Some Ways to Turn a Phrase
1. Anadiplosis
Repetition of the end at the next beginning
Gradatio
Repeated anadiplosis
Does the silkworm expend her yellow labours for thee? For thee does she undo herself.
Who has not the spirit of his age, of his age has all the unhappiness.
All men that are ruined are ruined on the side of their natural propensities.
When I give I give myself.
Everything that can be said, can be said clearly.
Pleasure might cause her to read, reading might make her know,
knowledge might mity win, and pity grace obtain.
Tourneur
Voltaire
E. Burke
Whitman
Wittgenstein
Sidney
2. Anaphora
Repetition of beginnings
Everything is good when it leaves the hands of the Creator; everything degenerates in the hands of man. Rousseau
She was not quite what you would call refined. She was not quite what you would call unrefined.
She was the kind of person that keeps a parrot.
Mark Twain
Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Matt. 5:3
3. Epistrophe
Repetition of endings
Selfishness is not living as one wishes to live. It is asking others to live as one wishes to live.
Men have never been good, they are not good, they will never be good.
When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child.
4. Symploce
Repetition of beginnings and endings
If thou hast any sound, or use of voice,
Speak to me.
If there be any good thing to be done,
That may to thee do ease and grace to me,
Speak to me.
Who are they who have so often broken treaties? The Carthaginians. Who are they who have waged
war with such atrocious cruelty? The Carthaginians. Who are they who have laid Italy to waste? The
Carthaginians. Who are they who pray for pardon? The Carthaginians.
Macaulay
Barth
1 Cor. 13:11
Ham. 1.1.128
Cicero
5. Epanalepsis
Repeat the beginning at the ending
Inclusio
Same thing, only at the beginning and ending of a passage (not exemplified here)
Nothing can be created out of nothing.
Judges must be many in number, for few will always do the will of a few.
The thoughts are but overflowings of the mind, and the tongue is but a servant of the thoughts.
Common sense is not so common.
Whistling to keep up courage is good practice for whistling.
Lucretius
Machiavelli
Spencer
Voltaire
Haskins
6. Epanados
Repetition of elements from a central point outwards, both forward and back
Chiasmus A epanados worked out in the structure of a text.
Circumstances rule men; men do not rule circumstances.
Herodotus
I wasted time, and now doth time waste me.
R II 5.5.49
That he is mad, ‘tis true; ‘tis true ‘tis pity; And pity ‘tis ‘tis true.
Ham. 2.2.97
If guns were outlawed, only outlaws would have guns.
NRA slogan
7. Metonymy
Substitution of a word for a related word
The pen is mightier than the sword.
Rome has spoken; the case is concluded.
8. Synecdoche
Substituting the whole for the part, or vice versa
One hundred head of cattle
All hands on deck
The law arrived
Augustine