AP United States History Vocabulary List
Unit 1: Beginnings and Colonial Society
Christopher Columbus
Native Americans
The Destruction of the Indies
Intercontinental exchange
Demarcation Line 1493
Treaty of Tordesillas
Prince Henry the Navigator
St. Augustine
Elizabeth I
Sir Walter Raleigh
Samuel de Champlain
New France
Coureurs de bois
Robert La Salle
Spanish Armada
Joint stock company
Virginia Company
John Smith
John Rolfe
House of Burgesses
Mayflower Compact
William Bradford
Massachusetts Bay
John Winthrop
"City on a Hill"
Pequot War
Salem Witch Trials
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
♦ New Netherland
♦ New Amsterdam
♦ patroon system
♦ King Philip's War
♦ Bacon's Rebellion
♦ William Perm
James Oglethorpe
Dominion of New England
Edmond Andros
Proprietary colonies
Charles I
Charles II
Restoration colonies
Adam Smith
Navigation Acts
Triangular Trade
Sir Robert Walpole
Salutary neglect
Molasses Act
Royal African Company
Middle Passage
Headright system
Indentured servants
Stono Rebellion
Ul 1.05
Congregational Church
Anglican Church
Cotton Mather
Roger Williams
Anne Hutchison
"separation of church and state"
Harvard College
Maryland Act of Toleration of 1649
James II
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary
Jonathan Edwards
George Whitefield
Old light, New lights
John Peter Zenger
Phillis Wheatley
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools AP United States History Alignment Guide 2009
Jamestown, VA, 1622
Read the passage, then answer the questions that follow.
Yea, such was the treacherous dissimulation of that people who then had con trived our destruction, that even two days before the massacre, some of our men were
guided through the woods by them in safety.... Yea, they borrowed our own boats to
convey themselves across the river (on the banks of both sides whereof all our
plantations were) to consult of the devilish murder that ensued, and of our utter
extirpation, which God of his mercy (by the means of some of themselves converted
to Christianity) prevented. . . .
On the Friday morning (the fatal day) the 22nd of March [1622], as also in the
evening, as in other days before, they came unarmed into our houses, without bows or
arrows, or other weapons, with deer, turkeys, fish, furs, and other provisions to sell
and truck with us for glass, beads, and other trifles; yea, in some places, sat down at
breakfast with our people at their tables, whom immediately with their own tools and
weapons, either laid down, or standing in their houses, they basely and barbarously
murdered, not sparing either age or sex, man, woman, or child; so sudd en in their
cruel execution that few or none discerned the weapon or blow that brought them to
destruction. In which manner they also slew many of our people then at their several
works and husbandries In the fields, and without (outside] their houses, som e in
planting corn and tobacco, some in gardening, some in making brick, building, saw ing, and other kinds of husbandry—they well knowing in what places and quarters
each of our men were, in regard of their daily familiarity and resort to us for trading
and other negotiations, which the more willingly was by us continued and cherished
for the desire we had of effecting that great masterpiece of works, their conversion.
And by this means, that fatal Friday morning, there fell under the bloody and
barbarous hands of that perfidious and inhumane people, contrary to all laws of God
and man, and nature and nations, 347 men, women, and children, most by their own
weapons. And not being content with taking away life alone, they fell after again upon
the dead, making, as well as they could, a fresh murder, defacing, dragging, and
mangling the dead carcasses into many pieces, and carrying away some parts in
derision, with base and brutish triumph. . . .
l. Is this a primary or secondary source? How do you know?
2. What does this passage seem to be describing?
3. Why is this attack such a shock to the settlers?
4. Why do you think this attack occurred?
5. This particular instance took place in Virginia. Could it have taken place in any
other colony? Why or why not?
BACON'S REBELLIONclass discussion guide
1. On the following page please find a list of themes reflected in Bacon's Rebellion.
2. Students should have read pp. 66, 68, and 84 in their text prior this lesson.
3. Hand out a copy of the following sheet and have students discuss and write down
additional facts and details as each point is discussed.
4. In the course of this activity, be sure to discuss the fact that each of these issues
from the 1670s continues to be sources of conflict even today. Guide the students as
they offer more recent examples. (A sample illustration would be #5- the decline of
the family farm as many agricultural conglomerates dominate the market.)
