1st AID STUDY GUIDE
Checking an ill or injured person
Check the scene for safety
Obtain consent to help- provide care or call 911 if there is a life threatening
condition.
Protect yourself from blood born pathogens- use gloves
Check from head to toe on an adult, but from toe to head on a child (to make
them more comfortable, and keep them with their parent, if present.)
Care for the conditions you find, monitor the ABC’s (airway, breathing,
circulation)
Seizure
Keep the victim safe by clearing the area of objects, protect the head by
putting something soft under the head if possible- do not restrain or put
anything between their teeth. Comfort and reassure person.
Poisoning
Signs: breathing difficulty, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal or chest
pain, headache or dizziness, burns around nose, mouth, eyes
Care: call 911 or poison control (800-222-1222) to not give anything to drink
or induce vomiting, monitor ABC’s.
Head, Neck, Back Injury
Signs: complains of neck or back pain, tingling or weakness in extremities,
not fully alert
Care: Minimize movement- support head in the position it is found, using in
line stabilization
Allergic reaction/Anaphylaxis
Signs: Contact area swells, turns red, itches, hives, rash, weakness, nausea,
vomiting, dizziness, difficulty breathing
Care: monitor ABC’s, help with prescribed medication if available (auto
injector). Bee stinger still in- scrap off with edge of a credit card or something
Asthma
Signs: Coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath,
sweating, tightness is chest, unable to talk without stopping for a breath
Care: Help with inhaler if available, note time administered and monitor
ABC’s
Shock
Signs: restlessness, irritability, or confusion, altered level of consciousness,
pale or ashen, cool , moist skin, rapid breathing and pulse, excessive thirst
Care: Call 911, monitor ABC’s , help the person to lie down, maintain body
temperature, do not give fluids
.
Stroke
Signs: F.A.S.T (F)ace weakness on one side of the face- ask them to smile-it’ll
be crooked. (A)rm: weakness or numbness in one arm- ask them to raise
both arms out in front - one will not go as high. (S)peech- slurred or trouble
getting words out- ask them to repeat a simple sentence
Care: (T)ime- note the time when the symptoms started and call 911
Bleeding
Care: Put on gloves. Cover the wound with a sterile dressing, apply direct
pressure until the bleeding stops, or cover the dressing with a roller bandage,
apply additional dressings and bandages if it doesn’t stop, minimize shock
(have them lie down), call 911 if it won’t stop
Burns (heat, chemical, electrical)
Care: stop the burning (remove them or the source of it), cool the burn with
cold running water (except electrical) and cover loosely with a sterile
dressing, care for shock. Call 911 if 3rd degree, elderly or very young, on face,
or covers large portion of the body. Do not remove charred clothing.
Injury to Muscle or Bone or Joint
Signs: swelling, pain at site or above and below site of injury.
Care: Do not move or splint unless necessary. Check for feeling warmth and
color at site. Only splint if they have to be moved; in the position you found it,
and it does not cause more pain, secure it above and below the joint, call 911
if suspected fracture or person can’t bear weight.
R.I.C.E.- rest, immobilize, cold (ice it), elevation
Anatomical splint- bind injured body part to a non injured body part
Soft splint- such as a folded towel to mold to an ankle secured with ties
Rigid/hard splint – board or folded magazine to support a forearm
Sling and binder- to support arm from moving up or down and secured to
body so if can’t move away from the body- always tie knots on the noninjured side, at the side of the body- not in back.
Cold related emergencies
Frostbite- signs: loss of feeling, discolored, waxy skin appearance, blue skin
Care: only re warm slowly skin to skin if there is no danger of refreezing.
Remove wet clothing, apply warmth- carefully and gently- don’t rub, care for
shock.
Hypothermia signs: shivering, numbness, slow pulse, apathy or impaired
judgement, loss of consciousness (final stages) Care: move to warm place,
check ABC’s and care for shock, remove wet clothing and cover to re-warm
slowly, don’t give warm drinks unless fully conscious
Heat related emergencies
Heat cramps: signs: muscle spasms Care: stretch and massage area- drink
cool water, remove victim to a cool place
Heat Exhaustion Signs: cool, moist skin, pale, flushed skin, headache,
nausea, dizziness, weakness, exhaustion. Care: move to cool area, fan, loosen
or remove some clothing, apply water with a sponge or cloth, give small sips
of cool water if fully conscious, call 911 if condition doesn’t improve.
Heat Stroke Signs : high body temperature, red, hot skin, rapid or weak
pulse, change in level of consciousness. Care: call 911, care is same as heat
exhaustion
Moving an injured/ill person
Walking assist- support their waist, have them put one arm over your
shoulder
Clothes drag- support head with forearms as you grasp clothes at shoulder
Foot drag- good for victims larger than yourself- harder on the head
Chair carry-2 rescuers lock arms under victims thighs- victim puts arms over
both shoulders- lift using legs
Revised: 6/2011