Back Print Name Class Date Assessment Chapter Test B Motion in One Dimension MULTIPLE CHOICE In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. ______ 1. Which of the following is the equation for average velocity? x a. vavg c. vavg xt t vi vf t b. vavg d. vavg x 2 Use the graph below to answer questions 2–4. Motion of a Cat Displacement (m, north) 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 Time (s) ______ 2. During which interval is the cat at rest? a. 0.0–5.0 s c. 10.0–15.0 s b. 5.0–10.0 s d. 15.0–20.0 s ______ 3. The cat has the fastest speed during which interval? a. 0.0–5.0 s c. 10.0–15.0 s b. 5.0–10.0 s d. 15.0–20.0 s ______ 4. During which interval does the cat have the greatest positive velocity? a. 0.0–5.0 s c. 10.0–15.0 s b. 5.0–10.0 s d. 15.0–20.0 s ______ 5. Which of the following is the equation for acceleration? t a. a c. a vt v vi vf v b. a d. a ti tf t Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 13 Chapter Test Back Print Name Class Date Chapter Test B continued ______ 6. When a car’s velocity is negative and its acceleration is negative, what is happening to the car’s motion? a. The car slows down. b. The car speeds up. c. The car travels at constant speed. d. The car remains at rest. 7.0 ______ 7. What does the graph on the right illustrate about acceleration? a. The acceleration varies. b. The acceleration is zero. c. The acceleration is constant. d. The acceleration increases then becomes constant. 6.0 Velocity (m/s) 5.0 A 4.0 3.0 ______ 8. In the graph on the right, how does the acceleration at A compare with 2.0 B the acceleration at B? a. The acceleration at A is positive 1.0 and less than the acceleration at B. b. The acceleration at B is positive 0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 and less than the acceleration at A. Elapsed time (s) c. The accelerations at A and B are each zero. d. The accelerations at A and B cannot be determined. 10.0 ______ 9. Which of the following line segments on a velocity versus time graph is physically impossible? a. horizontal line b. straight line with positive slope c. straight line with negative slope d. vertical line Motion of Ball Moving on Ramp E Speed ______10. In the graph at the right, at what point is the speed of the ball equal to its speed at B? a. A b. C c. D d. none of the above D 0 0 C B A Time Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 14 Chapter Test Back Print Name Class Date Chapter Test B continued ______11. A baseball catcher throws a ball vertically upward and catches it in the same spot as it returns to the mitt. At what point in the ball’s path does it experience zero velocity and nonzero acceleration at the same time? a. midway on the way up b. at the top of its path c. the instant it leaves the catcher’s hand d. the instant before it arrives in the catcher’s mitt SHORT ANSWER 12. Distinguish between the displacement of a traveler who takes a train from New York to Boston and the displacement of a traveler who flies from Boston to New York. Be sure to compare the magnitudes of the displacements. 13. If a runner moves from a positive position to a negative position, explain if the runner’s displacement is negative or positive. 14. Explain how a dog that has moved can have a displacement of zero. 15. Why is the direction of free-fall acceleration usually negative? PROBLEM 16. A biker travels at an average speed of 18 km/h along a 0.30-km straight segment of a bike path. How much time does the biker take to travel this segment? Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 15 Chapter Test Back Print Name Class Date Chapter Test B continued 17. A hiker travels south along a straight path for 1.5 h with an average speed of 0.75 km/h and then travels north for 2.5 h with an average speed of 0.90 km/h. What is the hiker’s displacement for the total trip? 18. A skater glides off a frozen pond onto a patch of ground at a speed of 1.8 m/s. Here she is slowed at a constant rate of 3.00 m/s2. How fast is the skater moving when she has slid 0.37 m across the ground? 