5. This activity, while not too time- consuming, does give students a good
knowledge base of the reasons why people throughout history have rebelled. It also
shows students that over time, human nature does not really change.
1. Political power struggle (autocracy vs. democracy)
2. Social struggle (aristocracy vs. commoner)
3. East vs. West
4. Urban vs. rural
5. Commercial vs. agricultural
6. Difficulty of a distant authority
7. Rebellions against government will not be tolerated
Situations in history never happen in isolation. Something that preceded -an
event or action or concept- makes something else happen as a result. One of the
most important skills in becoming a good student of history is that of recognizing
the cause and effect relationship of events as you study. When you start to think
of history as a chain with links that are all interconnected, the story makes more
sense and takes on deeper meaning.
Let's practice this skill with the following topics you recently studied. Complete
the information as needed.
Sir Edmond Andros loses job
William Penn's brochure describes
his land in a detailed brochure > > > > >
Anne Hutchinson conducts a Bible
study in her home and interprets
the minister's sermons
colony of Georgia is founded
Unit 1- Beginnings and Colonial Society
Objective 1.03: Compare and contrast New England, Middle and
Southern (Chesapeake) colonies.
Instructional Strategy: Students will complete Lesson 1 "The Three
Colonial Sections-More Similar or Different?" Center for Learning,
Lesson 1 p. 7-12.
Content Focus: This activity focuses student attention on how the
American colonies were naturally different based on geographic
locations, resources as well as based on ethnic origin yet were tied
together by many other commonalities, such as separation from
England and some religions.
Key Terms Covered:
No specific terminology.
Lesson 1
The Three Colonial Sections: More Similar or Different?
• To understand both the differences that distinguished the sections of the colonies as well as
the similarities that united them
Notes to the Teacher
Although most early settlers to the American
colonies came from England, many non-English
people began to arrive as the economy of the colonies developed. As the new environment modified English civilization, differences between
England and the colonies emerged. At the same
time, the colonies developed differently from one
section to another. Equally important, by the eve
of the Revolution, several common features united
the sections, and colonials began to think of themselves as "Americans."
In this lesson, students study four maps to
draw inferences about the similarities and differences among the three sections of colonial
America. They then write a thematic sentence to
relate the information gathered from the several
1. Have students study the maps in Handout 1
and answer the questions in part A either indi
vidually or in small groups.
2. Discuss students' answers in a large-group ses
Suggested Answers for Part A
1. c—The National Origins map shows that the
English comprised 60.1% of all colonists and
were distributed throughout all the colonies.
2. a—The Colonial Industries and Colonial Agri
culture maps show that the South had the nat
ural resources of the forest and the land as well
as one major port for shipment of goods, but
no manufacturing or fishing.
3. b—The Religious Denominations map shows
that the Middle Colonies had strong concentra
tions of all religious groups except for Congregationalists and Baptists.
4. b—Both maps show (or imply) a greater variety
of languages in the Middle Colonies; the diver
sity of religions implies cultural differences.
5. c—Language was the factor that best tied the
colonists together as English was spoken in all
sections of the colonies.
6. a—The Religious Denominations map shows
the Anglican Church had a strong influence in
each section.
7. c—Evidence on both the National Origins map
and the Religious Denominations map sug
gests ethnic diversity.
8. a—The South, the only city was Charleston.
3. As a large-group activity, complete part B.
Suggested Answers for Part B
1. a—English was the only nationality found in all
sections of colonial America.
b—An absolute majority of colonists in America
were of English descent; from this, one might
infer the use of English as the dominant language and the transfer of other English institutions to America.
c—The Anglican Church, or Church of England,
was the only one existing throughout all three
sections of the colonies, d—Agriculture was
common to all three sections of the colonies.
2. a—The colonies included a striking variety of
religious groups.
b—The colonies came to include many ethnic
c—The colonies included a variety of economic activities, but they were not uniformly
distributed throughout the sections of colonial
d—Slavery was almost entirely confined to the
e—All the cities, except Charleston, were located in the New England or Middle Colonies.
