The Earth’s Interior
The Earth’s interior is made up of four layers (see diagram below)...
‣ Crust: Solid, outer layer of the Earth
‣ Mantle: Part solid, part melted layer beneath the crust
‣ Outer Core: Melted, metallic layer beneath the mantle
‣ Inner Core: Solid, metallic layer beneath the outer core
Inner Core
Outer Core
Mantle
Crust
The outer-most part of the mantle is completely solid and is called the rigid mantle. The rigid
mantle and the crust together make up the lithosphere. This solid lithosphere “floats” upon the
melted part of the mantle beneath. This melted part of the mantle is called the asthenosphere.
It is not completely melted into a liquid, it is thick and gooey, like chewed up bubble gum. We
refer to this gooey asthenosphere as plastic.
M. Sammartano
Inferred Properties of Earth’s Interior
TIC
LAN
AT
The diagram seen to the right can be
found on page 10 of your reference
tables. Pay attention to the following
details:
IC
TLANT
MID-A GE
RID
)
RE
T LE
HE
AN
SP
M
O
IC
TH
ST
The MOHO is the boundary
between the crust and the mantle.
There are two types of crust:
‣ Continental crust which is
made of a very thick layer of
the rock granite and is less
dense (2.7 g/cm3)
‣
‣
Oceanic crust which is made
of a very thin layer of the rock
basalt and is more dense (3.0
g/cm3)
Wherever the interior
temperature is higher than the
melting point, the material is a
liquid (see the outer core.
N
&
R
9.9–12.2
REL)
COICKE
RO
N
STI
FF
ER
LE
NT
MA
OU
TE
(I
LI
NO
SP
HE
R
CR
RIG UST
ID
MA
NT
AS
TH
LE
E
}
NO
RT
H
2.7 granitic continental crust
3.0 basaltic oceanic crust
MOHO
3.4–5.6
RE )
COICKEL
12.8–13.1
IN N
(IRO ER
N&
N
TRENCH
EARTH’S CENTER
4
3
2
1
0
7000
6000
5000
POIN
T
As you travel deeper down, from
the crust to the inner core, the
temperature increases.
E
LA
(P
CASCADES
MEL
TING
‣
AM
ER
IC
A
‣
As you travel deeper down, from
the crust to the inner core, the
pressure increases.
PRESSURE
(million atmospheres)
‣
As you travel deeper down, from
the crust to the inner core, the
materials get increasingly dense.
TEMPERATURE (°C)
‣
AN
DENSITY (g/cm3)
PACIFIC
OCEAN
‣
OCE
4000
E
UR
AT
R
E
T
MP
IN
TE
PO
R
O
RI
NG
TI
TE
IN
EL
M
3000
2000
PARTIAL MELTING
1000
0
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
DEPTH (km)
10
Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010
M. Sammartano
Layer
Starting
Depth
(km)
Ending
Depth
(km)
Thickness
(km)
Pressure
Range
(atms)
Density
(g/cm3)
Temp.
Range
(C)
Phase
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Stiffer Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core
1. Which 2 layers make up Lithosphere? ________________________________________________
2. Where is the crust thicker, oceans or continents? ______________________________________
3. Where is the crust denser, oceans or continents? ______________________________________
4. What is the outer core believed to be made up of? _____________________________________
5. What is the inner core believed to be made up of? _____________________________________
6. What 2 layers of the Earth are either partially or totally melted? ___________________________
7. Between which 2 layers do you find the MOHO? _______________________________________
8. What rock is continental crust made up of? ___________________________________________
9. What rock is oceanic crust made up of? ______________________________________________
10. Why are there ???’s on this chart? What does this mean? ______________________________
11. What happens to the temperature as you travel deeper into the Earth? ___________________
12. What happens to pressure as you travel deeper into the Earth? _________________________
13. Why do we call the Asthenosphere “the plastic mantle” ?_______________________________
14. What are the 3 layers of the Mantle? _______________________________________________
15. Plates move together or apart at mid ocean ridges? ___________________________________
16. Plates move together or apart at trenches? __________________________________________
17. Mountains are found at mid ocean ridges or trenches? ________________________________
M. Sammartano
Primary
waves passthat
through
theshallow
outer core
but
shear
19) C)Fossils
of organisms
lived in
water
can
be
waves
do
not.
