1 History 6A Fall, 2013 Mon-Wed. 4-5:30, 3 LeConte Michael Nylan ([email protected]) office: 3212 Dwinelle office hours: TBA HISTORY OF CHINA: ORIGINS TO THE MONGOL CONQUEST This introductory course, designed for lower-division undergraduates with little or no background in Chinese history, celebrates key features of early and middle-period Chinese civilization, including its distinctive writing system, its compelling forms of historiography and philosophy, its construction of the social and heavenly orders, and the density of its urban life in antiquity. These features will be examined partly through the incredibly rich material record revealed by scientific excavations (mainly since 1949) and partly through hallowed literary traditions. Upon occasion, lectures will contrast the imperial order of early China with that of Rome under Augustus and Hadrian, in order to highlight the diametrically opposed premises on which these two empires operated; in a very few cases, lectures will contrast conditions in early China with those in today's China. Several major themes will be pursued in this course, including: the huge gap between the "common wisdom" about China and the actualities (Orientalist fantasies and self-Orientalization exercises); how empires ran differently in China than in the Mediterranean empires (and why it was China that invented bureaucracy, paper, silk and ceramic technologies, and printing); how views of human nature in early and middle-period China differ dramatically from JudaeoChristian-Islamic views, whether expressed in Confucian teachings, in Daoism, or in Buddhism; urban life in China; gender and legal issues. Themes introduced in the lectures (generally drawn from primary sources) will be pursued more critically in weekly section meetings of two hours. Attendance at these sections is therefore mandatory, and performance in section and lecture accounts for 30% of the final grade. Active participation, not attendance, in lecture and section is necessary to earn a high grade for your work. To encourage this, all students will submit brief "response papers" giving their reactions to the section readings before each section meeting. In addition, both the mid-term and final will emphasize section readings and materials discussed on the handouts given out in most classes. A major goal of the course is to improve students' reading and writing skills. Accordingly, there will be two papers, which together will account for 30% of the grade: — one of 2 pages on a primary text of your choice (10%), due by noon, Oct. 18 — one of 5-6 pages that represent a mini-research paper (20%), due by noon, Nov. 27 — extra-credit assignment (for 2.5 extra points): a one-page review of a movie, an art object, or a documentary (on approved sheet). This assignment is designed for those who worry too much about grades. Doing well (above a B-) on this assignment will allow you to have a grade "cushion," so if your grade is B+, you can rise to an A-, if you have done a good job on this assignment. In addition, there will also be a one-page ungraded assignment that sends students to the Berkeley Art Museum early in the term. A mid-term (for 15%) and a final examination (for 25%) for one hour and a half complete the course. Note that make-up exams will not be given, except in cases of documented serious illness or dire family emergency. Stress, fatigue, overwork, conflicting appointments, and so on are not valid excuses. As there can be no exceptions to this 2 rule, all students are advised to carefully note the date of the two exams. Summary of grading: attendance: 30%; first paper: 10%; second paper: 20%; mid-term: 15%; and final 25%. Where students have made an improvement over the course of the semester, their grades will be weighted to reflect that improvement. Important note on plagiarism: Cases of plagiarism will result in an automatic "F" for the entire course. Definitions of plagiarism will be handed out in section, and will also be discussed by the GSIs. It will be assumed that every student who hands in a paper understands what plagiarism is. If you are not sure, in section you will be handed a statement about the new honor code at UCBerkeley; it is your responsibility to understand what is required, either by asking your GSI or asking your professor. Frankly, it is discouraging to all of us that this topic has to be broached. Books for purchase: Five books are to be purchased (listed in the order they will be used) Crone, Patricia, Pre-Industrial Societies (Oxford, paper) Loewe, Michael, Bing (Hackett, paper) Nylan, Michael, Lives of Confucius (available as a book to buy or as a download from Amazon Tanner, Harold M., China: a history, vol. 1 (Hackett; paper) Watson, Burton, Zhuangzi: Basic Writings [some editions write Chuang tzu] (Columbia, paper) Copies of these books will be put on reserve. Other materials will generally be available electronically via bspace. Please note: None of the "also recommended" readings will be required, let alone tested; they are given on the syllabus for informational purposes only, as places to start exploring, if students become curious and want to pursue a given problem. Assigned Readings: Week 1 9/4 Introduction to the course. Why bother with history? Why bother with China? Section meetings, as usual. To introduce each other. Week 2 9/9 Geography, climate, and population Lecture readings for 9/9: Mark Elvin, The Retreat of the Elephants, pp. 3-39. 