3. Answers will vary, but students should recog
nize the strong English flavor of colonial America
despite the variety of ethnic and religious
Advanced Placement American History I
Lesson 1—Handout 1 (page 1)
The Three Colonial Sections: More Similar or Different?
Part A
Study the accompanying maps to answer the following. In each instance, write the letter of the correct re
sponse, identify the map (or maps) containing the information and cite specific evidence that supports the
____ 1. The nationality that was most common in all the colonies was
a. German
b. Scotch-Irish
c. English
d. Africans
____ 2. The colonial section with the least variety of economic activity was
a. South
b. Middle Colonies
c. Mew England
____ 3. The colonial section with the most diversity of religions was
a. New England
b. Middle Colonies
c. South
____ 4. Judging from the maps on Religious Denominations and National Origins, which section had the
widest range of languages and cultures?
a. New England
b. Middle Colonies
c. South
d. Frontier
____5. Which of the following factors best tied the colonists together?
a. Religion
b. Trade
c. Language
-------6. Which of the following best reflected the presence of England in all sections of the colonies?
a. Anglican Church
b. Slavery
c. Fishing
-------7. Which colonial section best reflected the melting pot of nationalities?
a. South
b. New England
c. Middle Colonies
------ 8. Which section of the colonies had the least urban development?
a. South
b. Middle Colonies
C. New England
© COPYRIGHT, The Center for Learning. Used with permission. Not for resale.
Advanced Placement American History I
Lesson 1—Handout 1 (page 2)
Name _____________________________________________
Part B
To conclude this activity, answer the following: 1. List at least four similarities
among the three sections of colonial America.
2. List at least four differences among the three sections of colonial America.
3. Write a thematic statement answering the following question: To what extent did the New England, Middle,
and Southern colonies develop separate societies in the years before the American Revolution?
Advanced Placement American History I
Lesson 1—Handout 1 (page 3)
EUROPEAN(four fifths of population):
[English 60.1% IScotch Irish
jGerman 8.6%
1111111 npScotch 8.1%
fJ22Jj 3utch3 .1%
and unossigned 10.6%
AFRICAN (on» fifth of population):
free Negro 8%;slav« 92%
50 _____1C0 ___ 150
Based on National Origins and Religion Map, in American Heritage Pictorial Atlas of United States History, edited by Hilde Heun
(NY: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1966), p. 87
Advanced Placement American History I
Lesson 1—Handout 1 (page 4)
Name _____________________________
Ironwork! rum
trading and Ihlpplng
Based on Colonial ' conomy Map, in American Heritage Pictorial Atlas of United States History, edited by Hilde Heun Kagan (MY:
American Heritage Publishing Company, 1966), p. 88.
Unit 1 - Beginnings and Colonial Society
Objective 1.04: Analyze mercantilism and the origins of slavery.
Instructional Strategy: Students will complete the Internet activity on
Triangular Trade and the Middle Passage to understand the social,
political, and economic motivations for slavery.
Content Focus: Students will analyze two different primary sources
and complete their responses in order to show their understanding of
why slavery came into existence as a major economic institution in
colonial America.
Key Terms Covered:
Triangular Trade
Middle Passage
Olaudah Equiano
"This is a world of compensations; and he who would be no slave, must consent to have no
slave. Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves; and, under a just
God, can not long retain it. " -President Abraham Lincoln in an April 6, 1859 letter to
Henry Pierce
The enslavement of Africans in the United States began with the colonization of
the Americas by Europeans. Between 1520 and 1860, approximately 12 million men,
women, and children were uprooted from Africa and put on European vessels for a life of
slavery in the New World.1 The "triangular trade" was established during the colonial era
in the United States. Captured Africans were brought to Virginia, Maryland, and many
other southern colonies to help produce tobacco and sugar (much of which was processed
into rum) in the colonial era, then later (around the turn of the 19th century) to pick cotton;
the products of slave labor were sold to European countries; and the money these sales
brought in was used to acquire more slaves—hence a "triangle of trade" arose between
Africa, the Americas, and Europe.