8350
- 1 ocean
- Page 1
found in horizontal sedimentary rock layers at
great
D)depths.
The primary
wave
velocity interpreted
decreases, while
the
- 1Earth
-shear
Page 2
This fact
is generally
by8350
most
Name: ____________________________________________
wave velocity
increases
outer core.
scientists
evidence
that in the
13) Which graph best represents the relationship between the
17) According
toasthe
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables, at
1) differences
Which statement
describes
the continental
and
Questions
7the
through
11Earth
refer
tosurface
the
following:
in arrivalbest
times
of P-waves
and S-waves
foroceanic 44)
4,500
below
the
of thekills
Earth,
the pressure
A) kilometers
cold
water
deep
in
the
ocean
shallow-water
According
to the
Reference
Tables,
in which
17 isThe
map below
showsScience
a weather
variable
recorded
14 locations
The
cross section below shows a sea breeze
crusts? at varying distances from an earthquake?
estimated
to
be
zone oforganisms
the Earth's interior is the melting point of the rock
atB)
noon
on a certain
day. Isolines
show
values
from
blowing
from the ocean toward the land. The air
C)
of thethan
Earth's
crustState.
have
changed
inferred
to originated
be lower
the actual
temperature
oftheir
thetravel
rock?
A) The continental crust is thicker and less dense than the An earthquake
in
New
York
The P-wave
A)
1.4sections
million
atmospheres
20 to elevations
70.
pressure at the land surface is 1013 millibars.
relative
to
sea
level
oceanic crust.
time B)
for
this
earthquake
was
recorded
in
the
data
table
below
for
2.0
million
atmospheres
A) outer core
C) inner core
C)
sunlight
once
penetrated
to
the
deepest
parts
of
the
four C)
widely
separated
seismic
stations,
A,
B,
C,
and
D.
B) The continental crust is thinner and more dense than
million atmospheres
B) 2.8
mantle
D) crust
ocean
A) the oceanic crust.
D)
3.1
million
atmospheres
45) Four
stations
data evolved
from the from
samespecies
D) seismograph
organisms that
live inreceive
deep water
C) The continental crust is thinner and less dense than the
Sea breeze
earthquake.
The
table
below
shows
the
differences
in travel
18) The
composition
of
some
meteorites
supports
the
inference
that once lived in shallow water
oceanic crust.
timesthe
forEarth's
the P-core
and S-waves
recorded
that
is composed
of at each station.
D) The continental crust is thicker and more dense than
20) Which
Wherestation
are earthquakes
most
place?
isand
closest
to
the likely
epicenter
of the
earthquake?
20 to take
A) magnesium
potassium
the oceanic crust.
A)
along
the
core-mantle
interface
1013 mb
B) silicon and oxygen
2)
Recent
volcanic activity in different parts of the
world
D)
where
the
composition of the Earth tends to be uniform
8350
1
Page
2
C)B) iron
nickel
3and
0the
supports the inference that volcanoesOcean
are located mainly in
C)
near
Earth's
Equator
the
17) B)According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, at
D) aluminum and calcium
D)
near
a
fault
zone
A)
the
central
regions
of
continents
8350 - 1 - Page 4
r
4,500 kilometers below the surface of the Earth, the pressure
19) Fossils of organisms that lived in shallow water8350
can-be
1 - Page 4
(Not
drawn
to scale)
B)estimated
zones oftocrustal
activity
is
bemarine
30) The
presence
of
fossils
at elevations high
above
sea
35)
The
diagram
below
of
the
Earth
shows
the
observed
pattern
A P-wave
reachessedimentary
a seismograph
station
2,600
kilometers
8350 - 1 - Page 4 21) found
in horizontal
rock
layers
at
great
ocean
30) level
The
presence
of
marine
fossils
at
elevations
high
above
sea
35)
The
diagram
below
of
the
Earth
shows
the
observed
pattern
40
C)
zones
in
late
stages
of
erosion
13
The
data
table
below
shows
the
origin
depths
of the
7)
If
the
first
P-wave
arrived
at
seismic
station
A
at
provides
good
evidence
for
waves
recorded
after
an
earthquake.
from an
earthquake
epicenter
at 12:10 p.m.