9/11: Pre-industrial societies: expectations, functions, limitations Lecture readings for 9/11: Patricia Crone, Pre-Industrial Societies, with a focus on the Introduction plus chapters 1-3; Mark Elvin, "Empires and Their Size," The Pattern of the Chinese Past, pp. 17-22; Tanner, China: a history, pp. 33-46. Section readings this week: This section will review Romanization; population charts; and the maps from Karen Wigen's The Myth of Continents; also China's environmental crisis. In class, sections will also review "How to Read a Document." Week 3 9/16: Approaches to history, including the "new institutionalism"; post-modern theories Lecture readings for 9/16: Paul Veyne, Did the Greeks Believe in Their Myths? chaps. 1-3 (pp. 5-38); J. Holmgren, "Myth, Fantasy, or Scholarship: Images of the Status of Women in 3 Traditional China," Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 6 (July, 1981), 147-70 (from JSTOR). 9/18: More conceptual tools: Chinese language: spoken and written Lecture readings for 9/18: Difficult Characters, ed. Mary Erbaugh, pp. 1-51. Recommended also: Cecilia Lindqvist, China: Empire of Living Symbols, pp. 16-35. Section readings: Patricia Crone, Pre-Industrial Societies, chapters 4-6. Crone's chapter on religion is unhelpful; review of Veyne. The section will cover the material in Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things, "The System of Script," pp. 9-10, 18-23, 51-73. The only advance preparation needed is Crone and Ledderose, pp. 51-73. Week 4 9/23 on archaeological evidence: Lecture readings for 9/23: Corinne Debaine-Francfort, The Search for Ancient China, pp. 13-49; Ian Glover, "Some National, Regional, and Political Uses of Archaeology in East and Southeast Asia," Archaeology of Asia, ed. Miriam Stark, pp. 17-21, 32 (the intervening pages not assigned, as they are on other East Asian cultures). 9/25 Shang and Western Zhou: Lecture readings for 9/25: selected texts from the Odes (handout will show different ways to deploy the Odes, in the Zuo reading, in the Mawangdui reading, and in the Mao reading; and Book of Documents ("Metal Coffer," "Counsels of Gao Yao" or the "Punishments of Lu"). Section readings: review of romanizations. Students may wish to consult the dialect map at www.ctlwmp.cityu.edu.hk/dialects. [The key in English: red=Wu; teal=Min (Fujianese and Taiwanese); yellow=Hakka; lavender=Yue (Cantonese); gold=Gan; rose=Xiang; green (all of north China)=Northern Mandarin. The large pale blue areas in the northwest and north are the "languages of fraternal peoples," according to the Chinese legend.] In sections, students will go over additional poems from the Odes. Week 5 9/30 Eastern Zhou, esp. Warring States Lecture readings for 9/30: Edward Lewis, Sanctioned Violence in Early China, pp. 15-52; Albert Dien, "Chinese Beliefs in the Afterworld," The Quest for Eternity, pp. 1-15; Henry Rosemont, "On Knowing: praxis-guiding discourse in the Confucian Analects." 10/2 Confucius: the legend Lecture readings for 10/2: Herbert Fingarette, Confucius: the secular as sacred, esp. chap. 1; Li Ki: The Book of Rites (James Legge, trans.), pp. 210-11 ("The Meaning of Sacrifice" [sections 1-5]. Also recommended: Companion to the Confucian Analects (selections; particularly recommended are chapters 2, 4, and 5; and if you've got time, chapters 6 and 7); selections from several translations of the Analects (from the Norton Critical Edition of the Analects, forthcoming, editor = Michael Nylan). Section readings: Sections will read the Analects' passages to see how to tease out meaning from them. Section participants will be encouraged to attend Nathan Sivin's lecture on Chinese science (Oct. 3rd, in Dwinelle). 4 Week 6 10/7 Mencius Lecture readings for 10/7: Outside speaker Henry Rosemont. Mencius, D.C. Lau, trans. Books 1A/1-4, 7, 1B/1, 2A/2, 6; 4B/28, 6A/8, 10, 14 (pp. 3-7; 9-16; 31-35; 38-39; 94; 127-30). Also recommended: 4B/19; 7B/24; and David Wong, on Mencius. Do not obsess about names here. On bspace, there will be the Introduction to the Mencius translation, which is optional but helpful reading. 10/9 Zhuangzi Lecture readings for 10/9: Zhuangzi: Basic Writings, Burton Watson, trans. (purchase), Introduction, sections 1-4, 6 (pp. 1-63; 73-88). Section readings: Victoria Tin-bor Hui, "Dynamics of International Politics" (pp. 37-53) (beginning with "Rethinking the Hobbesian Metaphor"; to be compared with David Lai); selections from Zuozhuan. Week 7 10/14 Xunzi: China's Aristotle Lecture readings for 10/14: Xunzi: On bspace, read three translations by Eric Hutton: "Discourse on Heaven"; "Discourse on Ritual" (focus on the beginning and end); and the opening passage of "Human Nature is Bad." NB: your teacher would say "Human Nature is Ugly," because if it were inherently evil, that would mean it cannot be improved. Also recommended: Nylan, "The Politics of Pleasure," Asia Major14.1 (2003), 73-124 (JSTOR). 