In the United States, the rise of cotton plantations, tobacco plantations, and sugar
plantations fueled a need for free and/or cheap labor. Initially, indentured servants arrived
to work the plantations. But indentured servants were only temporary employees who
retained certain rights and could earn wages. Plantation owners tried to force Native
Americans to work the fields, but they proved difficult to capture and easily escaped into
surrounding areas with which they were very familiar. Africans, on the other hand, did
not know the land and proved to be much easier to keep on the plantations. Most slaves
were captured in central Africa and brought to the Ivory Coast in coffles (fastened into
groups by chains). Usually a third died along the journey to the coast, and the trek became
known as "the trail of bones." They were then separated from members of their own tribe
and put in makeshift cages. Captured Africans often could not speak the language(s) of
their fellow captives and communication between prisoners was difficult. The Africans
were then "spoon packed" aboard vessels, with anywhere from 300 to 500 captives on a
single ship. They then proceeded to endure a three-month journey with minimal food,
sunlight, exercise, and other basic amenities. Many became sick, and quite a few died en
route to the Americas. The stench from the filth, disease, and dead bodies on slave ships
was so strong that people in the Americas often smelled the ships before they could see
Upon arrival, Africans were sold to plantation owners as slaves. Plantation life
meant working from daylight to dark, living in overcrowded cabins, having no control
over your daily activities, punishments at the whims of overseers, separation from family
members, lynching, rapes, and other cruelties. Though some Americans had opposed
slavery from its inception (most notably the Quakers in Pennsylvania), in the 1830s a
determined and coordinated movement arose for abolishing slavery. The movement
encompassed both whites (such as William Lloyd Garrison, editor of the antislavery
newspaper The Liberator) and blacks (including former slaves such as Frederick
Douglass, and free blacks as well). Their efforts contributed to a highly charged political
arena, with debates over sectionalism and slavery eventually threatening the Union.
As debates between abolitionists and pro-slavery advocates heated the national
scene, some slaves began to escape to the North through what became known as the
"Underground Railroad." Started in the early 19th century by Quakers in Pennsylvania and
New Jersey, the Railroad consisted of a network of paths and individuals aiding runaway
slaves. Harriet Tubman, a former slave herself, was one of the Railroad's most notable
"conductors," returning continually to the South to aid other runaway slaves. While some
slaves ran to find freedom, others stayed and rebelled. Slave rebellions in the South were
the exception rather than the rule, but they had widespread repercussions. In 1831, the
largest uprising occurred when a slave named Nat Turner successfully led around 70 or
80 slaves in a rebellion against plantation owners in Virginia.
A multitude of literature, drawings, photographs, narratives, poems, songs,
speeches, debates, maps, and other historical documents on slavery exists. Historians,
educators, and students face the challenge of sifting through multiple viewpoints in order
to understand how slavery developed, why it split the nation, and how its painful and
enduring legacy shapes America even to the present day. The following lessons offer a
glimpse into the crucial and tumultuous time period when slavery flourished in the United
The Middle Passage
Teacher Page
The goal of this activity is to give students an understanding of the Triangular Trade
Route, the Middle Passage, and the economics of slavery. In addition, students discuss
the social and political motivations for slavery.
Students will:
• read a first-person slave narrative describing the Middle Passage
• view an illustration
• draw conclusions regarding the transport of Africans to the New World
Web Sites Used in this Lesson:
http.7/vi.uh.edu/pages/mintz/6.htm provides a first-person narrative by Olaudah
Equiano describing the Middle Passage.
In order to see the line drawing of "spoon "position on a slave ship (1784) begin
by clicking on the following link:
In the search box, type the following words, "Body positions of slaves on a slave
ship 1784". Click on the "Search" link. Click on the image to enlarge.
In addition, these Web sites provide some background on the Triangular Trade:
Begin by asking students what they know about slavery. Have students write down as
much as they think they know about slavery in the United States. Have students share
their thoughts while completing a brainstorm activity on the board.
Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2002 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246 socialstudies.com
Review with students the following maps found at
You will see a page entitled, "Pictorial Images of the Transatlantic Slave Trade."
Click on "Maps."
Go to map 15 of 20 (you will need to click on the "Next" buttons to scroll through
the pages)
Click on the image of "maps showing destinations of the Atlantic Slave Trade,
1451-1870" to enlarge.
Have students complete the worksheet.