19. Human reaction time is usually about 0.20 s. If your lab partner holds a ruler between your finger and thumb and releases it without warning, how far can you expect the ruler to fall before you catch it? (Disregard air resistance. a g 9.81 m/s2.) 20. A pair of glasses are dropped from the top of a 32.0 m high stadium. A pen is dropped 2.00 s later. How high above the ground is the pen when the glasses hit the ground? (Disregard air resistance. a g 9.81 m/s2.) Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 16 Chapter Test Print PAGE TEACHER RESOURCE 19. 10 000 or 104 Earths; 1.17 104 Earths 18. The dog is moving at a constant speed because the position versus time graph is a straight line with a positive slope. Given REarth 6.37 106 m Average Earthsun distance 1.496 1011 NEarths between Earth and the sun ? Solution DiameterEarth 2(REarth) 2(6.37 106 m) 1.27 107 m Therefore, using an order-of-magnitude calculation, the estimate for the number of Earths that would fit between Earth and the sun is 5.0 Position (m) Back 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 17. a d c b c d c a displacement 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. d a c c c a a c 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Time (s) 19. 3.3 m/s, to the right Given xi 12 m xf 24 m t 11 s Solution xf xi x vavg t t 20. Yes; trial 2 has a much greater T over CHAPTER TEST A (GENERAL) 2.0 0 1.17 104 Earths Motion in One Dimension 3.0 1.0 1011 10 000 or 104. 107 Exact number of Earths is (1.496 1011 m) 2(6.37 106 m) the same period of time; temperature increases as time increases; Since the table indicates a direct relationship between T and t, the general form of the equation is y mx. If T is graphed on the y-axis and t is graphed on the x-axis, m represents T the slope or . In this instance, t T the average of is 0.12. t Therefore, the equation would be T 0.12t. 4.0 (24 m) (12 m) 11 s 3.3 m/s, to the right 20. 44 m Given a g 9.81 m/s2 t 2.0 s vi 12 m/s Solution 1 x vit 2a(t)2 vit 1 (g)(t)2 2 x (12.0 m/s)(2.0 s) 1 (9.81 2 m/s2)(2.0 s)2 44m Motion in One Dimension CHAPTER TEST B (ADVANCED) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 11. 12. a 6. b b 7. a c 8. c a 9. d b 10. c b Although the magnitudes of the displacements are equal, the displacements are in opposite directions. Therefore, one displacement is positive and one displacement is negative. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 178 Chapter Test Back Print PAGE TEACHER RESOURCE 13. The displacement is negative because Solution 1 x vit 2a(t)2 a change of position in the direction opposite of increasing positive position is negative displacement. 14. The dog’s initial position and its final position are the same position. 15. Since the usual choice of coordinates uses positive as the direction away from Earth, the direction of free-fall acceleration is negative because the object accelerates toward Earth. 16. 1.7 102 h Given vavg 1.8 km/h x 0.30 km 1 vit 2(g)(t)2 x (0 m/s)(0.20 s) 1 (9.81 2 20. 30.5 m Given a g 9.81 m/s2 vi,1 0.0 m/s x 32.0 m vi,1 0.0 m/s t1,2 2.0 s Solution 1 x1 vi,1t1 2a(t1)2 Solution x vavg t x 0.30 km t 1.7 102 h vavg 18 km/h 17. 1.2 km, north Given vavg,1 0.75 km/h t1 1.5 h vavg,2 0.90 km/h t2 2.5 h 1 vi,1t1 2(a)(t1)2 2x 2x a g 2(32.0 m) 2.56 s 9.81 m/s t1 1 (g)(t2)2 2 x2 (0.0 m/s)(0.56 s) 1 (9.81 2 m/s2)(0.56 s)2 1.5 m h 32.0 m 1.5 m 18. 1.0 m/s 30.5 m Two-Dimensional Motion and Vectors Given vi 1.8 m/s a 3.00 m/s2 x 0.37 m CHAPTER TEST A (GENERAL) Solution vf2 vi2 2ax 2 vf v i 2ax 2 (1.8 m/s) (2)(3.0 m/ s2)(0.37 m) Given a g 9.81 m/s2 t 0.20 s vi 0.0 m/s 1 t2 t1 t1,2 2.56 s 2.00 s 0.56 s 1 x2 vi,2t2 2a(t2)2 vi,2t2 (0.90 km/h)(2.5 h) 1.2 km, north 19. at least 0.20 m 1 2 Solution x x1 x2 vavg,1t1 vavg,2t2 x (0.75 km/h)(1.5 h) vf 1.0 m/s m/s2)(0.20 s)2 0.20 m 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 17. 18. b 9. d a 10. b b 11. b d 12. a a 13. c a 14. b c 15. c b 16. a Displacement is a vector quantity. The vectors must be perpendicular to each other. 19. 120 m Given vi 12 m/s at 30.0° above the horizontal t 5.6 s q 9.81 m/s2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Holt Physics 179 Chapter Test

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# Chapter Test B (Advanced)