According
to
14) A)
A large
belt of
mountain
ranges
and volcanoes
surrounds
1.4
million
atmospheres
depths.
This
fact
is
generally
interpreted
by
most
Earth
ve sea 35)
The
diagram
below
of
the
Earth
shows
the
observed
pattern
level
provides
good
evidence
for
waves
recorded
after
an
earthquake.
The
air
pressure
at
the
ocean
surface
a
few
miles
10hrs:22min:30sec,
what
was
the
origin
time
for
the
D)
the
centers
of
landscape
regions
all
large-magnitude
earthquakes
over
a
20-year
Earth Science
Reference
Tables, at what time did the
the Pacific
Ocean.
Which
events are most closely
B)
2.0recorded
million
atmospheres
A)
volcanic
eruptions
scientists
as evidence
waves
after
an earthquake.
A)
A
B) Dthat
C) B
D) C
from
the
shore
isrepresents
most
likely
earthquake?
A)
volcanic
eruptions
period.
earthquake occur?
associated
with
these
mountains
and volcanoes?
3)
Which
graph
best
the relationship
between
C)
2.8
million
atmospheres
B)
crustal
erosion
A)
the
cold
water
deep
in
the
ocean
kills
shallow-water
B)
crustal
erosion
A)
02hrs:02min:30sec
C)
volcanic
activity
and earthquake
in an area?
(1)
mb
(3)activity
1013
mb
A)organisms
12:01 p.m.
C) 10hrs:14min:10sec
12:19 p.m.
D)
3.1
million
atmospheres
C)
continental
glaciation
A)994
tornadoes
C)
sandstorms
50 D) 10hrs:22min:30sec
Data
Table
C)
continental
glaciation
B)
10hrs:30min:50sec
(2)
1005
mb
(4)
1017
mb
C)
B)
12:15
p.m.
D)
12:05 p.m.
uplift
B) crustal
earthquakes
D) hurricanes
18) D)
The
B) sections of the Earth's crust have changed
their
D) composition
crustal uplift of some meteorites supports the inference
itelevations
takes
50 seconds
the level
P-wave
to arrive
Depth
Below
ofat
that
the Earth's
core
is composed
of
relative
toinner
sea
22) IfThe
inference
that
thefor
coreNumber
of the
Earth
is Buffalo,
solid is
31)
epicenter
anEarth
earthquake
located near
Massena,
15) The
According
to of
the
ScienceisReference
Tables,
in which 8)
31) New
The
epicenter
of an earthquake
is located
near
Massena,
about
how
long
would
it60
taketofor
the
S-waveparts
fromof
this
Surface
Earthquakes
based
on
analysis
of
York.
According
to
the
Earth
Science
Reference
C)
sunlight
once
penetrated
the
deepest
thesame
group
are
the
zones
of
the
Earth's
interior
correctly
arranged
C)
A)
magnesium
and
potassium
15 An
instrument
usedtotothemeasure
a weather
varina,
New
York.
According
Earth
Science
Reference
earthquake
to
arrive
at
Buffalo?
[Refer
to
the
Earth
Science
Tables,
the
greatest
difference
arrival times of the P- and
in order
of increasing
average in
density?
A)ocean
seismic (km)
data
B)
silicon
and below.
oxygen
able
is
shown
Tables,
the
greatest
difference
in arrival
times ofinthe P- and
Reference
Tables.]
S-waves
for
this
earthquake
would
be
recorded
D)
organisms
that live in deep water evolved from species
A)
crust,
mantle,
inner
core,
outer
core
B)
crustal
rock
C)
iron and
nickel
- and
0–330
27,788
S-waves
for this
earthquake would be recorded in
A)
0min50sec
that
once
lived
in shallow waterC) 4min00sec
N
A)
Utica,
New
York
B) aluminum
crust, mantle,
core, inner core
C) radioactive data
D)
and outer
calcium
70
A)
Utica,
New
York
B)
6min40sec
D)
1min40sec
34–100
17,585
B)
Newcore,
Yorkmantle, crust
C) Binghamton,
inner
core, outer
D) meteorite
composition
20) Where
are earthquakes
most likely to take place?