After students complete the worksheet, review answers as a class and use the following
questions to lead a discussion.
1. The first Africans in America arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, arrived as
indentured servants. Why do you think Africans were enslaved by the colonists in the
following years?
2. Why do you think captured Africans didn't try more often to escape?
Extension Activities:
1. Have students create their own maps of the Triangular Trade route, identifying
numbers of Africans transported to the New World at various points in time.
2. Have students view sections of the series Roots. The first two hours contain imagery
of the capture and transport of Africans from the Ivory Coast to the United States.
Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2002 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246 socialstudies.com
The Middle
Passage Student
The so-called "Triangular Trade Route" fueled the growth of slavery in the Americas, and
worked like this: slave traders brought Africans to the Americas, rum and sugar cane from
the Americas (harvested with slave labor) went to Europe, and sales of these products in
Europe provided money to European slave traders to capture and transport more Africans
to the Americas.
Tens of millions of Africans were transported from Africa to the New World as slaves
between 1550 and 1880. Their journey from Africa to the Americas, often termed the
"Middle Passage," could take as long as three months. Africans were captured in the
backcountry, placed in chains, and marched to the Ivory Coast. One third of those
captured died during this journey. Arriving at the coast, the captives were separated from
their tribes, and thus many could not speak the language of their fellow captives. Africans
were then "spoon packed" onto ships (some ships carried as many as 500 slaves) and
endured a three-month journey across the Atlantic Ocean. During the voyage, many
Africans died from malnutrition and disease; often the stench of the diseased and
decaying bodies was so great that people on shore could smell the slave ships before they
saw them.
"A Multitude of Black People...Chained Together": Olaudah Equiano
Go to http://vi.uh.edu/pages/mintz/6-htm
Olaudah Equiano was a former slave who eventually was freed and made his way to
England, where he wrote eloquent and startling accounts of his experiences as a slave.
Read the first-person narrative and answer the following questions below:
1. How does Equiano describe his captors?
2. What did Equiano fear when he was first brought aboard the ship?
Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2002 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421 -4246 socialstudies.com
3. Why did Equiano refuse to eat? What happened because of his refusal to eat?
4. How does Equiano describe his experience aboard the ship? Provide specific
5. What does Equiano mean by, "Often did I think many of the inhabitants of the deep
much more happy than myself?
Line drawing of "spoon" position on a slave ship (1784)
Go to http://gropius.lib.virginia.edu/SlaveTrade/index.html.
In the search box, type in "Body positions of slaves on a slave ship 1784." Click on the
"Search" link. Click on the image to enlarge.
View the illustration and answer the questions below. 1.
What do you see literally depicted in the drawing?
2. What is a "spoon" position? Why do you think it was used?
3. How do you think this manner of transport affected the captured Africans?
4. How might "spoon packing" have contributed to the dehumanization of captured
Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2002 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246 socialstudies.com
5. Why do you think European slave traders feel the need to dehumanize their captives?
6. Write a first-person narrative (two to three paragraphs) from the perspective of a
captured African aboard a slave ship.
Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2002 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246 socialstudies.com
Slavery existed for thousands of years before its use in the American colonies. Using an
encyclopedia, the Internet, or another resource, create a timeline entitled The Historical Roots of
Slavery in the space below. Your timeline should include at least 6 points and dates, with #6
being the first Blacks arriving in Jamestown.
Unit 1- Beginnings and Colonial Society
Objective 1.05: Discuss and illustrate colonial structure and culture.
Instructional Strategy: Students will complete "The Colonies in
1763: A New Society." Center for Learning, Lesson 6 p. 45-47.
Content Focus: This activity has the dual purpose of a developing
writing skills as well as serving as review for the unit on Colonial
America. Students should focus on the various realms where the
American colonies were divided from Mother England.
Key Terms Covered:
Anglican Church
Roger Williams
Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
Navigation Acts
Mercantile System
Triangular Trade
John Peter Zenger
Indentured Servants
French and Indian War
Lesson 6
The Colonies in 1763: A New Society
Church. However, Roger Williams' Rhode Island offered complete freedom of religion; Pennsylvania
offered substantial freedom to Christians; and
Maryland passed an Act of Toleration in 1649 when
its Catholics were threatened with becoming a minority. The variety of religions and nationalities
eventually doomed the concept of an established
Church in the American colonies.
