Chapter 6
memory
psychology
fourth edition
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
© 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
What are the three processes of memory and the different models
of how memory works?
How does sensory memory work?
What is short-term memory, and how does it differ from working
memory?
How is long-term memory different from other types of memory?
What are the various types of long-term memory, and how is
information stored in long-term memory organized?
What kinds of cues help people remember?
How do the retrieval processes of recall and recognition differ, and
how reliable are our memories of events?
How are long-term memories formed, and how can this process
lead to inaccuracies in memory?
What is false-memory syndrome?
Why do we forget?
How and where are memories formed in the brain?
How does amnesia occur?
How do sleep, exercise, and diet affect memory?
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Memory
Memory
Memory
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology became of great
importance in the mid 1950s.
Several factors were important:
Dissatisfaction with the behaviorist
approach in its simple emphasis on
external behavior rather than internal
processes.
The development of better experimental
methods.
Comparison between human and
computer processing of information.
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
System
that
senses,
organizes,
alters,
stores, &
retrieves
information
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Memory and Its Processes
LO 6.1 Memory and the Three Processes of Memory
AP: Principles of Encoding, Storage, and Construction
• Processes of memory
– encoding: the set of mental operations that
people perform on sensory information to
convert that information into a form that is
usable in the brain’s storage systems
– storage: holding onto information for
some period of time
– retrieval: getting information that is in
storage into a form that can be used
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Models of Memory
LO 6.1 Memory and the Three Processes of Memory
AP: Compare and Contrast Cognitive Processes
• Information-processing model: assumes
that the processing of information for
memory storage is similar to the way a
computer processes memory—in a series
of three stages
• Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
model: memory processes are proposed
to take place at the same time over a large
network of neural connections
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Models of Memory
LO 6.1 Memory and the Three Processes of Memory
AP: Compare and Contrast Cognitive Processes
• Levels-of-processing model: assumes
that information that is more “deeply
processed”—or processed according
to its meaning, rather than just the
sound or physical characteristics of the
word or words—will be remembered
more efficiently and for a longer period
of time
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Levels of Processing- Craik and Lockhart
• Incoming information processed at different
levels
• Encoding levels:
– Structural = (shallow) the physical structure of
the stimulus
– Phonemic = (intermediate) what a word sounds
like
– Semantic = (deep) the meaning of verbal input
• Deeper processing = longer lasting memory
codes
– We remember things we spend more cognitive
time and energy processing
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 7.4 Levels-of-processing theory
Enriching Encoding: Improving Memory
• Elaboration a stimulus is linked to other
information at the time of encoding
• Visual Imagery involves the creation of
visual images to represent the words to be
remembered
• Dual-coding theory holds that memory is
enhanced by forming semantic or visual
codes, since either can lead to recall
• Self-Referent Encoding involves deciding
how or whether information is personally
relevant
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Information
Processing Model
Information Processing Model
• Information-processing theories
– Atkinson and Shiffrin- Subdivided
memory into 3 different stores
• Sensory, Short-term, Long-term
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Three-Stage Process of Memory
Sensory Memory
LO 6.2 Sensory Memory
AP: Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
• Iconic memory: visual sensory
memory, lasting only a fraction of a
second
– capacity: everything that can be seen at one time
– duration: information that has just entered iconic
memory will be pushed out very quickly by new
information, a process called masking
• Eidetic imagery: the (rare) ability to
access a visual memory for thirty
seconds or more
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Sensory Memory Experiment
• Brief preservation of information in
original sensory form
• Auditory/Visual – approximately ¼
second
– George Sperling (1960)
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 7.8 Sperling’s (1960) study of sensory memory
Focusing Awareness
• Selective attention = selection of input
– Filtering: early or late?
– Attention processes act very much like a funnel,
giving more energy to processing what’s most
important and funneling out what isn’t.
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 7.3 Models of selective attention
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Short-Term Memory
LO 6.3 Short-Term or Working Memory
AP: Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
• STM lasts from about twelve to thirty
seconds without rehearsal
– Maintenance rehearsal
– STM is susceptible to interference
• e.g., if counting is interrupted, one will have to
start over
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 7.9 Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) study of short-term memory
Short-Term Memory
LO 6.3 Short-Term or Working Memory
AP: Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
• Digit-span test: a series of numbers is
read to subjects who are then asked to
recall the numbers in order
– conclusion: capacity of STM is about
seven items or pieces of information, plus
or minus two items—or from five to nine
bits of information.
– George Miller
• ―The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus
Two”
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Short-Term Memory
LO 6.3 Short-Term or Working Memory
AP: Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
• Chunking: bits of information are
combined into meaningful units, or
chunks, so that more information can
be held in STM
• Maintenance rehearsal: saying bits of
information to be remembered over and
over in one’s head in order to maintain
it in short-term memory (STMs tend to
be encoded in auditory form)
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Short-Term Memory as ―Working Memory‖
• Working memory: the system that
processes information present in
short-term memory
• Baddeley (1986) – 4 components of
working memory
– Phonological rehearsal loop- represented ALL of STM in
the original model
– Visuospatial sketchpad- allows temporary holding and
manipulation of visual images
– Executive control system- handles the limited amount of
information juggled at one time
– Episodic Buffer- allows the various components of
working memory to integrate information
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Fig. 7-10, p. 266
LO 6.4 Long-Term Memory
Long-TermAP: Memory
Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
Strategies for Memory Improvement
• Long-term memory (LTM): the memory
system into which all the information is
placed to be kept more or less
permanently
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 6.5 Types of Long-Term
Memories
Organization of Memory
LO 6.5 Different Types of Long-Term Memory
AP: Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory
• LTM is organized in terms of related
meanings and concepts
• Semantic network model: assumes that
information is stored in the brain in a
connected fashion
– concepts that are related stored physically
closer to each other than to unrelated
concepts
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Example of a Semantic Network
Amnesia
Retrograde amnesia
• Anterograde amnesia: loss of memory
from the point of injury or trauma
forward, or the inability to form new
long-term memories
– usually does NOT affect procedural LTM
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Cues to Help Remember
LO 6.6 Kinds of Cues that Help People Remember
AP: Strategies for Memory Improvement
• Encoding Specificity
– Context –dependent learning
– state-dependent learning
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Recall
LO 6.7 How Recall and Recognition Differ
AP: Compare and Contrast Cognitive Processes
• Recall: memory retrieval in which the
information to be retrieved must be
“pulled” from memory with very few
external cues
• Retrieval failure: recall has failed (at
least temporarily)
– tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Recall
LO 6.7 How Recall and Recognition Differ
AP: Compare and Contrast Cognitive Processes
• Serial position effect: information at the
beginning and the end of a body of
information more accurately remembered
than the information in the middle
– primacy effect
– recency effect
Processes
Models
Sensory
Attention
STM
LTM
Cues
Eyewitness
Problems
False
Forgetting
Formation
Networks
Alzheimer’s
Figure 6.7 Serial Position Effect
In the serial position effect, information at the beginning of a list will be recalled at a higher rate than
information in the middle of the list (primacy effect), because the beginning information receives more
rehearsal and may enter LTM. Information at the end of a list is also retrieved at a higher rate (recency
effect), because the end of the list is still in STM, with no information coming after it to interfere with
retrieval.

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