19) Fossils
of organisms
that
lived in shallow water can be
B) Plattsburgh,
Binghamton,
New
York
C)
New
York
9)
What
is
the
approximate
distance
between
earthquake's
D)
outer
core,
inner
core,
mantle,
crust
along the
interfaceReference
101–300
7,329the
23) A)According
tocore-mantle
the Earth Science
Tables,
the rate
found
in horizontal
sedimentary
rock layers at great ocean
C) Albany,
Plattsburgh,
New
York
B)
D)
epicenter
and
station
A?
[Refer
to
the
Earth
Science
D)
New
York
of
temperature
increase
below
the
Earth's
surface
is
greatest
This
fact
is
generally
interpreted
by
most
Earth
B)
where
the
composition
of
the
Earth
tends
to
be
uniform
16) D)depths.
To
get
a
sample
material
from
the
mantle,
drilling
will
be
D) Albany, New York
301–700
3,167
Reference
Tables.]
between
depths
ofEquator
scientists
astoevidence
that
done through
theEarth
oceanic
crust rather
thanTables,
throughthe
the
32) According
the
Science
Reference
C)
near
the
Earth's
Which atmospheric variable is most likely
32) temperature
According
toofthe
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables,
the
A)
7,500
km 4000
5,100
km
continental
because
crust
rock
located
1,000
kilometers
below the
D)
a fault
zone
A)near
3500
and
kmisolines onC)
C)
1500
and 2500 km
A)
the coldcrust
water
deep
in oceanic
the
ocean
killsisshallow-water
represented
by
the
this2,400
map?
temperature
of is
rock
located 1,000 kilometers below the
B)
1,130
km
D)
km
Earth's
surface
about
organisms
A)
younger
than
continental
crust
B)
250
and
500
km
D)
2500
and
3500
km
According
to
these
data,
most
these
21) A
P-wave
reaches
a seismograph station 2,600 of
kilometers
4)
Folded
sedimentary
rock layers are usually caused by
Earth's surface
is about
(1)
snowfall
instation
inches
B)
sections
of
the
Earth's
crust
have
changed
their
10)
Which
seismic
could
be
located
in
New
York
State?
B)
more
dense
than
continental
crust
A)
200DC
C)
2,800DC
earthquakes
occurred
within
Earth’s
from an earthquake epicenter at 12:10 p.m. According to the
14) AA)
largecrustal
belt ofmovement
mountain occurring
ranges and
volcanoes surrounds
after
(2) wind speed in knots
A)
200DC
C) deposition
2,800DC
elevations
relative
toevents
sea crust
level
C)Pacific
thinner
than
continental
The
lack
of S-waves
3 can
best
explained
B)
2,100DC
D)
3,200DC
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables,
atC)
what
time
did theD)byAthe
A) lithosphere
D
B) inC zone
Bbe
the
Ocean.
Which
are
most
closely
(1)
stiffer
mantle
B)
deposition
of
sediments
in
folded
layers
(3)
pressure
in(3)
millibars
Thebarometric
lack of
S-waves
in zone
B)
2,100DC
D)volcanoes?
3,200DC
C)
once
penetrated
toand
the
deepest
parts of the
D) sunlight
softerwith
than
continental
crust
presence
within
the Earth
of 3 can best be explained by the
earthquake
occur?
associated
these
mountains
C)
alack
riseofinto
sea
deposition
11) (2)
Which
of within
the four
seismic
stations
isFahrenheit
located
farthest from
33) According
thelevel
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables, asbythe
asthenosphere
(4) outer
core
The ocean
S-waves
inafter
zone
3 can
best be explained
the
(4)
air temperature
in degrees
presence
the
Earth
of
33) A)
According
tothe
thein
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables,
as the
a solid
A)A)
p.m.inner core
C) 12:19 p.m.
tornadoes
C)
sandstorms
the12:01
epicenter?
depth
within
Earth's
interior
increases,
the
D)
differences
sediment
during
deposition
presence
within
the
Earth
ofdensity
the
D)
organisms
live in
deepiswater
evolved
A) 12:15
a solid
inner core cells
depth
within
thethat
Earth's
interior
increases,
the from
Which
weather
variable
by species
this
mantle
B)B)
p.m.convection
D)C) 12:05
B)
D)measured
hurricanes
A)
B
B) C cells
D p.m.