• To evaluate the extent to which the American
colonies had developed a society different from
that of the mother country by 1763
Notes to the Teacher
Paragraph on Economics based on topic sentence B:
England hoped its mercantile system would make
the British Empire rich, powerful, and emerging industrial economy. The Navigation Acts, which were
often ignored, restricted the colonists from trading
outside the empire and prohibited manufacturing.
For a while, the Southern colonies fit the expectations of the mercantile system, but the New England
colonies had little to trade to England and evaded
British regulations with the Triangular Trade. The
Middle colonies began small iron shops and looked
ahead to a time when they would have both agriculture and manufacturing. The Southern colonies,
too, felt the drain on their economy with the balance of trade always in England's favor. The colonies anticipated a time when they would outgrow
mercantile subordination to the mother country.
The writing assignment in this lesson serves
both as a skill development activity and a culminating project for the colonial unit. It can be particularly useful for students who need help in
structuring their writing and following an argument to a logical conclusion. Depending upon the
amount of outside reading students have done in
advance, the assignment can be an opportunity to
pull together significant material they have studied
or a more substantial research project.
1. Distribute Handout 6 and make sure that stu
dents understand the directions for the writing
assignment. Depending upon how much re
search will be needed to complete the essay,
students may need more than one day to com
plete the assignment.
Paragraph on Politics based on topic sentence
The English had a Parliament and certain rights;
however, the colonists' greater availability of land
permitted more men to gain the right of suffrage;
the colonists had greater freedom of press after
Zenger's trial; distance from England allowed the
colonists considerable control over their local government; and the colonists gained control over the
purse strings in colonial legislatures.
2. Because the writing requirements are quite spe
cific, students might exchange papers and cri
tique one or more essays before grades are
assigned. Students often learn much by evalu
ating how and to what extent other students
have accomplished a lesson's objectives.
Paragraph on Social Structure based on topic
sentence F:
Wealth in England was based largely on land, which
was relatively scarce there; the practice of primogeniture meant that land was passed down to the
oldest son. In the colonies, wages were higher, and
land was far more plentiful. As a result, it was possible to rise to a higher class. Many who started as
redemptioners or indentured servants could gain
their freedom and strive to climb the social ladder
in the colonies.
Suggested Responses: Essay Assignment
Sentences D and A comprise the introduction; the
order of the topic sentences is E, B, C, and F.
Paragraph on Religion based on topic sentence E:
Britain had an established Church, the Anglican
Church, which became the established Church in
the South, while in most New England colonies the
established Church was the Congregational
By 1763, the colonies had developed a religious,
economic, political, and social structure that was significantly different from that of England. Before the end
of the French and Indian War, the colonists had depended on the mother country for protection. Now there
were no foreign enemies on their borders. When the
British began to clamp down on the colonies at the very
time the colonists no longer needed British protection,
the stage was set for the American Revolution.
Advanced Placement American History I
Lesson 6—Handout 6
Name . __________ — _____ - _______________________
The Colonies by 1 763: A New Society?
The writing assignment below will help you to fit together some of the ideas you have learned about
colonial America and also to see how the sections of a well-organized essay relate to each other. It should
prove to be a useful tool for reviewing for the advanced placement examination or a final examination in
your history class.
Listed below in scrambled order are the thesis, the plan of attack and four topic sentences for the
paragraphs of the body of an essay on differences between the mother country and the American colonies
in 1763. You should be able to determine the sequence of each of the sentences in a well-organized essay.
A thesis defines the central argument in any essay. A plan of attack states the method of organization to
be used in the paper. In this essay, the thesis and the plan of attack together form the introductory paragraph.
Using this foundation for the essay, complete the paper. Each paragraph of the body should include
a clear description of the English practice, at least two specific facts explaining how the colonial practice
differed from that of the mother country and an attempt to account for the differences between England
and the colonies. End the paper by writing an appropriate conclusion that summarizes your points and
draws a logical conclusion about their significance for the future development of the country, in light of
the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763.