10/16 Han Feizi Lecture readings for 10/16: Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings, Burton Watson, trans., Introduction; "Way of the Ruler," and "Difficulties of Persuasion" (pp. 1-20, 73-79). Section readings: in-class debate. 2-page paper due 10/18, by noon. Week 8 10/21 Qin and Han: the first empire & Sima Qian, China's greatest historian (no question!) Lecture readings for 10/21: Two chapters By Sima Qian, that on Bo Yi and Shu Qi [Po Yi and Shu Ch'i in Wade-Giles romanization]. Also recommended: DeBaine-Francfort, The Search for Ancient China, pp. 89-127, on Qin and Han art (mostly pictures). Also recommended: Brian McKnight, The Quality of Mercy, pp. 12-36. 10/23 Han (continued) Lecture readings for 10/23: Michael Loewe, Bing: from farmer's son to magistrate in Han China; Wang Bao [Pao in Wade-Giles], "Contract for a Youth," Columbia Anthology of Literature, pp. 510-13; Nylan, "Families in the Classical Era," The Family Model in Chinese Art and Culture, pp. 143-58: Nylan, Lives of Confucius, chap. 3. First review Mark Elvin, "Empires and Their Size," The Pattern of the Chinese Past, pp. 17-22. Section readings: Tanner, China: a history, pp. 83-130; and, on Eastern Han-Six Dynasties Daoism: Mark Csikszentmihalyi, Readings in Han Chinese Thought, pp. 57-93, 156-66; Tao Qian, "Peach Blossom Spring," Columbia Anthology of Literature, pp. 578-80; Tao Qian, two poems on returning to dwell in the country, in Cyril Birch, ed. Anthology of Chinese Literature, 182-83. Also recommended: Stephen Field, Ancient Chinese Divination, chaps 4-7 (pp. 63-130). 5 Week 9 10/28 Early Religious Daoism Lecture readings for 10/28: T.H. Barrett, "Religious Change under Eastern Han and its Successors," China's Early Empires, pp. 430-448; Shih-shan Susan Huang, Picturing the True Form: Daoist Visual Culture in Traditional China, pp. 7-85 (lots of pictures!). 10/30 Buddhism Lecture readings for 10/30: Please read on your own a new Buddhist translation of the Platform Sutra by Marty Verhoeven and others; Paul Kroll, "Huilin's 'Bai Hei lun" (extract); plus "The Quest of Mulian," in Classical Chinese Literature, eds. Minford and Lau, pp. 10881110. Also recommended: Peter Hershock, Chan Buddhism, pp. 7-109 (stop after "Huineng" and before "Mazu"). Section readings and exercises: first hour meet as usual; second hour in the Berkeley Art Museum. Week 10 11/4 MIDTERM in class. 11/06 Sui-Tang: Lecture readings for 11/06: Han Yu, "Memorial on the Bone of the Buddha," "Discourse on Teachers"; Emperor Wuzong's Edict on the Suppression of Buddhism," both in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 372-75, 379-382; Tanner, China: a history, pp. 167-198. Section readings: Craig Clunas, Art in China, "Early Buddhist Art" (pp. 89-112).Charles Benn, China's Golden Age, chaps. 2-3 (pp. 19-69) plus one other chapter of your choice, from "Houses and Gardens," "Food and Feast," etc. Also recommended: S. Adshead, T'ang Dynasty, chaps. 1-5 (on bspace for reference). November 11: official vacation November 13: Time with Corliss Lee, reference librarian in the library, for research. NO additional lecture readings; by section, required session on finding and devising a miniresearch paper topic. Attendance will be taken; no additional reading is required. Research paper is due by noon, Nov. 27. Week 12 11/18 on urban life Lecture readings for 11/18: Tang Xiaofeng, unpublished ms.; Linda Rui Feng, "Negotiating Vertical Space," Tang Studies 29 (2011), 27-44; and selections on Song urbanism from Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion and others. Also recommended is Ennin's Diary (selections). 11/20 on poetry and painting: Lecture readings for 11/20, covering the Six Dynasties-Song: selections from The Anchor Book of Chinese Poetry, pp.75-84; Wang Wei, pp. 99-129; Du Fu, pp. 142-150; Arthur Waley, Translations from the Chinese, on Bo Juyi [Wade-Giles, Po Chü-i], pp. 126-42; on Yuan 6 Chen and Su Shi and others, pp. 297-98, 314-25: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting, pp. 59-137. (possibly a guest speaker) Section readings: Hui-Shu Lee, "Imperial Women and the Art of Writing," Empresses, Art, and Agency in Song China, pp. 70-117 [This chapter speaks of Tang-Song calligraphy and painting.]. Papers due next week, before Thanksgiving vacation, before noon, Nov. 27th. Week 13: 12/02 Song Lecture readings for 12/02, On the Reform Movements by Cheng Hao, Wang Anshi, and others, Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 398-435; Lives of Confucius, chap. 4. 12/04 Song Lecture readings for 12/04: Patricia Ebrey, "The Book of Filial Piety for Women" Under Confucian Eyes, pp 47-69; Stephen Owen, "The Snares of Memory," Remembrances: the experience of the past in Chinese classical literature, pp. 80-99; Christian de Pee, The Writing of Weddings in Middle-Period China, pp. 104-36; Zhu Xi, on "Reading," from de Bary, Sources of Chinese History, vol. 1. Section readings: Tanner, China: a history, pp. 201-34; Mark Elvin, The Pattern of the Chinese Past, "The Revolution in Farming" and "The Revolution in Money and Credit" (pp. 11330, 146-63). Week 14: REVIEW SESSION; wrap-up. Then the final exam!