D) A
A)
density,
temperature,
and
pressure
A) earthquakes
a solid
inner
core
5)
The
time
that
an
earthquake
occurs
be inferred by
that
once
lived
in shallow
watercan decrease
B) amantle
convection
14
What
is
the
largest
sediment that
can be
18
Which
combination
of
temperature
and
pressure
instrument?
C)
liquid
outer
core
A)
density,
temperature,
and
pressure
decrease
The
inference
that
the
inner
core
of
the
Earth
is
solid
istime
B)
increases,
but
and
pressure
15) According
to convection
the
Earth Science
Reference
Tables,
in which 22)
B) density
mantle
cellstemperature
knowing
the
12) transported
A
seismograph
station
recordsthat
a difference
arrival
C)
a liquidto
outer
by
acore
stream
hasstiffer
a in
velocity
of
20) Where
are earthquakes
mosttemperature
likely to take
place?
isD)
inferred
occur
within
Earth’s
mantle?
density
changes
B)
density
increases,
but
and
pressure
based
on
analysis
of
decrease
(1)
wind
direction
(3)
wind
speed
group
are
the
zones
of
the
Earth's
interior
correctly
arranged
C)
a
liquid
outer
core
between
the
Sand
P-wave
of
4
minutes.
About
how
far
A) distances
between
seismograph
stations
D)
density
changes
125
cm/sec?
decrease
A)
along
the
core-mantle
interface
in
order
of
increasing
average
density?
36) A)
The
thinnest
section
the Earth's
crust istofound
beneath
C)
density
and
temperature
increase,
but
pressure
(1)
3500°C
and
0.4ofmillion
atmospheres
(2)
air
pressure
(4) time
amount
ofP-waves
rainfall
D)
density
changes
seismic
away
is thedata
earthquake
epicenter?
[Refer
the Earth
B)
epicenter
distance
and arrival
of the
The
thinnestand
section
of
the Earth's
crust is found beneath
C) decreases
densitythe
and
temperature
pressure
B)
where
composition
ofincrease,
the Earthbut
tends
to be uniform 36) (1)
cobbles
(3)
sand
(2)
3500°C
2.0
million
atmospheres
Science
Reference
coastal
plains Tables.]
C) mountain regions
mantle,
core,
outer core
B)A)
crustal
rock
C)
travel
time
ofinner
the of
S-waves
36) A)
Thecrust,
thinnest
section
the Earth's
crust is found beneath
decreases
C)
near
the temperature,
Earth's
Equator
A)pebbles
coastalregions
plains
C)
mountain regions
(2)
clay2,600
density,
and
pressure
(3)
5500°C
and
atmospheres
B)
desert
D)
oceans
B)D)
crust,
mantle,
outer
core,
inner
core increase
C)
radioactive
data0.4 million(4)
D)
arrival
time
of
P-waves
A)
1,000
km
C)
km
A) near
coastal
plains
C)
mountain
regions
16 Mt.
Marcy
often
the
coldest
nighttime
D)
density,
temperature,
pressure
increase
D)
a fault
zone hasand
B)
desert
regions
D)
oceans
(4)
5500°C
and
2.0
million
atmospheres
inner
core, outer
core,
mantle,
crust
D)
meteorite
composition
34) C)
It
is
suggested
that
the
outer
core
of
the
Earth
is
liquid.
B)part
5,200
km zone of the Earth'sD)interior
1,900iskm
of which
inferred to
B)issandstone
desert regions
D)
oceans
in
York
State
because
ofliquid.
its
6) temperatures
A
layer
isthe
found
tilted
at
angle
of 75D
from the 37) A
34)
It
suggested
thatNew
outer
core
ofan
the
Earth
21)
A
P-wave
reaches
a core,
seismograph
station
2,600 is
kilometers
37) The
A part
of to
which
zone
of
theshows
Earth's
interior
is inferred
to to
is core,
the
strongest
evidence
for
this?
D)Which
outer
inner
mantle,
crust
have
a
density
of
10.0
grams
per
cubic
centimeter?
[Refer
23)
According
the
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables,
the
rate
15
photograph
below
a
valley.
d.
horizontal.
What
probably
this
75DAccording
tilt?
Which
isearthquake
the
strongest
for
this?