Scrambled Sentences
A. Changes in religion, economics, politics and social structure illustrate this Americanization of the
transplanted Europeans.
B. In a similar economic revolution, the colonies outgrew their mercantile relationship with the mother
country and developed an expanding capitalist system of their own.
C. Building on English foundations of political liberty, the colonists extended the concepts of liberty and
self-government far beyond those envisioned in the mother country.
D. Between the settlement at Jamestown in 1607 and the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the most important
change that occurred in the colonies was the emergence of a society quite different from that in
E. By 1763, although some colonies still maintained established churches, other colonies had accom
plished a virtual revolution for religious toleration and separation of church and state.
F. In contrast to the well-defined and hereditary classes of England, the colonies developed a fluid class
structure which enabled the industrious individual to rise on the social ladder.
© COPYRIGHT, The Center for Learning. Used with permission. Not for resale.
Colonial Society
The figure below represents the hierarchy of American
social structure just prior to the Revolutionary War.
Follow the directions on the next page to complete the
Colonial Society
1. Label each of the sections of the pyramid with the appropriate
category from the following list. (Remember that the top is
reserved for the highest in the social order.)
aristocrats (planters,lawyers,clergymen)
indentured servants
yeoman farmers
middle class
2.Was their social mobility in this arrangement? In other words,
would there ever be chances for people to move out of their social
tier? If so, how and why? Be specific in your response.
3.Why would clergymen be included with men of wealth?
4. Give an example of a person who would constitute the middle
5. How so you think this pyramid would differ from that of
European society? How might that difference affect immigration to
Standard Essays
College Board
Colonial Period:
To what extent and why did religious toleration increase in the American colonies
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Answer with reference to
THREE individuals, events or movements in American religion during the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. (1981)
"From 1600 to 1763, several European nations vied for control of the North
American continent." Why did England win the struggle? (1973)
"Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the
settling of British North America than did religious concerns." Assess the
validity of this statement with specific reference to economic and religious
concerns. (1990)
"Although many Northerners and Southerners later came to think of themselves
as having separate civilizations, the Northern and Southern colonies in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar than different."
Assess the validity of this statement. (1975)
"Between 1607 and 1763, Americans gained control of their political and
economic institutions." Assess this statement. (1979)
"Although the thirteen American colonies were founded at different times by
people with different motives and with different forms of colonial charters and
political organization, by the Revolution the thirteen colonies had become
remarkably similar." Assess this statement. (1978)
"Benjamin Franklin has been described as the representative American of the
eighteenth century." Explain to what extent you think this view is justified.
In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society.
What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled
during the seventeenth century? (1983)
"Britain's wars for empire, far more than its mercantilist policies, dictated the
economic fortunes of Britain's North American colonies in the eighteenth
century." Assess the validity of this statement. (1987)
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools AP United States History Alignment Guide 2009
Analyze the impact of the Atlantic trade routes established in the mid 1600's on
economic development in the British North American colonies. Consider the
period 1650-1750. (2002)
Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North
American colonies prior to 1700. (1998)
For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain's policy of salutary
neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the
following. Legislative assemblies
Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to
the Indians of North America before 1750. British
Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following influenced the development of
American society. Puritanism during the seventeenth century
The Great Awakening during the eighteenth century
The Second Great Awakening during the nineteenth century
"During the seventeenth century and increasingly in the eighteenth century,
British colonists in America charged Great Britain with violating the ideals of rule
of law, self-government, and, ultimately, equality of rights. Yet the colonists
themselves violated these ideals in their treatment of blacks, American Indians,
and even poorer classes of white settlers." Assess the validity of this statement.
How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of
slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between
1607 and 1775?
Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society
(to 1740) in TWO of the following regions: New England
Middle Atlantic
Compare the ways in which TWO of the following reflected tensions in colonial
society. Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Pueblo Revolt (1680) Salem
witchcraft trials (1692)
StonoRebellion (1739)
Compare and Contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in
Maryland and Virginia from 1607 to 1750. (2005)
AP United States History
Unit 1: Beginnings and Colonial Society
Democracy in Colonial Wethersfield (1976)
New England/Chesapeake (1993)
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools AP United States History Alignment Guide 2009

AP United States History Vocabulary List Unit 1