of cells develops the muscles, kidneys, heart and vessels of the
body. __________________
3. This layer of cells develops the inner organs of the digestive system and
the lungs. __________________
Summarize what you know about embryo development.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Stem Cells
Name:
IX. Discrediting popular misconceptions
View sites and the videos below about the stem cell debate.
http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/facts.html#3
http://www.lifesciences.umich.edu/research/featured/Q&A.html or Q&A
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/stemweb/index.html or click
view the science and arguments
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3209/04.html and consider the issues
___ An embryo blastocyst used in research is a microscopic mass of about 150 cells.
___ People opposed to embryo and stem cell use believe life begins once an egg is
fertilized and is sacred regardless if it is an unrecognizable ball of 150 cells.
___ Embryos are made when couples use the laboratory to help make a baby and the labs
combine sperm and egg together and transplant the fertilized egg into a uterus.
___ IVF only uses a few embryos for transplant and there are over 100,000 fertilized
embryos that are unused and may be discarded.
___ Embryonic stem cells are taken from developed babies.
___ Embryonic stem cells are taken from a baby growing inside the mother’s uterus.
___ The embryos were stolen and used for research without the parents knowing.
___ If the embryos were not used for research, they would be discarded (thrown away).
___ If the embryos were not used for science, they would definitely grow into children.
___ Full-developed 9 month-old babies are used to harvest stem cells.
___ Embryonic stem cells will make a clone of you the same age as you are.
___ Clones are grown from a single cell to adult size in a lab and have no belly button.
___ Stem cells will grow a clone that you will use to take organs from when you’re sick.
___ Stem cells have the capability to repair injured and damaged tissues.
___ Only Adults have adult stem cells.
Stem Cells
Name:
X. Identifying facts and opinions
Now that you have seen some interesting arguments, what are some
statements that you have read that are based in fact? Which statements are
opinions? Why?
Positions of proponents of
embryonic stem cell research
FACTS
Positions of opponents of
embryonic stem cell research
OPINIONS
WHY
Stem Cells
Name:
XI. Hopes for stem cell research and regeneration
Scientists want to know how to tell cells to become certain cells like heart
muscle cells and use them safely. Scientists use animal models to study
stem cell regeneration.
Watch the video about a special invertebrate worms called Planaria and how it can
help us learn about regeneration.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/planaria_stemcell.mov or view it here
and read http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/regen/index.html or read here.
Now watch the two videos below about the Zebra fish and the Newt/Salamander and
answer the questions below.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/animations.html or click here
1. What is special about the Zebra fish?
2. What begins after the fish heart is injured?
3. Why is this important for humans to know?
4. What is special about the Salamander?
5. What happens after its limbs are cut off?
6. Why is this important for humans to know?
7. Would a human heart grow back after receiving the same injury like the
fish?
8. Would a human limb regenerate after receiving the same injury as the
salamander?
Stem Cells
Name:
XII. Embryos and cloning
Watch the video about somatic nuclear transfer (NST) and its use of embryonic
cells.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/mov/scnt_es.mov or click here
SNT was used to create Dolly the Sheep, the first cloned mammal using the nucleus of an
adult sheep that was put into an embryo that had its own nucleus removed and was then
implanted into a mother sheep to develop.
After the video
In order to make a somatic nuclear transfer clone, from what type of cell did the scientist
get the nucleus?
What did they do to this cell?
Before they can put the nucleus into an egg cell, what has to be removed from the egg
cell?
What happens to the embryo once the new nucleus is implanted?
What will happen if this embryo is implanted into a uterus?
What does this teach us about stem cells?
Stem Cells
Name:
XIII. Possible human uses for stem cells
Why stem cells? The hope for future use of stem cell research is cell-based therapy.
This diagram below shows stem cells injected into a heart that would help the
cardiac muscle cells re-grow through regeneration. Read about current hopes for
stem cell research at the sites below and watch the video.
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resources/tdc02/sci/life/cell/stemcellvid/index.html or
click on view
Look at the diagram about using stem cells to help a heart after a heart attack.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
NIH, 2006
1. In the first column of the diagram above, how do the stem cells get into the heart?
2. What happens to the stem cells? What do we call this process?
3. The heart muscle cells died because the heart blood vessels were blocked and the
tissues had no oxygen or blood supply. In the second column, what cells do
scientists inject into the mouse’s tail?
4. What tissues are these cells regenerating?
Stem cells
Name:
XIV. Uses today and tomorrow
How are stem cells being used today?
Look at the uses of stem cells today at the sites below.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/therapies/index.html or click here
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/sctoday/ or click uses today
What are three current successful uses for stem cells?
1.
2.
3.
Future of research
What are the hopes for stem cells in the future?
Look at the site below and look for diseases or conditions that scientists are looking
to cure by researching stem cells.
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp or click stem cell challenges
What are three current diseases that scientists hope treat in the future using stem
cells?
1.
2.
3.
Stem Cells
Name:
XV. What are the issues?
You have now had an opportunity to examine the issues and information about stem
cells. Both sides support adult stem cell use and research. The topic of embryonic
stem cell use and research can be very personal because some people are suffering
and dying from diseases that scientists hope treat or cure one day by researching
embryonic stem cells. Other people have ethical or religious issues with embryonic
stem cells because they believe the tiny ball of 150 cells is a murdering a living
human organism and should not be used for research. Identify the positions by
listing three pros and cons for each argument.
Pros
Why would we want to use embryonic
stem cells?
Cons
Why would we NOT want to use
embryonic stem cells?
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Now write a paragraph summarizing the issues below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Stem Cells
Name:
XVI. What is your opinion?
You have been elected to the United States Congress. You have to make a decision on
whether or not to use federal tax dollars to support embryonic stem cell research to find
cures to diseases. How would you vote and why? Please support your decision with at
least four reasons for or against.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Summer 2007 Workshop
in Biology and
Multimedia
for High School
Teachers
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and
Fellows of Harvard College.
Download

Stem Cells - Life Sciences Outreach Program