37) (1)
A part
of
which
zone
ofevidence
thecaused
Earth's
interior
is
inferred to the
latitude
and
planetary
winds
from
an
epicenter
at
12:10
p.m.
nds
have
a
density
of
10.0
grams
per
cubic
centimeter?
[Refer
Earth Science
Reference
Tables.]
A)getP-waves
disappear
as they
move through
ofthe
temperature
increase
below the
Earth's surface is greatestto
16) To
aa sample
material
from
the
drilling the
willouter
be
have
density
of 10.0
grams
permantle,
cubic
centimeter?
[Refer
to
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables,
at
what
time
did
the
A)
Nearly
all
sandstone
layers
are
formed
from
wind(2)
latitude
and
elevation
the
Earth
Science
Reference
Tables.]
P-waves
disappear
as
they
move
through
the
outer
core. the oceanic crust rather than through the
between
depths
done
through
A) outer
core of
C) crust
thelongitude
Earth
Reference
Tables.]
er
deposited
sands.
earthquake
occur?
core. Science
(3)
and
planetary
winds
A)
outer
core
C) 1500
crust
B)
S-waves
disappear
as
they
move
through
the
outer
continental crust because oceanic crust is
B)
inner
core
D)
mantle
A)
3500
and
4000
km
C)
and 2500 km
B)
The
formed
layer
were
A) longitude
outersediments
coredisappear
C)sandstone
crust p.m.
S-waves
as
they this
move
through
the
outer
(4)
and that
elevation
A)
12:01
p.m.
C)
12:19
B)
inner
core
D)
mantle
core.
A)
younger
than
continental
crust
B)
250
and
500
km
D)
2500
and
3500
km that
er
38) The analysis of seismic data from an earthquake
shows
originally
deposited
a 75D
tilt.
core.
B) S-waves
inner p.m.
core
D) through
mantle
B)
12:15
D)
12:05
p.m.
speed
up
asatthey
move
the outer core. 38) The analysis of seismic data from an earthquake shows that
B)C)
more
dense
than
continental
crust
some locations received both P-waves and S-waves, but
S-waves
speed
up
as
they
move
through
theto
outer
core.
C)
This
sandstone
layer
has
recrystallized
due
contact
P-waves
are
transmitted
through
the
outer
38) D)
Thethinner
analysis
of
seismic
data
from
earthquake
shows
inference
that
the inner
core
ofanthe
Earth
is core.
solid
is that
which
some locations
locations received
received only
both P-waves.
P-waves and
S-waves,
but
than
continental
crust
er
core. 22) C)The
other
What
is the best
D)
P-waves
arereceived
transmitted
outer
core. but
somemetamorphism.
locations
boththrough
P-wavesthe
and
S-waves,
based
on
analysis
of
anged
other
locations
received
only
P-waves.
What
is
the
best
D)D) softer
than
continental
crustchanged position due to
inference that can be made from these observations?
This
sandstone
layeronly
has
otherseismic
locations
received
P-waves. What is the best
inference that can be made from these observations?
A)
data
A) A zone of liquid rock exists within the Earth.
crustal
movement.
inference
that
can be made from these observations?
A) S-waves
A zone ofare
liquid
exists within the Earth.
B) crustal rock
B)
veryrock
weak.
A) radioactive
A zone of liquid
C)
data rock exists within the Earth.
B)
S-waves
are
very
weak.
C) Some seismographs are more sensitive than others.
B) meteorite
S-waves
are
very weak.
P.S./E. Sci.–Jan.
’09
[5]
[OVER]
C) Iron
Someinseismographs
are moreS-waves
sensitive
thantraveling.
others.
D)
composition
D)
some rocks prevents
from
M.
Sammartano
C) Some seismographs are more sensitive than others.
D) Iron in some rocks prevents S-waves from traveling.
23) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the rate
39) Earthquakes generate compressional waves (P-waves) and
D) Iron in some rocks prevents S-waves from traveling.
of temperature increase below the Earth's surface is greatest 39) shear
Earthquakes
generate compressional
(P-waves)
e
waves (S-waves).
Compared to waves
the speed
of shearand
A)
B)
16 De
occ
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
17 Th
lay
rai
Wh
res
(1)
(2)
18 Wh
de
in
(1)
(2)
19 Ox
in
(1)
(2)
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